Category:People in the colonial Southwest of North America
- See also: Category: People of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in Spanish colonial North America.
This category has the following 6 subcategories, out of 6 total.
This category has the following 6 subcategories, out of 6 total.
1. Californio – The Californio era was from the first Spanish presence established by the Portolá expedition in 1769 until the regions cession to the United States of America in 1848. Non-Spanish-speaking immigrants who 1) became naturalized Mexican citizens, 2) married Californios, such residents, by these actions, became eligible to own land and receive rancho grants from the Mexican government. Most such grants occurred after mission secularization in the 1830s, an even looser definition may include descendants of Californios, especially those who married other Californio descendants. The much larger population of non-Spanish-speaking indigenous peoples of California who lived in the prior to. Many Californios, however, were the California-born children of non-Spanish speakers who married Spanish speakers, such spouses usually also converted to the Catholic faith and, after Mexico became independent of Spain in 1821, often became naturalized Mexican citizens. The military, religious and civil components of pre-1848 Californio society were embodied in the presidios, missions. After secularization, the Mexican authorities divided most of the lands into new ranchos. The Spanish colonial and later Mexican national governments encouraged settlers from the northern and western provinces of Mexico, People from other parts of Latin America did settle in California. However, only a few official colonization efforts were ever undertaken—notably the second expedition of Juan Bautista de Anza, children of those few early settlers and retired soldiers became the first Californios. Sporadic colonization efforts continued under Mexican rule, including the Hijar-Padres group of 1834, One genealogist estimated that, by 2004, between 300,000 and 500,000 Californians were descendants of Californios. Alta California was nominally controlled by a national-government appointed governor, the governors of California were at first appointed by the Viceroy, and after 1821 by the approximate 40 Mexican Presidents from 1821 to 1846. The costs of the minimum Alta California government were paid by means of a roughly 40–100% import tariff collected at the entry port of Monterey. The other center of Spanish power in Alta California was the Franciscan friars who, as heads of the 21 missions, none of the Franciscan friars were Californios, however, and their influence rapidly waned after the secularization of the missions in the 1830s. Governors had little support from far-away Mexico to deal with Alta Californians. Mexico-born governor Manuel Victoria was forced to flee in 1831, after losing a fight against an uprising at the Battle of Cahuenga Pass. As Californios matured to adulthood and increasingly assumed positions of power in the Alta California government, several times, Californio leaders attempted to break away from Mexico, most notably Juan Bautista Alvarado in 1836. Southern regional leaders, led by Pio Pico, made attempts to relocate the capital from Monterey to the more populated Los Angeles. Alvarado recruited a company of Tennessean riflemen, many of them former trappers who had settled in the Monterey Bay area, the company was led by another American, Isaac Graham, the Americans refused to fight against fellow Americans
2. Hispanos of New Mexico – Not to be confused with Hispanic, the English translation of Hispano. For other uses of the term, see Hispano, for most of its modern history, New Mexico belonged to Spain and later Mexico. Like some of the Californios and Tejanos, most settlers in New Mexico were of Spanish ancestry, the descendants of the settlers make up an ethnic community of more than 340,000 in New Mexico, with others in southern Colorado. In Spanish, the predominant term for this group has always been Hispano, analogous to Californio. In New Mexico, the Spanish-speaking population was always greater than those of California. The term is used to differentiate those who settled the area early, around 1598 to 1848. It can also refer to anyone of Spanish or Indo-Hispanic descent native to the American Southwest, the settlers founded San Juan de los Caballeros, the first Spanish settlement in what was called the Kingdom of New Mexico, after the Valley of Mexico. Oñate also conquered the territories of the Pueblo peoples and he became the first governor of New Mexico. The exploitation of Spanish rule under Oñate caused nearly continuous attacks and reprisals from the nomadic Amer-Indian tribes on the borders, especially the Apache, Navajo, there were also major clashes between the Franciscan missionaries and secular and religious authorities. The colonists exploited Indian labor, as was typical in areas of the Spanish colonies in the Americas. In the 1650s, Governor Bernardo López de Mendizabal, and his subordinate Nicolas de Aguilar, enacted a law to force the settlers and Franciscans to pay Native Americans for their work. He opposed what he perceived to be the mistreatment of the Indians by the Franciscans and proposed to allow the Indians to preserve and to practice their culture, religion, the Franciscans protested the law and accused the governor before the Inquisition. Later he was tried in Mexico City, so, the Franciscans indirectly governed the New Mexico province. In the 1640s, the Native American groups that lived along the Rio Grande successfully rose against the Spanish colonizers in what known as the Pueblo Revolt. After forcing the flight of the settlers/invadors from New Mexico, they were able to follow their own customs, when they returned to the province in 1692, Don Diego de Vargas became the new governor of New Mexico. He entered the former bearing a image of La Conquistadora. The Native Americans were so intrigued by the statue of the Virgin Mary that they are reputed to have laid down their arms at the sight of it. At the time of Vargas arrival, New Mexico was under the jurisdiction of the Royal Audiencia of Guadalajara, however, in 1777 with the creation of the Provincias Internas it was included only in the jurisdiction of the Commandant-General
3. Eusebio Kino – Eusebio Francisco Kino, was an Italian Jesuit, missionary, geographer, explorer, cartographer and astronomer. For the last 24 years of his life he worked in the then known as the Pimería Alta, modern-day Sonora in Mexico. He explored the region and worked with the indigenous Native American population, including primarily the Tohono OOdham, Sobaipuri and he proved that the Baja California Peninsula is not an island by leading an overland expedition there. By the time of his death he had established 24 missions, Kino was born Eusebius Chinus in the village of Segno, then in the sovereign Prince-bishopric of Trent, a part of the Holy Roman Empire. Other sources cite his name as Eusebio Francesco Chini and his parents were Franciscus Chinus and Margherita Luchi. The exact date of his birth is unknown but he was baptized on 10 August 1645 in the parish church, Kino was educated in Innsbruck, Austria, and after recuperating from a serious illness, he joined the Society of Jesus on 20 November 1665. From 1664-69, he received training as a member of the Society at Freiburg, Ingolstadt. After completing a stage of training in the Society, during which he taught mathematics in Ingolstadt. Although Kino wanted to go to the Orient, he was sent to New Spain, due to travel delays while crossing Europe, he missed the ship on which he was to travel and had to wait a year for another ship. While waiting in Cádiz, Spain, he wrote some observations, done during late 1680 and early 1681, about his study of a comet, which he published as the Exposición astronómica de el cometa. This publication was later the subject of a sonnet by the noted colonial nun and poet of New Spain, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, kinos first assignment was to lead the Atondo expedition to the Baja California peninsula of Las Californias Province of New Spain. He established the Misión San Bruno in 1683, after a prolonged drought there in 1685, Kino and the Jesuit missionaries were forced to abandon the mission and return to the viceregal capital of Mexico City. See also Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Father Kino began his career in the Pimería Alta on the morning of 14 March 1687,24 years and this was the morning he left Cucurpe, a town once considered the Rim of Christendom. Once Father Kino arrived in the Pimería Alta, at the request of the natives, subsequently Kino traveled across northern Mexico, and to present day California and Arizona. He followed ancient trading routes established millennia prior by the natives and these trails were later expanded into roads. His many expeditions on horseback covered over 50,000 square miles, Kino was important in the economic growth of the area, working with the already agricultural indigenous native peoples and introducing them to European seed, fruits, herbs and grains. He also taught them to raise cattle, sheep and goats, kinos initial mission herd of twenty cattle imported to Pimería Alta grew during his period to 70,000. Historian Herbert Bolton referred to Kino as Arizonas first rancher, in his travels in the Pimería Alta, Father Kino interacted with 16 different tribes