Category:People of Iowa in the American Civil War
Pages in category "People of Iowa in the American Civil War"
The following 124 pages are in this category, out of 124 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 124 pages are in this category, out of 124 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Iowa – Iowa is a U. S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River on the east and the Missouri River and the Big Sioux River on the west. Surrounding states include Wisconsin and Illinois to the east, Missouri to the south, Nebraska and South Dakota to the west, in colonial times, Iowa was a part of French Louisiana and Spanish Louisiana, its state flag is patterned after the flag of France. After the Louisiana Purchase, people laid the foundation for an economy in the heart of the Corn Belt. Iowa is the 26th most extensive in area and the 30th most populous of the 50 United States. Its capital and largest city by population is Des Moines, Iowa has been listed as one of the safest states in which to live. Its nickname is the Hawkeye State, Iowa derives its name from the Ioway people, one of the many Native American tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration. Iowa is bordered by the Mississippi River on the east, the Missouri River and the Big Sioux River on the west, Iowa is the only state whose east and west borders are formed entirely by rivers. Iowa has 99 counties, but 100 county seats because Lee County has two, the state capital, Des Moines, is in Polk County. Iowas bedrock geology generally increases in age from west to east, in northwest Iowa, Cretaceous bedrock can be 74 million years old, in eastern Iowa Cambrian bedrock dates to c.500 million years ago. Iowa is generally not flat, most of the consists of rolling hills. Iowa can be divided into eight landforms based on glaciation, soils, topography, Loess hills lie along the western border of the state, some of which are several hundred feet thick. Northeast Iowa along the Mississippi River is part of the Driftless Zone, consisting of steep hills, several natural lakes exist, most notably Spirit Lake, West Okoboji Lake, and East Okoboji Lake in northwest Iowa. To the east lies Clear Lake, man-made lakes include Lake Odessa, Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock, Coralville Lake, Lake MacBride, and Rathbun Lake. The states northwest area has remnants of the once common wetlands. Iowas natural vegetation is tallgrass prairie and savanna in areas, with dense forest and wetlands in flood plains and protected river valleys. Most of Iowa is used for agriculture, crops cover 60% of the state, grasslands cover 30%, as of 2005 Iowa ranked 49th of U. S. states in public land holdings. Endangered or threatened plants include western prairie fringed orchid, eastern prairie fringed orchid, Meads milkweed, prairie bush clover, the explosion in the number of high-density livestock facilities in Iowa has led to increased rural water contamination and a decline in air quality. Iowa has a continental climate throughout the state
2. American Civil War – The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, then much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
3. Lucien Lester Ainsworth – Lucien Lester Ainsworth was a one-term Democratic U. S. Representative from Iowas 3rd congressional district in northeastern Iowa, Lucien Lester Ainsworth was born on June 21,1831 in New Woodstock, New York, the eldest child of Parmenas Ainsworth and Keziah Webber. His parents had 3 additional children, Lucretia L, Walter C and their mother Keziah died in 1847. Luciens father was remarried to Miss Amanda Carpenter on November 2,1848 in Cazenovia, Madison, Parmenas and Amanda had one child, Ella Kezia Ainsworth born November 15,1850. The Ainsworth family ancestors were of English descent, luciens Great Grandfather, Nathan Ainsworth served in the Revolutionary war and died as a prisoner on an English ship, a martyr to the colonial cause. On December 8,1859, Lucien Lester Ainsworth married Margaret Elizabeth McCool, daughter of Joseph McCool and Eleanor Nevius Lucien, at intervals during his course at the seminary he taught school and was said to be a very popular teacher and educator. In 1854 at age 23, after studying law, he was admitted to the bar in Madison County and that same year he moved to Belvidere, Illinois, and began practicing law. Just a year later, in 1855, Ainsworth moved to Iowa and continued the practice of law in West Union and he and his Company participated in the Battle of Whitestone Hill in Dakota Territory. After leaving the Army, he returned to West Union and resumed the practice of law, in 1885 Ainsworth continued his law practice. “We find the following local item telegraphed to the Cedar Rapids Republican from Fayette, the saloon of Simon Nefzger, at Lima, in this county, was raided night before last and a small quantity of whisky found yesterday morning. Nefzger and his clerk were both arrested for selling and the trial fixed for today and they came by their attorney, L. L. AINSWORTH, of West Union, proposing to quit the business totally and forever and pay all costs and expenses, including attorney for prosecution. Being satisfied that the proposition was made in good faith and would be adhered to, the costs were promptly paid and there is one less saloon in Iowa. In 1890 Ainsworth was mentioned again, a grave-stone law suit was in progress here last week between J. O. VanSyckel and some parties Strawberry Pointward, which lasted a couple of days. L. L. Ainsworth chopped up law for VanSyckel, and attorney Blair, of Manchester, in the fall of 1856, Ainsworth began his political career by running for the office of Fayette County Attorney as a Democrat. The county was overwhelmingly Republican, and he was defeated as a matter of course, LL Ainsworth served as member of the Iowa Senate from 1860 to 1862, representing Bremer and Fayette Counties. He served as member of the Iowa House of Representatives from 1871 to 1873, in 1874, Ainsworth ran as a Democrat to represent Iowas 3rd congressional district in the U. S. House. Becoming the first Iowa Democrat elected to Congress since 1854, he served in the Forty-fourth Congress and he declined to accept a renomination in 1876. He served from March 4,1875 to March 3,1877 and he died in West Union, Fayette County, Iowa on April 19,1902
4. William B. Allison – He died soon after overcoming his principal hurdle to election for a record seventh term in the Senate. Born in Perry, Ohio, Allison was educated at Wooster Academy, afterward, he spent a year at Allegheny College in Pennsylvania, then graduated from Western Reserve College in 1849. He then studied law and began practicing in Ashland, Ohio, while practicing law there from 1852 until 1857, he was a delegate to the 1855 Ohio Republican Convention and an unsuccessful candidate for district attorney in 1856. In 1857, he moved to Dubuque, Iowa, which would serve as his hometown for the last fifty years of his life, after his arrival in Dubuque, Allison took a prominent part in the politics of the nascent Republican Party. Allison was a delegate to the 1860 Republican National Convention in Chicago, during the subsequent Civil War, he was on the staff of Iowa Governor Samuel J. Kirkwood, who ordered him to help the state raise regiments for the war. He personally helped raise four regiments and he was given the rank of lieutenant colonel during the war, although it was unlikely he actually served in uniform. In 1862, in the midst of the war, Allison was elected to the United States House of Representatives as the representative of Iowas newly created 3rd congressional district, as a congressman and member of the House Ways and Means Committee, he pushed for higher tariffs. Following the war, Allison continued to serve in the House after winning re-election in 1866 and 1868. In January 1870, he was a candidate for election by the Iowa General Assembly to the United States Senate seat for 1871–1877. In the 1871 state legislative races, candidates were nominated and elected on the issue of whether they would vote for Harlan. Enough legislators who favored Allison were nominated and elected in 1871 that in January 1872 he won the number of votes to take Harlans U. S. Senate seat. Allison was reelected to terms in the U. S. Senate six times — in 1878,1884,1890,1896. Allison chaired the 1884–1886 Allison Commission, a joint congressional committee among the first to explore the question of whether federal intervention politicizes scientific research. It considered the charge that parts of the government were engaged in research for theoretical, not practical, the majority report favored the status quo, and Congress upheld it. In 1885, the Commissions finding of misuse of funds at the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey led to the dismissal of several officials, as Allison earned seniority, he also earned one of the most powerful committee positions. From 1881–93 and again from 1895 to 1908, he was chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee, Allisons combined years as chairman of the committee make him the longest-serving chairman to date. He was also a member of the Senate Committee of Indian Affairs, the Senate Finance Committee, and he became chairman of the Senate Republican Conference in 1897. He was twice asked to serve as the Secretary of the Treasury, first by President Chester Arthur, in 1897, President William McKinley offered him the position of U. S. Secretary of State
5. Albert R. Anderson – Albert Raney Anderson was a one-term U. S. Representative from Iowas 8th congressional district in southwestern Iowa and he is best known for winning election to Congress and defeating a well-known incumbent, without winning his own partys endorsement. Born in Adams County, Ohio, Anderson moved with his parents to Galesburg and he attended the common schools and Knox College, in Galesburg. He moved to Taylor County, Iowa in 1857 and studied law and he was admitted to the bar in 1860 and commenced practice in Clarinda, Iowa. He was appointed postmaster of Clarinda by President Lincoln in 1861 and he resigned to enlist in the Union Army as a private in Company K, 4th Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment. He was commissioned first lieutenant for gallant service at the Battle of Pea Ridge, became captain during the Siege of Vicksburg and he was promoted through the ranks to become major of his regiment, and was commissioned lieutenant colonel in 1865. He was mustered out in August 1865 and returned to Clarinda, Anderson moved to Sidney, Iowa, in 1866 and resumed the practice of law. He served as assessor of internal revenue from 1868 to 1871 and he was a delegate to the Republican National Convention at Philadelphia in 1872. He served as district attorney from 1876 to 1880. and state commissioner for a single term beginning in 1881. In 1882, he was the Republican Partys nominee for election to the Forty-eighth Congress in Iowas 9th congressional district, but was defeated by Democrat William Henry Mills Pusey. Two years later, Anderson was not the Republican nominee, but he was credited with causing the nomination of dark horse candidate Joseph Lyman, who then defeated Pusey in the general election. In April 1886, Fremont County, where Anderson lived, was added to the Iowas 8th congressional district, Anderson immediately ran for Hepburns seat. Refusing to heed the Republican district conventions endorsement of Hepburn, he ran in the election as an Independent Republican. Anderson won the election decisively, by 2,225 votes. Hepburns defeat caused many of his colleagues in the House to worry that they meet the same fate if they did not respond to the popular anger by supporting stricter federal railroad regulation. Anderson served in the Fiftieth Congress, voting with the Democratic caucus for John G. Carlisle as its choice for Speaker of the House, Hepburn waited several years before attempting to regain his seat. However, a different winner of the Republican endorsement process, James Patton Flick, in all, Anderson served in Congress from March 4,1887 to March 3,1889. One of the last votes Anderson cast in Congress was on the Enabling Act of 1889, which set in motion the admission into the union of North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Washington
6. Nathaniel B. Baker – Nathaniel Bradley Baker was an American politician and military leader who served as Governor of New Hampshire and Adjutant General of the Iowa Militia. Baker was born in Henniker, New Hampshire on September 29,1818, Nathaniel Baker graduated from Phillips Exeter Academy in 1834 and Harvard University. He then studied law under Franklin Pierce, Asa Fowler and Charles H. Peaslee, Baker was a co-owner of a Democratic newspaper, the New Hampshire Patriot. Originally, a Democrat, he served as Clerk of the Merrimack County Court of Common Pleas in 1845, the following year he became Merrimack County Clerk. Baker was also active in the New Hampshire Militia, serving as Quartermaster and later Adjutant of the 11th Regiment and he subsequently served as Aide-de-Camp to Governor John H. Steele with the rank of Colonel. In 1851, Baker assumed the position of Chief Fire Engineer for Concords Fire Department and he also served in the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1850 and 1851, and was elected Speaker of the House. In 1852 he was a Presidential Elector, and cast his ballot for Franklin Pierce, from 1854 to 1859 Baker was a trustee of Norwich University, and he received an honorary master of arts degree from Norwich in 1855. In 1854 he was elected governor and served a single one-year term and he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1855. After Bakers term as governor, he moved to Clinton, Iowa and he was elected to the Iowa House of Representatives in 1859 as a Democrat. His increasingly antislavery views later caused him to join the Republican Party, in addition, at the end of the war, Baker was credited with acquiring from returning Iowa units captured Confederate regimental flags and other memorabilia, and arranging to have it preserved. In 1874 Baker took part in an effort to combat a massive grasshopper infestation in Northwestern Iowa, exposing himself out of doors in harsh weather including sleet, snow and his health began to decline as a result, and Baker died in Des Moines on September 11,1876. He was buried at Woodland Cemetery in Des Moines, Baker and the grasshopper plagues in northwest Iowa, 1873–1875. Baker at New Hampshires Division of Historic Resources Nathaniel B, Baker at National Governors Association Nathaniel B
7. Andrew W. Barrett – Andrew Washington Barrett, known as A. W. Barrett was born in March 8,1845, in Stockholm, New York, to Joseph Beeman Barrett and Mehitable or Mahitable Noyes. The family moved to McGregor, Iowa, in 1857, Barrett served in the Union Army in the Civil War. He joined the Iowa Infantry in 1861 at the age of 16 in Company D, in 1878, Barrett joined the silver rush in Leadville, Colorado, and he acquired large holdings of mining properties. In 1882 he came to Los Angeles, from 1882 to 1887, Barrett was superintendent of Moses Sherman and Clark’s Los Angeles Consolidated Electric Railway Company. He did very much to develop the car system of this city. In 1896, R. F. Jones and R. C, Gillis of the Pacific Land Company purchased a 225-acre tract, which lay just south of the Soldiers Home from Sherman and Clark. Jones and Gillis secured from the management of the Soldiers Home permission for members to build houses, when Taft attempted to secure a post office for the new town, the postal authorities objected to the name Barrett on account of its similarity to Bassett. In 1899, the name of the town was changed to Sawtelle. He engaged in the real-estate and insurance business both in Los Angeles and in San Francisco, Barrett was president of the Pilgrim Club of Avalon. He was in the Elks, the Grand Army of the Republic, the Jonathan Club of Los Angeles and the Bohemian Club of San Francisco. In 1866, Barrett married Lillie Jean Pierce in Humboldt County, Iowa, in 1877, Barrett married Pauline Behne in Indianapolis, Indiana. They had one son, who died in early youth, at the time of the elder Barretts death, the couple were living at 1013 Burlington Avenue in the Echo Park district of Los Angeles. They were avid fisherman and members of the Santa Catalina Island Tuna Club, both held records for their catches. Barrett died at Pacific Hospital in Los Angeles on August 17,1905, at the age of 60, with the cause noted as cystitis and other complications resulting from this trouble. He was interred at Rosedale Cemetery in Los Angeles, after a service conducted by the Reverend Baker P. Lee of Christ Church, besides his widow and two sons, Beeman D. and Adelbert M. he was survived by a brother, Luther C. Barrett, and three sisters, Mrs. Hiram Clough, Mrs. Mary Hall and Mrs. E. F. Hartwell, camp Barrett, California State Military Museum Barrett leaves for Washington to present a California war claim to the federal government
8. John Beach – Major John Beach was a United States Army officer during the Black Hawk and American Civil War as well as the last U. S. Indian Agent to the Sac and Fox tribes. Born in Massachusetts to William Beach and Lucy Tucker, John Beach enlisted in the U. S. Army during his late teens and graduated from the West Point Military Academy on July 1,1832. He was commissioned as a brevet 2nd lieutenant served on the frontier with the Infantry Regiment, assigned to Fort Armstrong and Fort Crawford during the 1830s. In 1836, he took command of the Fort Armstrong garrison after its commanding officer Lt. Col. William Davenport ordered an evacuation and led a march to Fort Snelling in Hennepin County, Beach would remain at Fort Armstrong until being assigned elsewhere in November. During his last year with the army, he was involved in recruitment efforts before his resignation on June 30,1838, Beach later married Lucy Frances Street, the daughter of General Joseph Street. Two years later, he succeeded his father-in-law General Joseph Street as U. S. Indian Agent to the Sac and he continued his predecessors work in establishing farming and education to the Raccoon River Agency reservation, although he was ultimately unsuccessful in the former goal. He also opposed settlers sqatting on reservation land as, in 1841, Ruff removed James Jordan and other settlers illegally living on the reservation. They had previously ignored Beachs order to leave and, after allowing them to gather their possessions, on October 11,1842, he presided over the signing of a treaty which allowed the federal government to purchase much of Iowa from the Sac and Fox. He remained at the agency until 1847 where he resided in the area as a local farmer, Beach reenlisted during the American Civil War, however he involved in the training and drilling of recruits as his hearing loss disqualified him from the field. Returning to Agency City following the war, he became a writer and he died on August 31,1874, at age 62 and buried at Chief Wapellos Memorial Park. A series of articles he had written on the history of the various tribes he lived with during his career were published posthumously in the Agency Independent in the months following his death. His writings on the history of the Fox and Sac, as well as the fur trade on the Des Moines River, were included in the History of Wapello County. Berthrong, Donald J. John Beach and the Removal of the Sauk, Iowa Journal of History and Politics. Gallagher, Ruth A. Indian Agents in Iowa, Agents among the Sauk, Iowa Journal of History and Politics. The Sac-Fox Annuity Crisis of 1840 in Iowa Territory
9. William W. Belknap – William Worth Belknap was a lawyer, soldier in the Union Army, government administrator in Iowa, and the 30th United States Secretary of War. Belknap served with distinction in the Civil War and as an appointed Internal Revenue collector, however, his tenure in Washington D. C. The holders of traderships received exclusive rights to goods at U. S. military posts, making them lucrative. In 1876, the trader post scandal led to Belknaps resignation, impeachment by the House, a majority of senators voted to convict, because the prosecution did not obtain the required two-thirds majority, Belknap was acquitted. A native of New York, Belknap graduated from Princeton University in 1848, studied law with a Georgetown attorney and he then moved to Iowa, where he practiced law in partnership with Ralph P. Lowe. Belknap entered politics as a Democrat and was elected to the Iowa House of Representatives in 1857 and he took part in numerous engagements, including Shiloh and Corinth, served as a regimental, brigade, division, and corps commander, and served in high-level staff positions. In hand-to-hand combat at the Battle of Atlanta, Belknap captured a wounded Confederate commander, by the end of the war, Belknap had been promoted to brigadier general of volunteers, and received a brevet promotion to major general. Belknap declined a regular Army commission after the war, and was appointed Iowas Collector of Internal Revenue by President Andrew Johnson, in 1869, President Grant appointed Belknap Secretary of War. As secretary, Belknap requisitioned portraits for all the previous Secretaries of War, Belknap supported Grants Reconstruction policy, which was opposed by most Democrats. In 1875, Grant, Belknap, and other members of Grants administration secretly agreed to remove troops from the Black Hills after gold was discovered, a Congressional investigation in 1876 revealed that Belknap had received kickbacks in return for a lucrative contract. When his crime was discovered in 1876, Belknap resigned as Secretary of War, Grant had accepted his resignation before the House voted, despite his resignation, the House impeached him, and he was tried by the Senate, while kept under house arrest. Belknaps political reputation was damaged, while his wife and daughters remained distant. Belknap resumed practicing law in Washington and remained popular among Iowa Civil War veterans and he died of a heart attack in 1890. Belknaps legacy is that of both notable virtues and flaws and he was commended for bravery during the Civil War, but while Secretary of War he undermined the military careers of William Tecumseh Sherman and Oliver Otis Howard. However, to fund a lavish lifestyle, Belknap and his wives accepted kickbacks from sutler Caleb P. Marsh, Belknap permitted white settlers to overrun the Black Hills after they had been promised to the Lakota people by treaty. After he left office in disgrace, the War Department experienced unprecedented turmoil, going through a succession of four Secretaries of War within a 13-month period. William Worth Belknap was born on September 22,1829 in Newburgh, New York to career soldier William G. Belknap, who had fought with distinction in the War of 1812 and his mother was Anne Clark Belknap. In 1848, Belknap graduated from Princeton University, after graduation, Belknap studied law with Georgetown attorney Hugh E. Caperton
10. Nicholas Boquet – Nicholas S. Bouquet was a German soldier who fought in the American Civil War. Bouquet received the United States highest award for bravery during combat and he was honored with the award on 16 February 1897. Bouquet was born in Bavaria, Germany on 14 November 1842 and he was sent to the United States in order to prevent him serving in the army in Germany. Before the breakout of the American Civil war he worked as a cooper and he enlisted into the 1st Iowa Infantry at Burlington, Iowa in April 1861. He joined the 25th Iowa Infantry as a sergeant in July 1862, list of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients, A–F
11. Cyrus Bussey – Cyrus Bussey was an American soldier and politician, serving as a Brigadier General in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Bussey was born in Hubbard, Ohio, in 1833 and his father, Reverend A. Bussey, was a Methodist minister. He moved with his father, in 1837, to Indiana, at age 14, Bussey began working, as a clerk, in a dry-goods store, and at age 15, he started his own mercantile business. He began studying medicine, at age 18, but realized that he did not want to go into that profession, in 1855, Bussey moved to Davis County, Iowa, and began another business. It was here that his career would begin. He early became interested in politics, entered the Iowa Senate as a Democrat, in 1860, he was a delegate to the Baltimore convention, which nominated Stephen A. Douglas for President. He served throughout the Civil War, beginning his career as an Aide-de-Camp to Iowa Governor Samuel J. Kirkwood. He was promoted to Colonel and given command of the 3rd Iowa Cavalry Regiment in September 1861, in November 1862 he received the command of a cavalry brigade in the Thirteenth Army Corps and was the Chief of Cavalry for Ulysses S. Grants army during the Vicksburg Campaign. Being promoted to Brigadier General of U. S, volunteers on January 5,1864, he was assigned a cavalry brigade in the Seventh Army Corps in the Department of Arkansas. Later in the war he changed the branch and received command of a brigade in the same corps. He received his promotion to the rank of Brevet Major General of U. S. V. on March 13,1865. For some time after the war, he carried on a business in St. Louis. Bussey was appointed Assistant Secretary of the Interior from 1889 to 1893 and he was commander of the District of Columbia Commandery, Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States in 1911 and 1912. List of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H. Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press,2001
12. Henry Clay Caldwell – Henry Clay Caldwell was a United States federal judge and Union Army officer. He was educated in the schools of Iowa, and began reading law in the offices of Knapp and Wright in Keosauqua, Iowa. He was admitted to the bar in 1857, according to some sources and he was a Prosecuting attorney of Van Buren County, Iowa from 1856 to 1858, and a member of the Iowa House of Representatives from 1859 to 1861. In 1854 he married Harriet Benton and he enlisted in the 3rd Iowa Volunteer Cavalry in the United States Army, rising to the rank of Colonel, and attained command of the unit. He served with distinction at the Battle of Kirksville, and he led the forces that captured Little Rock, Arkansas. He was nominated for promotion to officer, but the territory required his judicial expertise more than his military ability. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on May 28 and he served on that bench for over twenty-five years. Then on February 27,1890, President Benjamin Harrison elevated Caldwell to the United States circuit court for the Eighth Circuit, Caldwell was confirmed by the Senate on March 4 and received commission the same day. But just a later, on June 16,1891, he was reassigned to the newly created United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. Caldwell retired on June 4,1903, and died in Los Angeles, California, at his death, Judge Caldwell was hailed as the most prominent citizen of Little Rock, the city he had once captured. He was buried in Oakland Cemetery, Little Rock, known as Clay to intimates, Caldwell was mildly progressive as a jurist. He once gave law books to Scipio Africanus Jones, a black man with the ambition to become a lawyer. He ordered the release of the radical journalist Moses Harman, who had argued for the abolition of government, religion and his minority opinion in Hopkins vs. Henry Clay Caldwell at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. J. B. Follett, A Just Judge, Being a Brief Sketch of Henry Clay Caldwell of the United States Circuit Court, larry Winter Roeder, Judge Henry Clay Caldwell
13. Cyrus C. Carpenter – Cyrus Clay Carpenter was a Civil War officer, the eighth Governor of Iowa and U. S. Representative from Iowas 9th congressional district, born near Harford, Pennsylvania, Carpenter attended the common schools, and was graduated from Harford Academy in 1853. His parents were Asahel Carpenter and Amanda M. Thayer and he is a descendant of the immigrant William Carpenter the founder of the Rehoboth Carpenter family who came to America in the mid-1630s. He moved to Iowa in 1854 and engaged in teaching and afterwards in land surveying, working as the County surveyor of Webster County in 1856 and he studied law but never practiced. In March,1857, he joined the expedition sent to Spirit Lake to aid the settlers driven from their homes by the Sioux Indians in the aftermath of the Spirit Lake Massacre. He initially served as member of the Iowa House of Representatives from 1858 to 1860 and he was mustered out July 14,1865. During the war he served on the staff of Generals William Rosecrans, Grenville M. Dodge, after his service, he returned to Iowa where he married Susan C. He was elected as registrar of the Iowa state land office, in 1871, he was run as a Republican for Governor of Iowa, winning his first two-year term. He was re-elected to a term in 1873, serving until early 1876. At the expiration of his term he was appointed Second Comptroller of the Treasury of the United States, on March 26,1878, he was appointed as a railroad commissioner of Iowa. In 1878 Carpenter was elected to Congress to represent Iowas 9th congressional district, after serving in the 46th United States Congress, he was re-elected in 1880 and served in the 47th United States Congress. He did not seek re-election to Congress in 1882, in all, he served in Congress from March 4,1879 to March 3,1883. In 1883, he ran for the state legislature, winning election to the Iowa House of Representatives for a two-year term. Returning to Iowa from Washington, District of Columbia for the last time and he also engaged in the management of his farm and in the real-estate business. He died in Fort Dodge on May 29,1898 and he was interred in Oakland Cemetery in Fort Dodge. Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http, //bioguide. congress. gov
14. Norton P. Chipman – Norton Parker Chipman was an American Civil War army officer, military prosecutor, politician, author, and judge. Born in Milford Center, Ohio, to Vermont-natives Norman and Sarah Wilson Chipman and he graduated from the Cincinnati Law School in 1859, prior to the schools merger with the University of Cincinnati in its present form. Chipman did, in fact, survive and, upon recovery, was promoted to the rank of colonel in 1862, Chipman and fellow Ohioan Ulysses S. Grant fought together in the Battle of Fort Donelson, which became Grants first major victory. Chipman was later appointed as a member of General Henry W. Hallecks and he later became a member of the Judge Advocate Generals staff. By 1864, he had moved to Washington, D. C. to work at the War Department under Secretary Edwin M. Stanton. Chipman successfully prosecuted Captain Henry Wirz, the commander of the Confederacys infamous Andersonville prison camp, for his cruelties to prisoners of war and eleven homicides, Wirz was hanged in 1865. Chipman published his recollections of the famous Andersonville Trial in his 1911 book, while adjutant general of the Grand Army of the Republic, he received a note from a friend in Cincinnati. The note suggested that the United States mimic the European custom of decorating graves of people who died serving in the military. Chipman loved the idea, and he decided the day should be late in the spring, in order to make sure mature flowers were available. Because May 31 fell on a Sunday that year, he declared May 30,1868, to be Decoration Day, the Associated Press published the order around the country. Decoration Day later became Memorial Day, when Grant was elected president in 1868, Chipman was asked to be on the presidential inaugural committee. At the time, Chipman was living on the corner of First, Chipman held this position for 50 days, until Edward L. Stanton was appointed to replace him. At the time, Chipman was living at 1725 G Street NW, while campaigning, Republicans advocated for long-time District resident Chipman over Democratic candidate Richard T. Merrick, who they said owned no property in the District. This argument backfired when it was revealed that Chipman had sold his home and was living at a hotel, during the April general election, Chipman won, receiving 15,196 votes to Merricks 11,104. Republicans won fifteen of the members of the Districts House of Delegates as well. Now living on B Street SE, Chipman spent much of his time in Congress advocating for the Districts public works program, running for reelection in 1873, he defeated Democrat L. G. Hine, formerly of the Districts Board of Aldermen, receiving 12,443 votes to Hines 7,042, in 1874, Chipman submitted a bill to annex Georgetown to the City of Washington and to rename its streets to conform to Washingtons street-naming conventions. He also tried to require the government to pay the District government property tax for the federal buildings located in the District