Category:People of Iowa in the American Civil War
Pages in category "People of Iowa in the American Civil War"
The following 124 pages are in this category, out of 124 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 124 pages are in this category, out of 124 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Iowa – Iowa is a U. S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River on the east and the Missouri River and the Big Sioux River on the west. Surrounding states include Wisconsin and Illinois to the east, Missouri to the south, Nebraska and South Dakota to the west, in colonial times, Iowa was a part of French Louisiana and Spanish Louisiana, its state flag is patterned after the flag of France. After the Louisiana Purchase, people laid the foundation for an economy in the heart of the Corn Belt. Iowa is the 26th most extensive in area and the 30th most populous of the 50 United States. Its capital and largest city by population is Des Moines, Iowa has been listed as one of the safest states in which to live. Its nickname is the Hawkeye State, Iowa derives its name from the Ioway people, one of the many Native American tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration. Iowa is bordered by the Mississippi River on the east, the Missouri River and the Big Sioux River on the west, Iowa is the only state whose east and west borders are formed entirely by rivers. Iowa has 99 counties, but 100 county seats because Lee County has two, the state capital, Des Moines, is in Polk County. Iowas bedrock geology generally increases in age from west to east, in northwest Iowa, Cretaceous bedrock can be 74 million years old, in eastern Iowa Cambrian bedrock dates to c.500 million years ago. Iowa is generally not flat, most of the consists of rolling hills. Iowa can be divided into eight landforms based on glaciation, soils, topography, Loess hills lie along the western border of the state, some of which are several hundred feet thick. Northeast Iowa along the Mississippi River is part of the Driftless Zone, consisting of steep hills, several natural lakes exist, most notably Spirit Lake, West Okoboji Lake, and East Okoboji Lake in northwest Iowa. To the east lies Clear Lake, man-made lakes include Lake Odessa, Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock, Coralville Lake, Lake MacBride, and Rathbun Lake. The states northwest area has remnants of the once common wetlands. Iowas natural vegetation is tallgrass prairie and savanna in areas, with dense forest and wetlands in flood plains and protected river valleys. Most of Iowa is used for agriculture, crops cover 60% of the state, grasslands cover 30%, as of 2005 Iowa ranked 49th of U. S. states in public land holdings. Endangered or threatened plants include western prairie fringed orchid, eastern prairie fringed orchid, Meads milkweed, prairie bush clover, the explosion in the number of high-density livestock facilities in Iowa has led to increased rural water contamination and a decline in air quality. Iowa has a continental climate throughout the state
2. American Civil War – The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, then much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
3. William W. Belknap – William Worth Belknap was a lawyer, soldier in the Union Army, government administrator in Iowa, and the 30th United States Secretary of War. Belknap served with distinction in the Civil War and as an appointed Internal Revenue collector, however, his tenure in Washington D. C. The holders of traderships received exclusive rights to goods at U. S. military posts, making them lucrative. In 1876, the trader post scandal led to Belknaps resignation, impeachment by the House, a majority of senators voted to convict, because the prosecution did not obtain the required two-thirds majority, Belknap was acquitted. A native of New York, Belknap graduated from Princeton University in 1848, studied law with a Georgetown attorney and he then moved to Iowa, where he practiced law in partnership with Ralph P. Lowe. Belknap entered politics as a Democrat and was elected to the Iowa House of Representatives in 1857 and he took part in numerous engagements, including Shiloh and Corinth, served as a regimental, brigade, division, and corps commander, and served in high-level staff positions. In hand-to-hand combat at the Battle of Atlanta, Belknap captured a wounded Confederate commander, by the end of the war, Belknap had been promoted to brigadier general of volunteers, and received a brevet promotion to major general. Belknap declined a regular Army commission after the war, and was appointed Iowas Collector of Internal Revenue by President Andrew Johnson, in 1869, President Grant appointed Belknap Secretary of War. As secretary, Belknap requisitioned portraits for all the previous Secretaries of War, Belknap supported Grants Reconstruction policy, which was opposed by most Democrats. In 1875, Grant, Belknap, and other members of Grants administration secretly agreed to remove troops from the Black Hills after gold was discovered, a Congressional investigation in 1876 revealed that Belknap had received kickbacks in return for a lucrative contract. When his crime was discovered in 1876, Belknap resigned as Secretary of War, Grant had accepted his resignation before the House voted, despite his resignation, the House impeached him, and he was tried by the Senate, while kept under house arrest. Belknaps political reputation was damaged, while his wife and daughters remained distant. Belknap resumed practicing law in Washington and remained popular among Iowa Civil War veterans and he died of a heart attack in 1890. Belknaps legacy is that of both notable virtues and flaws and he was commended for bravery during the Civil War, but while Secretary of War he undermined the military careers of William Tecumseh Sherman and Oliver Otis Howard. However, to fund a lavish lifestyle, Belknap and his wives accepted kickbacks from sutler Caleb P. Marsh, Belknap permitted white settlers to overrun the Black Hills after they had been promised to the Lakota people by treaty. After he left office in disgrace, the War Department experienced unprecedented turmoil, going through a succession of four Secretaries of War within a 13-month period. William Worth Belknap was born on September 22,1829 in Newburgh, New York to career soldier William G. Belknap, who had fought with distinction in the War of 1812 and his mother was Anne Clark Belknap. In 1848, Belknap graduated from Princeton University, after graduation, Belknap studied law with Georgetown attorney Hugh E. Caperton
4. William B. Allison – He died soon after overcoming his principal hurdle to election for a record seventh term in the Senate. Born in Perry, Ohio, Allison was educated at Wooster Academy, afterward, he spent a year at Allegheny College in Pennsylvania, then graduated from Western Reserve College in 1849. He then studied law and began practicing in Ashland, Ohio, while practicing law there from 1852 until 1857, he was a delegate to the 1855 Ohio Republican Convention and an unsuccessful candidate for district attorney in 1856. In 1857, he moved to Dubuque, Iowa, which would serve as his hometown for the last fifty years of his life, after his arrival in Dubuque, Allison took a prominent part in the politics of the nascent Republican Party. Allison was a delegate to the 1860 Republican National Convention in Chicago, during the subsequent Civil War, he was on the staff of Iowa Governor Samuel J. Kirkwood, who ordered him to help the state raise regiments for the war. He personally helped raise four regiments and he was given the rank of lieutenant colonel during the war, although it was unlikely he actually served in uniform. In 1862, in the midst of the war, Allison was elected to the United States House of Representatives as the representative of Iowas newly created 3rd congressional district, as a congressman and member of the House Ways and Means Committee, he pushed for higher tariffs. Following the war, Allison continued to serve in the House after winning re-election in 1866 and 1868. In January 1870, he was a candidate for election by the Iowa General Assembly to the United States Senate seat for 1871–1877. In the 1871 state legislative races, candidates were nominated and elected on the issue of whether they would vote for Harlan. Enough legislators who favored Allison were nominated and elected in 1871 that in January 1872 he won the number of votes to take Harlans U. S. Senate seat. Allison was reelected to terms in the U. S. Senate six times — in 1878,1884,1890,1896. Allison chaired the 1884–1886 Allison Commission, a joint congressional committee among the first to explore the question of whether federal intervention politicizes scientific research. It considered the charge that parts of the government were engaged in research for theoretical, not practical, the majority report favored the status quo, and Congress upheld it. In 1885, the Commissions finding of misuse of funds at the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey led to the dismissal of several officials, as Allison earned seniority, he also earned one of the most powerful committee positions. From 1881–93 and again from 1895 to 1908, he was chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee, Allisons combined years as chairman of the committee make him the longest-serving chairman to date. He was also a member of the Senate Committee of Indian Affairs, the Senate Finance Committee, and he became chairman of the Senate Republican Conference in 1897. He was twice asked to serve as the Secretary of the Treasury, first by President Chester Arthur, in 1897, President William McKinley offered him the position of U. S. Secretary of State
5. Grenville M. Dodge – He served in several notable assignments, including command of the XVI Corps during the Atlanta Campaign. He later served as a U. S. Congressman, businessman, historian Stanley P. Dodge was born in Putnamville, near Danvers in Massachusetts, to Sylvanus and Julia Theresa Phillips Dodge. From the time of his birth until he was 13 years old, in 1844, Sylvanus Dodge became postmaster of the South Danvers office and opened a bookstore. While working at a farm, the 14-year-old Grenville met the owners son, Frederick W. Lander. Lander was to one the ablest surveyors of the exploration of the West. Lander was impressed with Dodge and encouraged him to go to his alma mater, Dodge prepared for college by attending Durham Academy in New Hampshire. In 1851, he graduated from Norwich University with a degree in engineering, then moved to Iowa. For the next decade, he was involved in surveying for railroads and he married Ruth Anne Browne on May 29,1854. He was also a partner in the Baldwin & Dodge banking firm, Dodge joined the Union Army in the Civil War. At the beginning of the war, Dodge was sent by the Governor of Iowa to Washington, in July 1861, he was appointed Colonel of the 4th Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment. He was wounded in the leg, near Rolla, Missouri. He commanded the 1st Brigade, 4th Division in the Army of the Southwest at the Battle of Pea Ridge, for his services at the battle, he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers and placed in command of forces based in Corinth, where his intelligence operation was based. He then served as Grants intelligence Chief through the Vicksburg campaign, Dodge was later appointed by General Grant as commander of a Division in the Army of the Tennessee, where his troops aided Grant and William T. The location provided by Dodge was later established by Executive Order as the point in 1864. Following the Vicksburg campaign, his own troops joined General Grant, Dodge led an expedition to Northern Alabama from April 18,1863 to May 8,1863 that screened the advance of Streights Raid. While Dodges portion of the expedition was successful, Streights incursion was disastrous and his command performed various engagements thereafter in northwestern Mississippi and West Tennessee. In December, his forces engaged in a skirmish near Rawhide, twelve miles north of Florence and he was promoted to major general in June 1864 and commanded the XVI Corps during William T. Shermans Atlanta campaign. At the Battle of Atlanta, the XVI Corps was held in reserve, during the fighting Dodge rode to the front and personally led Thomas W. Sweenys division into battle
6. Edwin H. Conger – Edwin Hurd Conger was an American Civil War soldier, lawyer, banker, Iowa congressman, and United States diplomat. As the United States minister to China during the Boxer Rebellion, Conger, his family, born in Knox County, Illinois, Conger graduated from Lombard College in 1862. During the Civil War, he enlisted as a private in Company I of the 102nd Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment and he was promoted to captain and brevetted major. At the close of the war, he studied law and he graduated from Albany Law School in 1866 and was admitted to the bar, commencing practice in Galesburg, Illinois. Conger moved to Dexter, Iowa, in south-central Iowa, in 1868 and engaged in banking, livestock, after winning two terms as treasurer of Dallas County, Iowa in 1877 and 1879, he was elected Iowa State Treasurer in 1880, and reelected in 1882. In 1884, the incumbent Republican U. S, representative of Iowas 7th congressional district, John A. Kasson, declined to seek re-election. Conger won the Republican nomination to succeed him, and the general election, in Congress, he served as chairman of the Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures from 1889 to 1890. In 1890, he entered the race for a term in Congress. S. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Brazil and he served until September 1893, when he was replaced by an appointee of incoming Democratic President Grover Cleveland. He returned to position in 1897 following the election of the next Republican president, William McKinley. In 1898, President McKinley appointed Conger as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to China, congers arrival in China in July 1898 coincided with the emergence of a violent anti-foreign, anti-Christian movement, the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists in China. In June 1900, Boxer fighters gathered in Beijing to besiege the foreign embassies, americans and other westerners retreated to the Beijing Legation Quarter, where they were under siege for fifty-five days until the Eight-Nation Alliance brought 20,000 troops to their rescue. After receiving a heroes welcome on return to the United States in 1901, Conger resumed his duties in China for several more years, serving until 1905. His wife became a friend of Cixi, the Empress Dowager, in 1905, Conger was appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt as Ambassador to Mexico. His service in that position was brief, it began on June 15 and ended on August 3,1905, however, a week later, Conger declined the appointment, and resigned his appointment in Mexico effective two months later. He died in Pasadena, California on May 18,1907 and his death was attributed to a disease contracted in China. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, retrieved on 2008-02-14 Edwin H. Conger
7. James Harlan (senator) – James Harlan was an attorney and politician, a member of the United States Senate, and a U. S. Cabinet Secretary at the United States Department of Interior under President Andrew Johnson, Harlan was the son of Silas and Mary Harlan. Born on August 26,1820 in Clark County, Illinois and raised in Indiana and he graduated from Indiana Asbury University in 1845. He moved to Iowa City, Iowa, where he served as Superintendent of Schools and he also studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1850. He joined the Whig Party and became active in politics, in 1850 Harlan declined the Whig nomination for Governor of Iowa. From 1853 to 1855 Harlan was president of Iowa Wesleyan College in Mount Pleasant, in 1855 Harlan was elected by the Iowa legislature to the United States Senate as a Free Soil Party candidate. In 1857 the US Senate declared the seat vacant because of irregularities in that legislative election and he was re-elected by the legislature and seated as a Republican, serving until 1865. In 1861 Harlan was a Delegate to the Peace Conference that tried to arrange a compromise to prevent the American Civil War, in 1865 he resigned from the Senate when he was appointed as Secretary of the Interior under President Andrew Johnson, an appointment he held until 1866. As secretary he announced that he intended to house and fired a considerable number of incumbents who were seldom at their respective desks. Among this group was the poet Walt Whitman, then working as a clerk in the department, Harlan had found a copy of Leaves of Grass on Whitmans desk as the poet was making revisions and found it to be morally offensive. I will not have the author of book in this Department. If the President of the United States should order his reinstatement, twenty-nine years later, Harlan defended his firing of Whitman, saying that the clerk was dismissed solely on the grounds that his services were not needed. Harlan was a member of the Southern Treaty Commission that renegotiated treaties with Indian Tribes that had sided with the Confederacy, such as the Cherokee, if they left, the freedmen would become United States citizens. Harlan resigned from the post in 1866 when he no longer supported the policies of President Johnson and he was elected again by the Iowa legislature to the United States Senate in 1867, and served until the end of his term in January 1873. During his Senate service, Harlan was Chairman of the committees of Public Lands, District of Columbia, Education, Harlan was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1872, and was also an unsuccessful candidate for Governor in 1895. From 1882 to 1886, Harlan was appointed as Presiding Judge for the Court of Commissioners, James Harlan died in Mount Pleasant on October 5,1899. A commemorative sculpture was done of him, Iowa installed it in the United States Capitol along with one of pioneer Governor Samuel Kirkwood, the Harlan statue was located in the Hall of Columns until it was replaced in 2014 by a statue of Norman Borlaug. It is now on display at Iowa Wesleyan College, Harlan was a close friend of President Abraham Lincoln and his family
8. David B. Henderson – David Bremner Henderson, a ten-term Republican Congressman from Dubuque, Iowa, was the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1899 to 1903. He was the first Congressman from west of the Mississippi River, the last Civil War veteran, the second foreign-born person, Henderson was born in Old Deer, Scotland on March 14,1840. He emigrated to the United States with his parents, who settled in Winnebago County, Illinois. His family soon moved to a farm near Clermont, in Fayette County and he attended the common schools, and the Upper Iowa University at Fayette, Iowa. He served in the Union Army during the Civil War and was wounded twice, once in the neck and later in the leg. He initially enlisted in the Union Army on September 15,1861, as a private in Company C and he was elected and commissioned first lieutenant of that company. In the Battle of Fort Donelson, he was shot in the neck in the charge over the breastworks. After returning to the Regiment in April 1862, he lost one foot and he was discharged on February 26,1863 due to his wounds, and returned to Iowa. He was a lawyer prior to pursuing his political career. After studying law, he was admitted to the bar in 1865 and he was in private practice in Dubuque until 1882. In 1882, he was elected as a Republican to represent Iowas 3rd congressional district in the U. S. House and he served in the Forty-eighth and the nine succeeding Congresses, from March 4,1883 to March 4,1903. He first ran for Speaker following the 1888 elections, finishing well behind Thomas Brackett Reed, prior to his election as speaker, he served as the chairman of the Committee on Militia, and chairman of the Committee on the Judiciary. Henderson was a debater and an intense Republican partisan. He seems to have loved a fight, he got enough of them from his very first term, exercising his power of personal vituperation. I would rather spend an eternity in hell with a Confederate than an eternity in heaven with a northern Copperhead and his secret for political success came from combining mainstream Republican causes with those dear to the hearts of his farmland constituency. In the summer of 1886, he led House forces in favor of levying a tax on oleomargarine. At the same time he sponsored a bill to raise the benefits for widows by fifty percent. His commitment to legislation, general and individual, marked his whole career
9. Samuel J. Kirkwood – Samuel Jordan Kirkwood, was an American politician best known as Iowas American Civil War Governor. He also served in the U. S. Senate and as U. S. Secretary of the Interior, samuel J. Kirkwood was born in 1813 in Harford County, Maryland. At age 17, he began teaching school and had as one of his pupils his cousin Daniel Kirkwood, samuel spent part of his youth in Washington, D. C. then joined his father in moving to Ohio in 1835. There he became a well-known anti-slavery Republican and he was elected to several state offices and worked closely with Thomas Bartley, the future governor of Ohio, in the 1840s. Kirkwood married Jane Clark, the sister of Ezekiel Clark, and thus became the brother-in-law of Edward Lucas, although Kirkwood intended to leave politics behind him in Ohio, he took an interest in the newly founded Republican Party. Summoned from his mill at Coralville and still coated in flour dust, many people credited Kirkwood’s speech and subsequent work with the success of the Republican Party in Iowa, that year he was elected to the Iowa Senate serving from 1856 to 1859. In 1859 Kirkwood was nominated for governor and defeated Augustus C. Dodge after a campaign which focused on the slave issue. In 1860, Kirkwood’s first year in office, the John Brown raid on Harpers Ferry further polarized the nation over slavery, and Kirkwood was clearly on the side of the militant abolitionists. When Barclay Coppock, a youth from Springdale, who was part of Brown’s raid, fled to Iowa, Kirkwood refused to accept extradition papers for him from Virginia, and allowed Coppock to escape. During the Civil War, Kirkwood gained national attention for his efforts to secure soldiers. In 1862, he attended the Loyal War Governors Conference in Altoona, Pennsylvania, after he left office in 1864, Kirkwood moved to a new brick house on Wyoming Road in Iowa City and practiced law. About this time Kirkwood sold his share of the mill, part of it to his brother, William, in 1865-1867, he served the remainder of James Harlan’s term in the U. S. Senate, and served in the Senate again from 1877 to 1881. Between his separate terms as a Senator, he was again the Governor of Iowa from 1876 to 1877 and he resigned as governor in 1877 to begin his second term as U. S. Senator. In 1881, Kirkwood resigned his Senate seat to become Secretary of the Interior under President James Garfield and he served as Interior Secretary until 1882. He unsuccessfully ran for Congress in 1886, Kirkwood died in 1894 in Iowa City, and is buried in Oakland Cemetery. Kirkwood Community College in Cedar Rapids is named for the former Iowa Governor and Senator, the town of Kirkwood, Illinois is named for him as well. C. Kirkwood Avenue in Iowa City, where he lived for much of his career, is named for him. Kirkwood Elementary is located in Coralville, where Kirkwood ran his mill, a small, neglected monument once stood near the Morningside entrance to Iowa City High School, but this was removed in 2010
10. John Edwards (Arkansas politician) – John Edwards was an American Civil War brigadier general in the Union Army, an American politician and a U. S. Born in Louisville, Kentucky, Edwards received a limited schooling, but he studied law and was admitted to the bar. He married Eliza Jane Knight on July 8,1834 in, Lawrence, Indiana and his second wife was Catherine Whisenand, and they were married on May 8,1854 in Chariton, Iowa. They had three children, Nancy, Clarence B. and Alfred, on April 28,1880, he married Mary Burland Bevans in Washington, D. C. and they had two daughters, Frances Sterling and Mary Ellen. In order to live in a state, Edwards moved to Indiana. He had inherited slaves from his fathers estate in Kentucky but freed them and he moved to California, and in 1849 was elected an alcalde. Edwards returned to Indiana in 1852, and as a Whig, in 1853 he moved to Chariton, Iowa, where he began the practice of law. In 1856 he was chosen a member of the convention which framed the new constitution which was adopted the following year. He was founder in 1857 of the Patriot newspaper, and became a Republican when that party was organized, in 1858 he was a member of the House of the Seventh General Assembly. He was reelected and in 1860 was chosen Speaker of the House of the Eighth General Assembly, when the Civil War began Edwards was appointed as lieutenant colonel May 21,1861 and served as aide on the staff of Governor Kirkwood of Iowa protecting the Missouri border from invasion. After the war Edwards settled at Fort Smith, Arkansas, and was appointed by President Johnson as Assessor of Internal Revenue and served from August 15,1866 to May 31,1869. Not a candidate for renomination, he settled in Washington, D. C. Edwards died in Washington and he is buried at Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia. List of American Civil War generals United States Congress, biographical Directory of the United States Congress. congress. gov