Robert III, Count of Dreux
Robert III of Dreux, Count of Dreux and Braine, was the son of Robert II, Count of Dreux, and Yolanda de Coucy. He was given the byname Gasteblé when he destroyed a field of wheat while hunting in his youth, along with his brother Peter, Duke of Brittany he fought with future Louis VIII of France in 1212 at Nantes and was captured there during a sortie. Exchanged after the Battle of Bouvines for William Longsword, Earl of Salisbury, he fought in the Albigensian Crusade and he was a supporter of Blanche of Castile during her regency after the death of Louis VIII in 1226. In 1210 he married Alianor de St. Valéry and they had children, Yolande of Dreux. Painter, William Marshal, Knight-Errant and Regent of England, University of Toronto Press,1982
Folquet de Marselha
Folquet de Marselha, alternatively Folquet de Marseille, Foulques de Toulouse, Fulk of Toulouse came from a Genoese merchant family who lived in Marseille. He is known as a trobadour, and as a fiercely anti-Cathar bishop of Toulouse. He is known primarily for his songs, which were lauded by Dante, there are 14 surviving cansos, one tenson, one lament, one invective. A contemporary, John of Garlande, described him as renowned on account of his spouse, his progeny, Folquets life and career abruptly changed around 1195 when he experienced a profound religious conversion and decided to renounce his former life. He joined the strict Cistercian Order, entering the monastery of Thoronet and he soon rose in prominence and was elected abbot of Thoronet which allowed him to help found the sister house of Géménos to house women, quite possibly including his wife. He was elected Bishop of Toulouse in 1205, after two Cistercian Papal legates had been sent to the region to reform it, pope Innocent III was particularly concerned by the prevalence of both heresy and episcopal corruption in the Languedoc and used the Cistercians to combat both.
The legates had deposed the previous Bishop, Raimon de Rabastens, as Bishop of Toulouse, Folquet took a very active role in combatting heresy. Throughout his episcopal career he sought to create and encourage outlets for religious enthusiasm that were Catholic in an effort to woo away from preachers of heresy. In 1206 he created what would become the convent of Prouille to offer women a religious community that would rival those of the Cathars and he participated in the initial preaching mission of Saint Dominic that was led by Dominics superior, Bishop Diego of Osma. Bishop Foulques had tumultuous relations with his diocese, primarily on account of his support of the Albigensian Crusade, hated by many Toulousains and by Count Raymond VI of Toulouse he left Toulouse on 2 April 1211, after the crusaders laid siege to Lavaur. Soon afterwards he instructed all clerics to leave the city and he was present at the siege in April–May 1211, he travelled north to France, where he preached the Crusade alongside Guy of les Vaux-de-Cernay.
In July 1215 Foulques issued a letter instituting Dominics brotherhood of preachers. In November 1215 he and Dominic, with Guy of Montfort, were in Rome at the Fourth Lateran Council, in October 1217, when Simon was besieging Toulouse once more, he sent a group of sympathisers to Paris to plead for the help of king Philippe-Auguste. This group included Simons wife, the countess Alix de Montmorency and they began their journey clandestinely, through the forest, to avoid attacks by faidits. They returned more flamboyantly, in May 1218, bringing a party of new Crusaders including the dashing Amaury de Craon, Foulques spent much of the following decade outside his diocese, assisting the crusading army and the Churchs attempts to bring order to the region. He was at the Council of Sens in 1223, after the Peace of Paris finally ended the crusade in 1229, Foulques returned to Toulouse and began to construct the institutions that were designed to combat heresy in the region. He helped to create the University of Toulouse and administered the newly created Episcopal Inquisition.
He died in 1231 and was buried, beside the tomb of William VII of Montpellier, at the abbey of Grandselves, near Toulouse, stanislaw Stronski, Le troubadour Folquet de Marseille
Enguerrand III, Lord of Coucy
Enguerrand III de Boves, Lord of Coucy was the eldest son and successor of Ralph I, Lord of Coucy and Alix of Dreux. He succeeded as Lord of Coucy in 1191, and held it until his death, he was lord of Marle. Enguerrand III was born at the Château de Coucy, Enguerrand had an illustrious military career, helping the King of the French Philip Augustus reduce the French territories of the King of England. Enguerrand campaigned in Anjou in 1205, and in 1214 fought in the French victory over an Anglo-German alliance at the Battle of Bouvines and his arms at Bouvines were blazoned, Barry of six vair and gules. He was a member of the French force which invaded the Kingdom of England to depose King John. He participated in the Albigensian Crusade, Enguerrand married into the family of King Henry III of England, taking as his second wife the latter kings cousin, the granddaughter of Henry II of England. His first wife was Beatrix de Vignory, widow of John I, there are no known children from this marriage His second wife was Matilda of Saxony, the aforementioned granddaughter of Henry II, Duke of Saxony and niece of Richard the Lion-hearted.
This marriage took place in 1204 and his third wife was Marie de Montmirail. Enguerrand and Marie had five children, Raoul II, Lord of Coucy, married Philippe of Dammartin Enguerrand IV, married 1) Margaret of Gueldres, daughter of Otto II, Count of Guelders and 2) Joan of Flanders, daughter of Robert III, Count of Flanders. John de Coucy, lord of Amboise Marie de Coucy, married to King Alexander II of Scotland Alix de Coucy, married Arnold III and their son, Enguerrand V inherited the title after his uncles. Enguerrand died in 1242 by falling off of his horse onto his sword and he was succeeded by his eldest son Raoul II, Lord of Coucy
Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse
Raymond VII of Saint-Gilles was Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne and Marquis of Provence from 1222 until his death. Raymond was born at the Château de Beaucaire in Beaucaire, Province of Languedoc, through his mother, he was a grandson of Henry II of England and a nephew of kings Richard I and John of England. Raymond VII married firstly, in March 1211, Sancha of Aragon and they had one daughter and were divorced in 1241. He was engaged to Sanchia of Provence, but she married Richard of Cornwall instead, in 1243 Raymond married Margaret of Lusignan, the daughter of Hugh X of Lusignan and Isabella of Angoulême. They had no children and the Council of Lyons in 1245 granted Raymond a divorce and he tried to get support of Blanche, Queen mother of France to marry Beatrice of Provence, who had just become Countess of Provence, but Beatrice married Blanches son Charles instead. During the Albigensian Crusade in May 1216, he set out from Marseille and besieged Beaucaire and he fought to reconquer the county of Toulouse from Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester and Simons son Amaury VI of Montfort.
He succeeded his father in 1222, at the moment of his accession, he and the new count of Foix, Roger Bernard II the Great, besieged Carcassonne. On 14 September 1224, the Albigensian Crusaders surrendered and the war came to an end, roger-Bernard tried to keep the peace, but the king rejected his embassy and the counts of Foix and Toulouse took up arms again. When Raymond died, Alphonse became count of Toulouse, and after Alphonses death the county was annexed by France, Raymond VII was buried beside his mother Joan in Fontevrault Abbey. A History of the Crusades, Vol. II, ed. Robert Lee Wolff and Harry W. Hazard, Raymond VII of Toulouse, The Son of Queen Joanne, Young Count and Light of the World. The World of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Society in Southern France between the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries, damian J. Smith, Crusade and Inquisition in the Lands of the Crown of Aragon, Brill,2010. Weiler and Ifor Rowlands and Europe in the Reign of Henry III, Ashgate,2002
Aimery III of Narbonne
Aimery III, known in Spanish as Aimerico Pérez de Lara, was the Viscount of Narbonne from 1194 until his own death. He was a member of the House of Lara, throughout his reign he had to navigate competing claims of suzerainty over him and until 1223 his reign was dominated by the Occitan War. He participated unenthusiastically on the side of the crusaders, but retained his viscounty, only the castle of Montpesat and its vicinity was reserved for Pedro as a foothold north of the Pyrenees. Aimery immediately recognised the suzerainty of Count Raymond V of Toulouse, in 1202, shortly after the death of his father, Aimery visited the Abbey of Huerta, which Pedro had founded, in Castile. There he confirmed all the gifts and concessions made by his father, in the charter he had drawn up to confirm the abbeys possessions he styled himself a son of the lord count Pedro and the lady infanta Sancha, by the grace of God viscount of Narbonne. The title infanta used of his mother connected Aimery to royalty by identifying his mother as a royal princess, the formula by the grace of God indicated his claim of a divine right to rule and its use was initiated in his family by his father.
This act by Pedro had probably ensured Toulousain acceptance of his sons accession, in 1209 the Albigensian Crusade visited the south of France. Pressured by Odo III, Duke of Burgundy, and Hervé, Count of Nevers, Aimery was present at Béziers when Agnes, widow of the last viscount, Raymond Roger Trencavel, handed the viscounty of Béziers over to Simon de Montfort IV. The next year, Aimery assisted Simon in the siege of Minerve, Aimery may have taken part in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212, where the united armies of Spain, led by Alfonso VIII of Castile, Aimerys homeland, routed the Almohads. It is known that Arnaud Amalric, the Archbishop of Narbonne, Pope Innocent III, organiser of the Albigensian Crusade, had granted the title Duke of Narbonne, which had been held by Aimerys uncle and namesake Aimerico Manrique until 1177, to the archbishop. Arnaud was thus Aimerys suzerain by 1212, after the Battle of Muret in 1213, Aimery refused entry in Narbonne to Simon de Montfort, who proceeded to besiege the place.
Aimery led an effective sally that split the troops and forced them to retreat. The next year, Aimery was one of those who intervened with Pope Innocent, when Simon hesitated to obey, Aimery prepared for war, but the intervention of Cardinal Peter of Benevento, the Papal legate for Provence, prevented open hostilities. A settlement was reached in April 1214 to which Aimery and the citizens of Narbonne were party, in 1215 Louis the Lion, the son of the king of France, Philip Augustus, entered the territory of the duchy of Narbonne with an army. Later that year the Fourth Council of the Lateran opened, in May 1217, Simon de Montfort was forced to besiege Toulouse after it had fallen into the hands of the deposed Count Raymond VI. Aimery participated in the siege and received the Papal letters defending Simons actions, after Simons death during the siege and five more years of warfare, Raymond submitted and was appointed Duke of Narbonne in 1223. Aimery did him homage for his viscounty, although Aimerys final years were externally peaceful, he had many internal disputes to contend with.
He died in February 1239, leaving Narbonne to his eldest son, Aimerys first wife was a Catalan noblewoman, Guillemet de Montcada, but all of his children were borne by his second wife, a Frenchwoman, Marguerite de Marly
Peter II of Courtenay
Peter, Peter II of Courtenay, was emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople from 1216 to 1217. Peter II was a son of Peter I of Courtenay, the youngest son of Louis VI of France and his mother was Elisabeth de Courtenay, daughter of Renaud de Courtenay and Hawise du Donjon. Peter first married Agnes I, via whom he obtained the three counties of Nevers and Tonnerre. He took for his wife, Yolanda of Flanders, a sister of Baldwin and Henry of Flanders. Peter accompanied his cousin, King Philip Augustus, on the crusade of 1190 and fought in the Albigensian Crusade in 1209 and 1211 and he was present at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214. On the journey he was seized by the despot of Epirus, Theodore Komnenos Doukas, Peter thus never governed his empire, however, was ruled for a time by his wife, who had succeeded in reaching Constantinople. Two of his sons and Baldwin, in turn emperors of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, by his first wife Agnes I, Countess of Nevers he had one child, Matilda I, Countess of Nevers.
This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Leopold VI, Duke of Austria
Leopold VI, known as Leopold the Glorious, was the Duke of Styria from 1194 and the Duke of Austria from 1198 to his death in 1230. He was a member of the House of Babenberg and he was a member of the Chapter of the Cistercian Order. Like his predecessors, he attempted to develop the land by founding monasteries and his most important foundation is Lilienfeld in the Lower Austrian valley of the Traisen river, where he was buried after his death. Besides that, he supported the highly modern Mendicant Orders of the Franciscans and Dominicans. He is arguably one of the greatest of the Babenbergs, Leopold VI was the younger son of Duke Leopold V of Austria and his wife, Helena of Hungary. His service is known to be recorded under Henrys Second Italian Expedition, when his father died in 1195, it had surprised him, like many other Lords of Austria and Styria, when he had received the news that he would receive the Duchy of Styria. This act was in contravention of the found in the Georgenberg Pact.
His older brother, Frederick I, was to take the Duchy of Austria, as Leopold was with Emperor Henry VI, at the court in Palermo, whether by word or deed, he had pleased the Emperor enough to be elevated to the rule of Styria. So much so, that by June 1194 he had now begun styling himself Duke of Styria, Leopold had spent 1195-6 acquainting himself with his new duchy and its people. It did not surprise him when his brother entrusted him with Austria on the eve of his Crusade. The honor of the Babenbergs had been damaged in the eyes of the Catholic Church because of the capture of Richard I of England, the money for him. Suddenly, Andrew II of Hungary had come to Leopold asking for an alliance against his brother, Andrew had recently lost his inheritance, the Principality of Halych and was refused by his brother on having any more titles. Leopold felt compelled to aid his cousin and insist Emeric grant Andrew land for his own, the news of Emperor Henrys death on 28 September 1197 had reached Leopolds ears at this time.
Leopold expected a Reichstag would be announced, but first he would deal with Emeric, so Leopold and Andrew rode on to Hungary at the head of their forces and defeated the Hungarian King at Mački in Slavonia in December 1197. Leopold finally mediated with King Emeric to grant Croatia and Dalmatia as an appanage for Andrew in early 1198, finally, a Reichstag was announced in Mühlhausen in Thuringia on 8 March 1198. There in council with a great lords, Leopold refused to persuade Philip of Swabia to drop his advocacy of his nephew. And he had stood against the ruling to divide the Empire between Otto IV of Brunswick and Philip. Yet he still presented himself on the side of Philip, which earned his recognition and it was during this time that the Austrian and Styrian duchies were reunified under Leopold VI when Frederick died while returning from the German Crusade on 16 April 1198
Robert II, Count of Dreux
Robert II of Dreux, Count of Dreux and Braine, was the eldest surviving son of Robert I, Count of Dreux, and Agnes de Baudemont, countess of Braine, and a grandson of King Louis VI of France. He participated in the Third Crusade, at the Siege of Acre and he took part in the war in Normandy against the Angevin Kings between 1193 and 1204. Count Robert had seized the castle of Nonancourt from Richard I of England while he was imprisoned in Germany in late 1193, the count participated in the Albigensian Crusade in 1210. In 1214 he fought alongside King Philip Augustus at the Battle of Bouvines and his first marriage with Mahaut of Burgundy in 1178 ended with separation in 1181 and produced no children. The excuse for the annulment was consanguinity and Robert were both great-great grandchildren of William I, Count of Burgundy and his wife Etiennete and they were both Capetian descendants of Robert II of France. His second marriage to Yolande de Coucy produced several children, Robert III, Count of Dreux, Henry of Dreux, Archbishop of Reims.
John of Dreux, Count of Vienne and Mâcon, philippa of Dreux, who married Henry II of Bar. Alix of Dreux, married Walter IV of Vienne, Lord of Salins, Agnes of Dreux, married Stephen III of Auxonne. Yolande of Dreux, married Raoul II of Lusignan, of which the translation is, Born from the race of kings, and a devoted guardian of the laws, Count of Braine, here rests covered, and lies buried by the remains of his mother Agnes. It is dated Anno Gracię M. CC, die innocentum, that is, In the Year of Grace 1218, on the Feast of the Holy Innocents. Mémoires de la Société des lettres, sciences et arts de Bar-le-Duc, Vol.2, Société des lettres, sciences et arts de Bar-le-Duc, Contant Laguerre Imprimeur Editeur,1903. Joscelyn III and the fall of the crusader states 1134-1199, Ernest, ed. Histoire des ducs de Bourgogne de la race Capétienne. Pollock, M. A. Scotland and France After the Loss of Normandy, 1204-1296, the Norman Frontier in the Twelfth and Early Thirteenth Centuries. Setton, Kenneth M. Wolff, Robert Lee, Harry W. eds
Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse
Raymond VI was Count of Toulouse and Marquis of Provence from 1194 to 1222. He was Count of Melgueil from 1173 to 1190, born at Saint-Gilles, Gard, he was a son of Raymond V and Constance of France. His maternal grandparents were Louis VI of France and his second wife Adélaide de Maurienne and his maternal uncles included Louis VII of France. In 1194 he succeeded his father as count of Toulouse and he immediately re-established peace with both Alfonso II of Aragon and with the Trencavel family. He was married five times,1 and his first wife, Countess of Melgueil, whom he married in 1172, died in 1176 without issue. His second wife was Beatrice of Béziers, sister of Roger II Trencavel, they divorced in 1189 and she was said to have become a Cathar parfaite after the divorce. Raymond and Beatrice had one daughter, Constance of Toulouse, who was married firstly to King Sancho VII of Navarre, in October 1196 at Rouen he married Joan Plantagenet. They had two surviving children, Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse and Joan of Toulouse, second wife of Bernard II de la Tour and his fourth wife was the daughter of Isaac Komnenos of Cyprus.
They divorced probably in late 1202, January 1204, in Perpignan, he married his last wife, Eleanor of Aragon, daughter of King Alfonso II of Aragon and Sancha of Castile. Raymond VI held vast territories but his control of them was problematic, aside from theoretically owing allegiance to the King of France, Raymond held Provence as a vassal of the Emperor. Henry II of England controlled neighboring Aquitaine through his wife Eleanor, Alfonso II of Aragon was involved in the affairs of Languedoc, stimulating emigration from the north to colonize newly reconquered lands in Aragon. In Toulouse, Raymond maintained the communal freedoms, extended exemptions from taxation, a poet and a man of culture, he hated war but did not lack energy. At first Innocent III tried to deal with the Cathars by peaceful conversion, the legates sent from Rome and France received little support as they were considered foreign reformers. Papal legate Pierre de Castelnau was sent to address Raymonds tolerance for the practice of the Cathars, pierres assassination on January 15,1208 led to Raymonds excommunication.
The excommunication was lifted after Raymond humbled himself before the Pope, more of a diplomat than a soldier, he was unable to stop the advance of Simon de Montfort, who conquered Toulouse. Raymond was exiled to England under his former brother-in-law John Plantagenet, in November 1215 Raymond and his son were in Rome with Raymond-Roger, Count of Foix on the occasion of the Fourth Lateran Council to vindicate themselves and dispute the loss of their territories. Raymonds son-in-law, Pierre-Bermond II of Sauve, was there to lay claim to the county of Toulouse. Raymond and his son went from Rome to Genoa and thence to Marseille in February 1216, Raymonds son set out from Marseille to regain the family territories in Provence, in May 1216 he besieged Beaucaire and captured it on August 24
Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death. His birth name was Lotario dei Conti di Segni, sometimes anglicised to Lothar of Segni, Pope Innocent was one of the most powerful and influential popes. He exerted an influence over the Christian states of Europe. Pope Innocent was central in supporting the Catholic Churchs reforms of ecclesiastical affairs through his decretals and this resulted in a considerable refinement of Western canon law. Pope Innocent is notable for using interdict and other censures to compel princes to obey his decisions, Innocent called for Christian crusades against Muslim Spain and the Holy Land, as well as the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars in southern France. One of Pope Innocents critical decisions was organizing the Fourth Crusade, originally intended to attack Jerusalem through Egypt, a series of unforeseen circumstances led the crusaders to Constantinople, where they ultimately sacked the city in 1204. Lotario de Conti was born in Gavignano, near Anagni and his father was Count Trasimund of Segni and was a member of a famous house, which produced nine Popes, including Gregory IX, Alexander IV and Innocent XIII.
Lotario was the nephew of Pope Clement III, his mother, as Pope, Lotario was to play a major role in the shaping of canon law through conciliar canons and decretal letters. He subscribed the papal bulls between 7 December 1190 and 4 November 1197, as a cardinal, Lotario wrote De miseria humanae conditionis. The work was popular for centuries, surviving in more than 700 manuscripts. Although he never returned to the work he intended to write, On the Dignity of Human Nature. Celestine III died on 8 January 1198 and he was only thirty-seven years old at the time. He took the name Innocent III, maybe as a reference to his predecessor Innocent II, as pope, Innocent III began with a very wide sense of his responsibility and of his authority. The Muslim recapture of Jerusalem in 1187 was to him a divine judgment on the moral lapses of Christian princes and he was determined to protect what he called the liberty of the Church from inroads by secular princes. The patrimonium was routinely threatened by Hohenstaufen German kings who, as Roman emperors, the early death of Henry VI left his 4-year-old son Frederick II as king.
Henry VI’s widow Constance of Sicily ruled over Sicily for her son before he reached the age of majority. She was as eager to remove German power from the kingdom of Sicily as was Innocent III, before her death in 1198, she named Innocent as guardian of the young Frederick until he reached his maturity. In exchange, Innocent was able to recover papal rights in Sicily that had been surrendered decades earlier to King William I of Sicily by Pope Adrian IV, the Pope invested the young Frederick II as King of Sicily in November 1198