Category:People of the Irish Civil War (Anti-Treaty side)
Pages in category "People of the Irish Civil War (Anti-Treaty side)"
The following 99 pages are in this category, out of 99 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 99 pages are in this category, out of 99 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Robert Erskine Childers – He was executed by the authorities of the nascent Irish Free State during the Irish Civil War. He was the son of British Orientalist scholar Robert Caesar Childers, the cousin of Hugh Childers and Robert Barton, when Erskine was six his father died from tuberculosis and, although seemingly healthy, Anna was confined to an isolation hospital, where she died six years later. The five children were sent to the Bartons, the family of their fathers uncle, at Glendalough and they were treated kindly there and Erskine grew up knowing and loving Ireland, albeit at that stage from the comfortable viewpoint of the Protestant Ascendancy. At the recommendation of his grandfather, Canon Charles Childers, he was sent to Haileybury College, there he won an exhibition to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he studied the classical tripos and then law. He distinguished himself as the editor of Cambridge Review, the university magazine, notwithstanding his unattractive voice and poor debating skills, he became president of the Trinity College Debating Society. Although Erskine was an admirer of his cousin Hugh Childers, a member of the British Cabinet working for Irish home rule, at this stage he spoke vehemently against the policy in college debates. With many sporting ventures now closed to him because of his injury, Childers was encouraged by Walter Runciman. After picking up the fundamentals of seamanship as a deckhand on Runcimans yacht, in 1893 he bought his own scrubby little yacht Shulah and he sold the Shulah in 1895 to a Plymouth man following a trip around the Lizard in a heavyish sea. In 1894 while he was living in Glendalough, he bought a Dublin Bay Water Wag and he sailed this boat on Lough Dan, close to Glendalough, and he and his brother Henry used to take friends for a sail in the Water Wag. These were the adventures he was to fictionalise in 1903 as The Riddle of the Sands, his most famous book and a huge bestseller. In 1903 Childers, now accompanied by his new wife Molly, was cruising in the Frisian Islands, in Sunbeam. Mollys father, Dr Hamilton Osgood, arranged for a fine 28-ton yacht, Asgard, to be built for the couple as a wedding gift and Sunbeam was only a temporary measure while Asgard was being fitted out. (The Asgard was acquired by the Irish government as a training vessel in 1961, stored on dry land in the yard of Kilmainham Gaol in 1979. As with most men of his background and education, Childers was originally a steadfast believer in the British Empire. He was an artilleryman classed as a driver, caring for a pair of horses. The unit set off for South Africa on 2 February 1900, most of the new volunteers, after the three-week voyage it was something of a disappointment that the HAC detachment was, initially, not used. On 26 June, while escorting a train of slow ox-wagons, Childers first came under fire. However it was a smartly executed defence of an infantry regiment on 3 July that established their worth
2. Maud Gonne – Maud Gonne MacBride was an English-born Irish revolutionary, suffragette and actress. Of Anglo-Irish stock and birth, she was won over to Irish nationalism by the plight of evicted people in the Land Wars and she also actively agitated for Home Rule. After her mother died while Maud was still a child, her father sent her to a school in France to be educated. The Gonnes came from Co Mayo, but my grandfather was disinherited and sought fortune abroad trading in Spanish wine. My grandfather was head of a firm with houses in London. In 1882 her father, an officer, was posted to Dublin. She accompanied him and remained with him until his death and she returned to France after a bout of tuberculosis and fell in love with a right wing politician, Lucien Millevoye. They agreed to fight for Irish independence and to regain Alsace-Lorraine for France and she returned to Ireland and worked tirelessly for the release of Irish political prisoners from jail. In 1889, she first met William Butler Yeats, who fell in love with her, in 1890 she returned to France where she once again met Millevoye. In 1889 she had a son, Georges, with Millevoye, he died, possibly of meningitis, Gonne was distraught, and buried him in a large memorial chapel built for him with money she had inherited. Her distress remained with her, in her will she asked for Georgess baby shoes to be interred with her, in Dublin, London and Paris she was attracted to the occultist and spiritualist worlds deeply important to Yeats, asking his friends about the reality of reincarnation. In 1891 she briefly joined the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, Gonne separated from Millevoye after Georges death, but in late 1893 she arranged to meet him at the mausoleum in Samois-sur-Seine and, next to the coffin, they had sexual intercourse. Her purpose was to conceive a baby with the same father, in August 1894 Gonnes daughter Iseult was born. During the 1890s Gonne travelled extensively throughout England, Wales, Scotland, in 1899 her relationship with Millevoye ended. Gonne, in opposition to the attempts of the British to gain the loyalty of the young Irish during the early 1900s, was known to hold special receptions for children. She, along with volunteers, fought to preserve the Irish culture during the period of Britains colonization. They decided to combat in every way English influence doing so much injury to the artistic taste, in 1897, along with Yeats and Arthur Griffith, she organised protests against Queen Victorias Diamond Jubilee. In April 1902, she took a role in Yeatss play Cathleen Ní Houlihan
3. Constance Markievicz – Constance Georgine Markievicz, known as Countess Markievicz was an Irish Sinn Féin and Fianna Fáil politician, revolutionary nationalist, suffragette and socialist. In December 1918, she was the first woman elected to the British House of Commons, though she did not take her seat and, along with the other Sinn Féin TDs and she was also the second woman to hold a cabinet position in the world. During the famine of 1879–80, Sir Henry provided free food for the tenants on his estate at Lissadell House in the north of County Sligo in the north-west of Ireland. Their fathers example inspired in Gore-Booth and her sister, Eva Gore-Booth, a deep concern for working people. The sisters were friends of the poet W. B. Yeats, who visited the family home Lissadell House, and were influenced by his artistic. Yeats wrote a poem, In Memory of Eva Gore-Booth and Con Markiewicz, Eva later became involved in the labour movement and womens suffrage in England, although initially Constance did not share her sisters ideals. Gore-Booth decided to train as a painter, but, at the time, in 1892, she went to study at the Slade School of Art in London. It was at time that Gore-Booth first became politically active. Later she moved to Paris and enrolled at the prestigious Académie Julian where she met her husband, Casimir Markievicz. Markievicz was known in Paris as Count Markievicz, however, the Department of Genealogy in Saint Petersburg said that he was entitled to claim to be a member of the nobility. Markievicz was married, though separated, at the time that they met and she was afterwards known as Countess Markievicz. She gave birth to their daughter, Maeve, at Lissadell in November 1901, the child was raised by her Gore-Booth grandparents and eventually became estranged from her mother. She undertook the role of mother to Stanislas, Casimirs son from his first marriage, the Markieviczes settled in Dublin in 1903 and moved in artistic and literary circles, with Constance gaining a reputation as a landscape painter. This group included the figures of the Gaelic League founded by the future first President of Ireland. Although formally apolitical and concerned with the preservation of the Irish language and culture, at Pursers house, Markievicz met revolutionary patriots Michael Davitt, John OLeary and Maud Gonne. In 1906, Markievicz rented a cottage in the countryside near Dublin, the previous tenant, the poet Padraic Colum, had left behind copies of The Peasant and Sinn Féin. These revolutionary journals promoted independence from British rule, Markievicz read these publications and was propelled into action
4. Richard Barrett (Irish republican) – Richard Barrett was born 17 December 1889 in Knockacullen, Ballineen, County Cork, son of Richard Barrett, farmer, and Ellen Barrett. Educated at Knocks and Knockskagh national schools, he entered the De La Salle College, Waterford, obtaining a first-class diploma, he first taught at Ballinamult, County Tipperary but he returned to Cork in early 1914 to take up a position at the Upton industrial school. Within months he was appointed principal of Gurrane National School, devoted to the Irish language and honorary secretary of Knockavilla GAA club, he did much to popularise both movements in the southern and western districts of Cork. A description of the Convention by Richard Walsh, The Volunteer Convention was held in a building in Croke Park, known as the Pavilion, the large number of delegates seated themse1ves where convenient on portions of an open stand and around on the hay. Planks and forms were used for seats. At the end of the building where the hay was a group of men assembled, the Chairman of the Convention was Eamon de Valera. OReilly and some of the McQuills of Dundalk, Brian OHiggins, Laurence OToole, all the prominent men in the republican physical force movement of that time were present. He was an active IRA brigade staff officer and occasionally acted as commandant of the West Cork III Brigade during the War of Independence. Dick also managed to fund raising activities for the purchasing of weapons. In July 1920, following the arrest of the Cork III Brigade Officer in Command Tom Hales and Quartermaster Pat Harte and he was arrested on 22 March 1921 and imprisoned in Cork jail, later being sent to Spike Island, County Cork. As one of the officers held in Spike Island, Dick was involved in many of the incidents that occurred during his time there. In November, he escaped by row boat alongside Moss Twomey, Henry OMahoney, Tom Crofts, Bill Quirke, following the Irish War of Independence, Barrett supported the Anti-Treaty IRAs refusal of authority to the Dail. He was opposed to the Anglo-Irish Treaty, calling for the elimination of English influence in Ireland and they wanted to provoke British troops, who were still in the country, into attacking them. They hoped this would restart the war with Britain and re-unite the IRA against their common enemy, Michael Collins tried desperately to persuade OConnor and his men to leave the building before fighting broke out. In June 1922, after the Four Courts garrison had kidnapped J. J, oConnell, a general in the new Free State Army, Collins shelled the Four Courts with borrowed British artillery in what became known as the Battle of Dublin. OConnor surrendered following two days of fighting, and Barrett with 200 or so anti treaty IRA members, was arrested and this incident sparked the Irish Civil War – as fighting broke out around the country between pro and anti treaty factions. After the assassination of Michael Collins a horrific era of revenge killings ensued. The Government implemented martial law and enacted the legislation to set up military courts
5. Tom Barry (soldier) – Thomas Barry was a prominent guerrilla leader in the Irish Republican Army during the Irish War of Independence, when he was commander of the 3rd West Cork Flying Column. Christened Thomas Bernardine, Barry was born in Killorglin, County Kerry and he was the son of a Royal Irish Constabulary policeman. Four years later, Thomas Barry Senior resigned and opened a business in his hometown of Rosscarbery, Barry was educated for a period at Mungret College, County Limerick from 25 August 1911 to 12 September 1912. The reason for his stay is indicated by a reference from the school register of the Apostolic School, Mungret College. In 1915, during Irelands involvement in World War I, he enlisted in the Royal Field Artillery at Cork, Barry enlisted in the Royal Field Artillery on 30 June 1915 and was sent to the military depot at Athlone for basic training. After six months he was posted to the Mesopotamian front on 21 January 1916 and he fought from January 1916 in Mesopotamia. On 1 March he was raised to the rank of corporal, in April while his brigade was attempting to break the Turkish Siege of Kut where the British after heavy losses were forced to surrender, Barry first heard of the Easter Rising. Presumably in reaction to the British response to the Rising, Barry dropped his rank in protest on 26 May and reverted to his rank of gunner. From January 1917 until March 1918 he saw further action south of Kut, where his unit suffered heavy casualties, in May 1918 his division was moved to the Egyptian front for the campaign in Palestine. Barry however remained in Egypt from June 1918 until February 1919, Barry had some minor disciplinary issues in the Army, being punished on a number of occasions for being late for parade and disrespectful to NCOs. Nevertheless, when officially discharged from the army on 7 April 1919 Barry was described as a sober, good, initially Barry seemed proud of his wartime British Army service and hoisted a Union flag at Bandon on the first anniversary of the wars end in November 1919. For this reason he was distrusted by some republicans, particularly Tom Hales. Barry was initially highly valued by the IRA for his military experience, at this time the IRAs guerrilla tactics were taking shape and small groups of dedicated guerrillas were being organised and trained. He also tried, with Charlie Hurley, to assassinate a number of local police, Barry was hospitalised for a time after the Kilmichael action and martial law was proclaimed in County Cork and across much of the province of Munster in response. However, in December the column regrouped, attacking a number of police and military barracks, the column, which was around 30–40 strong, dispersed shortly afterwards into smaller units and in this time lost 11 men killed. Three men died at the Upton Train Ambush and seven more were arrested, at least ten British soldiers were killed in the action along with three IRA Volunteers including Brigade commander Charlie Hurley. In total, the British Army stationed over 12,500 troops in County Cork during the conflict, eventually, Barrys tactics made West Cork ungovernable for the British authorities except by military means. While they did avoid being encircled they were able to mount only one major attack
6. Cathal Brugha – Brugha was born in Dublin of mixed Roman Catholic and Protestant parentage. His father, Thomas, was a maker and antique dealer who had been disinherited by his family for marrying a Catholic. He was the tenth of fourteen children and was educated at the Jesuit Belvedere College but was forced to leave at the age of sixteen because of the failure of his fathers business. He went on to set up a church candle manufacturing firm with two brothers, Anthony and Vincent Lalor, and took on the role of travelling salesman, in 1899 Brugha joined the Gaelic League, and he subsequently changed his name from Charles Burgess to Cathal Brugha. He met his wife, Kathleen Kingston, at an Irish class in Birr, County Offaly. They had six children, five girls and one boy, Brugha became actively involved in the Irish Republican Brotherhood and in 1913 he became a lieutenant in the Irish Volunteers. He led a group of twenty Volunteers to receive the arms smuggled into Ireland in the Howth gun-running of 1914 and he was second-in-command at the South Dublin Union under Commandant Éamonn Ceannt in the Easter Rising of 1916. On the Thursday of Easter Week, being wounded, he was unable to leave when the retreat was ordered. Brugha, weak from loss of blood, continued to fire upon the enemy and was found by Eamonn Ceannt singing God Save Ireland with his still in his hands. He was initially not considered likely to survive and he recovered over the next year, but was left with a permanent limp. Brugha was elected speaker of Dáil Éireann at its first meeting on 21 January 1919, and he read out the Declaration of Independence in Irish, on the following day,22 January, he was appointed president of the ministry pro tempore. He retained this position until 1 April 1919, when de Valera took his place and he proposed a Republican constitution at the 1917 Sinn Féin convention which was unanimously accepted. In October 1917 he became Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army and he was elected as a Sinn Féin MP for the County Waterford constituency at the 1918 general election. In January 1919, Sinn Féin MPs refused to recognise the Parliament of the United Kingdom, due to the absence of Éamon de Valera and Arthur Griffith, Brugha presided over the first meeting of Dáil Éireann on 21 January 1919. Brugha opposed the oath of allegiance required for membership of the IRB and, in 1919, his proposition that all Volunteers should swear allegiance to the Irish Republic, Brugha also had the idea of moving the front line of the war to England but was opposed by Collins. On 7 January 1922, Brugha voted against the Anglo-Irish Treaty and it has been argued that, by turning the issue into a vote on Collins popularity, Brugha swung the majority against his own side. Frank OConnor, in his biography of Collins, states that two delegates who had intended to vote against the Treaty changed sides in sympathy with Collins and he left the Dáil and was replaced as Minister for Defence by Richard Mulcahy. When the IRA occupied the Four Courts, he and Oscar Traynor called on them to abandon their position
7. Grace Gifford – Her parents were Frederick Gifford, a solicitor and a Roman Catholic, and Isabella Julia Burton Gifford, a Protestant. They were married in St Georges, a Church of Ireland church on the side of the city. Grace was the second youngest in a family of 12 children, at the age of 16, Gifford went to the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art, where she studied under the Irish artist William Orpen. Orpen regarded Grace as one of his most talented pupils and he often sketched Grace and eventually painted her as one of his subjects for a series on Young Ireland. At around this time, Graces talent for caricature was discovered and developed, in 1907 she attended the course in Fine Art at the Slade School of Art, London. She considered emigrating but gave up the idea, despite earning so little money, she enjoyed a lively social life, her friends included Nora Dryhurst, a journalist who worked in London, and George William Russell. During the same year, Mrs Dryhurst brought Grace to the opening of the new bilingual school Scoil Éanna in Ranelagh and it was here that she met Joseph Plunkett for the first time. He was a friend of her brother-in-law, another of the leaders of the 1916 Easter Rising, Thomas MacDonagh. Plunkett proposed to her in 1915, Grace accepted and took instruction in Catholic doctrine. She was received into the Catholic Church in April 1916, the couple planned to marry on Easter Sunday that year, in a double wedding with his sister and her fiancé. Her parents were not in favour of her marrying Plunkett, due to the state of his health – he was extremely ill at this time. After the Rising, her brother-in-law Thomas MacDonagh was shot with PH Pearse and that day, Grace heard that Joseph was to be shot at dawn. She bought a ring in a shop in Dublin city centre and, with the help of a priest. She and Joseph were married on the night of 3 May in the chapel of Kilmainham Gaol, Grace Plunkett decided to devote herself through her art to the promotion of Sinn Féin policies and resumed her commercial work to earn a living. She was elected to the Sinn Féin executive in 1917 and her sister Muriel, widow of executed 1916 leader Thomas MacDonagh, died of heart failure while swimming in 1917. Grace shared the care of Muriels two children, Donagh MacDonagh and Barbara with their eldest sister, Katherine, until 1919 and she was a loving aunt to both throughout her life. During the Civil War, Grace Plunkett was arrested many others in February 1923. She painted pictures on the walls of her cell, including one of the Blessed Virgin and she was released in May 1923
8. Frank Aiken – Frank Aiken was an Irish politician and a Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army. Originally a member of Sinn Féin, he was later a member of Fianna Fáil. Aiken was first elected to Dáil Éireann in 1923 and at each subsequent election until 1973, Aiken served as Minister for Defence, Minister for the Co-ordination of Defensive Measures, Minister for Finance and Minister for External Affairs. He also served as Minister for Lands and Fisheries, Aiken served as Tánaiste of Ireland from 1965 until 1969. He holds the distinction of being the second longest-serving member of Dáil Éireann, James built Catholic churches in South Armagh. Aiken was a nationalist, a member of the IRB and a county councillor, James was Chairman of the Local Board of the Poor Guardians. In 1900, on her visit to Ireland, he told Queen Victoria that he would welcome her only until Ireland has become free and he was educated in Newry by Irish Christian Brothers at Abbey Christian Brothers Grammar School and at St Colmans College, Newry. In 1914 he joined the Irish Volunteers and the Gaelic League and he became secretary of the local branch in 1917, and joining Sinn Féin, founded a Sinn Féin club or cumann at Camlough, County Armagh, while working at the Co-Operative Flax-Scutching society. Aiken was committed to Gaelic speech which he learnt at the Donegal Gaeltacht, Aiken was 6 ft tall as a teenager, and owing to this was elected Lieutenant of the local Irish Volunteers. He got his first taste of politics helping Éamon De Valera in the Clare election of July 1917, at the rowdy by-election at Bessbrook in February 1918, Aiken was elected a Captain of Volunteers, stewarding electioneering. As Comhairle Ceanntair it was job to be chief fund-raiser for the Dublin Executive, responsible for the Dáil Loan and he was quickly promoted through the ranks, rising to Commandant of Newry and then brigadier of 4th Northern. The area he controlled extended to northern County Louth, southern and western County Down, parts of Counties Tyrone and Antrim, from autumn 1919 Aiken was on the run, wanted by the British troops who burnt down his house. As a symbolic gesture of Catholic radicalism he replaced Eoin MacNeill as patron with Thomas Ashe, also setting up GAA Club, Gaelic League branch, a Cumann na mBan camogie league. Within a few years becoming Chairman of the Armagh branch of Sinn Féin, making an outward display of defiance, Aiken raised the republican Irish tricolor, the Sinn Féin flag, opposite Camlough Barracks in Armagh, designed as deliberate provocation. During the War of Independence Aiken commanded the Fourth Northern Division of the Irish Republican Army, Aiken was notable by his absence when Gen. OMalley called a commanders meeting to GHQ on the Truce of 27 July 1921. The IRA spent £6,000 per month nonetheless, throughout this period both British and Irish contingents displayed brutality due to drunkenness. For example, Aiken was forced to two of his officers for breach of discipline. Mulcahy was instructed to issue orders to all commanders to this effect, alike to De Valera, Aiken was an Anti-Treaty northern Sinn Féiner, but after many months the republicans were in a weaker position
9. Robert Barton – Robert Childers Barton was an Irish nationalist, politician and farmer who participated in the negotiations leading up to the signature of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. His father was Charles William Barton and his mother was Agnes Childers and his wife was Rachel Warren of Boston, daughter of Fiske Warren. His double first cousin and close friend was Robert Erskine Childers and he was born in County Wicklow into a wealthy Irish Protestant land-owning family, namely of Glendalough House. Educated in England at Rugby and Oxford, he became an officer in the Royal Dublin Fusiliers on the outbreak of the First World War. He was stationed in Dublin during the 1916 Easter Rising and came into contact with many of its leaders in the aftermath while on duty at Richmond Barracks. He resigned his commission in protest at the heavy-handed British government suppression of the revolt and he then joined the Republican movement Charles William Barton was born on 13 July 1836. He married Agnes Alexandra Frances Childers, daughter of Rev, canon Charles Childers, on 26 October 1876. He died on 3 October 1890 at age 54, roberts two younger brothers, Erskine and Thomas, died in the British Army during the First World War. At the 1918 general election to the British House of Commons Barton was elected as the Sinn Féin member for West Wicklow, in common with all Sinn Féin members, he boycotted the Westminster parliament and instead sat in Dáil Éireann. Arrested in February 1919 for sedition, he escaped from Mountjoy Prison on St. Patricks Day and he was recaptured in January 1920 and sentenced to three years imprisonment, but was released under the general amnesty of July 1921. In May of that year, prior to his release, he was elected as a Sinn Féin member for Kildare–Wicklow in the 1921 Irish election to the House of Commons of Southern Ireland. Once again all Sinn Féin members boycotted this parliament, hence Barton sat instead in the Second Dáil of Dáil Éireann and he was appointed Minister for Agriculture of the Irish Republic, then of Economic Affairs. Barton was one of the Irish delegates, along with his cousin and he reluctantly signed the Treaty on 6 December 1921, defending it as the lesser of two outrages forced upon me and between which I had to choose. He nevertheless was firmly committed to the Irish Republic and despite signing the Treaty rejected it and he won re-election to Dáil Éireann in June 1922 as the only signatory of the Anglo-Irish Treaty to stand for the Sinn Féin party, but did not take his seat. After being defeated at the 1923 general election, he retired from politics for the law and he was chairman of the Agricultural Credit Corporation from 1934–1954. Barton died at home in County Wicklow on 10 August 1975, at the age of 94, Éamon de Valera, who was also heavily involved with the Treaty, died only nineteen days later, on 29 August 1975. In 1969, RTÉ Television interviewed Barton, alongside Ernest Blythe, Glendalough House, run by Barton for over 70 years right up until his death, is still considered one of Irelands most notable properties, alongside nearby Powerscourt Estate. The house was the center of political meetings and gatherings from 1910 to 1922
10. Thomas Hunter (Irish politician) – Thomas Cornelius Hunter was a militant Irish republican. While not widely known today, he was present at or directly involved in major incidents during the struggle for Irish independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Hunter was born in 1883 in the village of Castletownroche, County Cork in Ireland, son of Con Hunter, a baker, in 1907, he moved to Dublin to begin his apprenticeship as a draper. He soon joined Conradh na Gaeilge and came under the influence of Thomas Clarke and he was a close friend to Con Colbert and William T. Cosgrave. It did not take long for him to find his way into the IRB, by 1910, he was a member of the Henry Joy McCracken Circle, which was based out of 41 Parnell Square on Dublins northside. This Circle, or cell, was attached to the Munitions Section, between 1911 and 1912, Hunter became the Centre of the Circle. As a Centre, one of his duties was to visit other Circles and he did this frequently with Con Colbert, who was Centre for another Circle. Hunter would remain Centre of this Circle right up to the 1916 Easter Rising, at the creation of the Irish Volunteers in November 1913, Hunter was immediately made Vice-Commandant of the 2nd Battalion Dublin Brigade, under Thomas MacDonagh. The good soldier, he would serve as either Commandant, Vice-Commandant or Captain as the situation required, while this was an endless source of confusion for the rank-and-file Volunteers, they all knew that they only needed to find Hunter and he would lead them on. He was well-liked and respected by the men under his command, such was the confusion that Peter Paul Galligan, a member of Hunters IRB Circle and a soldier in the 2nd Battalion, was unsure if Hunter was Commandant or not. The 2nd Battalion was ordered to march, on 26 July 1914, to Howth to assist in the delivery of 900 rifles and ammunition being landed by Robert Erskine Childers aboard his yacht, Asgard. This was in line with his experience as an IRB Centre with years of experience in procuring and distributing arms. On 1 August 1914, Hunter, now teamed up with his long-time partner Peadar Clancy, took part in the Kilcoole gun-running, in which 600 rifles, the Redmondite Split of the Volunteers, in September 1914, thrust Hunter even further into the realm of the IRB elite. With the departure of Bulmer Hobson from the IRB Supreme Council, for reasons unknown, he attended only one meeting and resigned his seat to Sean Tobin. It is also at this time that MacDonagh moved to the Dublin Brigade Command, the split saw around 75% of the members of the Volunteers follow John Redmond and the Irish Parliamentary Party into the ranks of the British military and The Great War. Those that remained were committed and had confidence in their leaders. This attitude was summed up by Professor Liam Ó Briain, At last we had a body with a real purpose. Late in 1915, the Military Council of the IRB set the date of The Rising as Easter Sunday and this information was not made available to anyone other than the members of that sub-committee, and especially not the IRB Supreme Council leader, Eoin MacNeill