Category:People of the Ottoman Empire of Abkhazian descent
Pages in category "People of the Ottoman Empire of Abkhazian descent"
The following 42 pages are in this category, out of 42 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 42 pages are in this category, out of 42 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Ali Bey al-Kabir – Ali Bey al-Kabir was a Mamluk leader of Egypt from 1768 to 1769,1772, or 1773. Originally a Mamluk soldier, he rose to prominence in 1768 when he rebelled against his Ottoman rulers and his rule ended following the insubordination of his most trusted general, Abu al-Dahab, which led to Ali Beys exile then death outside the walls of Cairo. Ali Bey was born in Abkhazia he had Abkhazian origins, the son of an Orthodox priest. He was kidnapped and brought to Cairo in 1743 where he was sold into slavery and he was recruited into the Mamluk force in which he gradually rose in ranks and influence, winning the top office of Shaykh al-Balad in 1760. During his time in power, he successfully expanded Egypts trade with Britain and he also hired European advisers to the military and bought European weapons. He did not make use of native Egyptians or call in foreigners for technical advice and he made no effort to build a modern army. In 1768 Ali Bey deposed the Ottoman governor Rakım Mehmed Pasha, in 1770 he gained control of the Hijaz and a year later temporarily occupied Syria, thereby reconstituting the Mamluk state that had disappeared in 1517. As a result, Ali Bey lost power in 1772, the following year, he was killed in Cairo. However, the date of 1772 is highly disputed, other sources, first-person source Al-Jabarti declares that Ali Bey gave up power in 1769 when a new governor from the Ottoman capital of Istanbul was assigned by the sultan. List of Ottoman governors of Egypt Sauveur Lusignan, A history of the Revolution of Ali Bey against the Ottoman Porte
2. Hayreddin Pasha – Hayreddin Pasha was a Tunisian-Ottoman politician who was born to a Circassian family. First serving as Beylerbeyi of Ottoman Tunisia, he achieved the high post of Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. He was an Ottoman Tunisian political reformer during a period of growing European ascendancy, of Abkhaz origin, Hayreddin was born in Abkhazia into a family of warrior notables. His father Hassan Leffch, a chieftain, died fighting against a Russian attack on the city of Sukhum. Thereafter as a young orphan Hayreddin was sold into slavery, then still a familiar event for Circassian youth. At Istanbul, however, he was traded into a prestigious household, that of the notable Tahsin Bey, a Cypriot Ottoman who was the naqib al-ashraf and qadi al-askar of Anatolia. Tahsin Bey moved the boy to his palace at Kanlıca near the Bosporus. Khayr al-Din received an education which included the Islamic curriculum, also the Turkish language. Following the sons tragic premature death Khayr al-Din was again sold and this new uprooting would obviously provoke emotional turmoil in Khayr al-Din, then about 17 years old. Soon he was on board a ship bound for Africa, circa 1840 Hayreddin became situated at the Bardo Palace, in the court of Ahmad Bey, as a mamluk bi-l-saraya. He resumed his studies, mainly at the Bardo Military Academy a nearby institution newly established by the bey. A key part of his education now was learning to converse in Arabic, at the Husaynid court his abilities were soon recognized, and he was favored with the attention and trust of Ahmad Bey. He rose quickly in the cavalry, the nucleus of the beys new army. His political career began auspiciously under this famously modernizing ruler. In 1846 he accompanied the bey, as part of staff which included the influential advisor Bin Diyaf. The trip expanded the cultural space deemed acceptable for Muslim rulers, the French took care to show France to advantage, the small Tunisian party was well received by top government officials and leading private citizens. Having traveled beyond the land of Islam, Ahmad Bey was blessed upon his return to Tunis by the grand mufti, in 1853 Hayreddin was elevated to the highest military grade, commander of the cavalry, he also then became an aide-de-camp of the bey. Because of the financial situation caused in part by the embezzlement of bin Ayyad
3. Mehmed VI – Mehmed VI, who is also known as Şahbaba among his relatives, was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918 to 1922. The brother of Mehmed V, he succeeded to the throne as the eldest male member of the House of Osman after the 1916 suicide of Abdülazizs son Yusuf Izzettin Efendi and he was girded with the Sword of Osman on 4 July 1918, as the thirty-sixth padishah. His father was Sultan Abdülmecid I and mother was Gülüstü Hanım, Mehmed was removed from the throne when the Ottoman sultanate was abolished in 1922. He was born in the Dolmabahçe Palace, in Istanbul, the First World War was a disaster for the Ottoman Empire. British and allied forces had conquered Baghdad, Damascus, and Jerusalem during the war, at the San Remo conference of April 1920, the French were granted a mandate over Syria and the British were granted one over Palestine and Mesopotamia. On 10 August 1920, Mehmeds representatives signed the Treaty of Sèvres, Turkish nationalists rejected the settlement by the Sultans four signatories. A new government, the Turkish Grand National Assembly, under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal was formed on 23 April 1920, in Ankara. The new government denounced the rule of Mehmed VI and the command of Süleyman Şefik Pasha who was in charge of the Kuvâ-i İnzibâtiyye, the Turkish Grand National Assembly abolished the Sultanate on 1 November 1922, and Mehmed was expelled from Istanbul. Leaving aboard the British warship Malaya on 17 November, he went into exile in Malta, Mehmed died on 16 May 1926 in Sanremo, Italy, and was buried at the Tekkiye Mosque of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in Damascus. Circassian HIH Princess Inşirah Hanım, married at Istanbul, Üsküdar, Çengelköy, Çengelköy Palace on 8 July 1905 and divorced on 7 November 1909, daughter of Zekeriya Aziz Bey Voçibe, without issue. Abkhazian HIM Empress Nevvare Hanım, married at Istanbul, Dolmabahçe Palace on 20 June 1918, daughter of Mustafa Bey Çıhcı by his wife Hafize Hanım Kap, without issue. Albanian HIM Empress Nevzad Hanım, married at Istanbul, Yıldız Palace on 1 September 1921, daughter of Şaban Efendi Bargu by his wife Hatice Hanım, without issue
4. Mustafa I – He was born in the Manisa Palace, as the younger brother of Ahmed I. His mother was Halime Sultan, an Abkhazian lady, before 1603 it was customary for an Ottoman Sultan to have his brothers executed shortly after he gained the throne. But when the thirteen-year-old Ahmed I was enthroned in 1603, he spared the life of the twelve-year-old Mustafa, Mustafa might have been left alive because Ahmed had not yet produced any sons, so at the time Mustafa was his only heir. Though Ahmed went on to several sons, he did not execute Mustafa. Another factor in Mustafas survival is the influence of Kösem Sultan, however, the reports of foreign ambassadors suggest that Ahmed actually liked his brother. If Osman became Sultan, he would try to execute his half-brothers. This scenario later became a reality when Osman II executed his brother Mehmed in 1621, until Ahmeds death in 1617, Mustafa lived in the Old palace, along with his mother, and grandmother Safiye Sultan. Ahmeds death created a dilemma never before experienced by the Ottoman Empire, multiple princes were now eligible for the Sultanate, and all of them lived in Topkapı Palace. A court faction headed by the Şeyhülislam Esad Efendi and Sofu Mehmed Pasha decided to enthrone Mustafa instead of Ahmeds son Osman, Sofu Mehmed argued that Osman was too young to be enthroned without causing adverse comment among the populace. The Chief Black Eunuch Mustafa Agha objected, citing Mustafas mental problems, Mustafas rise created a new succession principle of seniority that would last until the end of the Empire. It was the first time an Ottoman Sultan was succeeded by his brother instead of his son and it was hoped that regular social contact would improve Mustafas mental health, but his behavior remained eccentric. He pulled off the turbans of his viziers and yanked their beards, others observed him throwing coins to birds and fish. The Ottoman historian İbrahim Peçevi wrote this situation was seen by all men of state and the people, Mustafa was never more than a tool of court cliques at the Topkapı Palace. In 1618, after a rule, another palace faction deposed him in favour of his young nephew Osman II. The conflict between the Janissaries and Osman II presented him with a second chance, after a Janissary rebellion led to the deposition and assassination of Osman II in 1622, Mustafa was restored to the throne and held it for another year. Nevertheless, according to Baki Tezcan, there is not enough evidence to establish that Mustafa was mentally imbalanced when he came to the throne. Mustafa made a number of excursions to the arsenal and the docks, examining various sorts of arms and taking an active interest in the munitions supply of the army. After Ahmeds death, he completed the outer court of the Blue mosque, the mausoleum
5. Sultanzade Sabahaddin – Prince Sabahaddin de Neuchâtel was an Ottoman sociologist and thinker. Although part of the ruling Ottoman dynasty himself, through his mother, Prince Sabahaddin was known as a Young Turk, as a follower of Émile Durkheim, Prens Sabahaddin is considered to be one of the founders of sociology in Turkey. He established the Private Enterprise and Decentralization Association in 1902, Prens Sabahaddin was born in Istanbul in 1879. His mother was Seniha Sultan, daughter of Ottoman sultan Abdülmecid I and his father was Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha, the son of Grand Admiral Damat Gürcü Halil Rifat Pasha. Sabahaddin fled in late 1899 with his brother and father, who had fallen out with Abdul Hamid II, first to Great Britain, then to Geneva, after a warning by the Federal Council in Geneva in 1900, they left the city for Paris and London. In the first phase of his career in opposition, he sought unity between Christians and Muslims, and met with leaders from the respective groups. He received support in the cause of the Young Turks, during this time, he met Edmond Demolins and became a follower of the school of social sciences. Sabahaddin advocated liberal economic policies in his Private Enterprise and Decentralization Association and this division plagued the Young Turk movement before 1908 and would provide the central dispute in the more institutionalized political discourse of the Second constitutional era. After the Young Turk Revolution in 1908 and the seizure of power by the Committee of Union and Progress and his Liberal Party, standing in opposition to the Committee of Union and Progress, was banned twice, in 1909 and 1913, and he had to flee again. During the first World War I, he spent as head of the opposition in exile in western Switzerland, in 1919, Sabahaddin returned to Istanbul in the hope of realising his political vision, but was ultimately banned in 1924 by the victorious Turkish National Movement under Mustafa Kemal. His project of a democratic Turkey contained means of decentralization and private initiative, elements of the theories of Frederic Le Play. Following his death in 1948, his body was kept in a coffin for four years in Switzerland. In 1952, Prince Sabahaddins remains were transferred to Istanbul and buried in the mausoleum of his father and grandfather, from his first marriage, to Tabinak Kadin Efendi, Prince Sabahaddin had a daughter, Fethiye Sabahaddin Kendi who died unmarried and without issue. His second wife was Princess Kâmûran, the sister of his first wife. Sabahaddin, his brother, and his father were supporters of Mutazilism, the Mutazili, within the Islamic Kalam theology of a rationalist-oriented school in the 8th to 9th century, was the most influential of the schools of thought in the theology. Sabahaddin brought Bennett into the world of spirituality by encouraging him to read Les Grands Initiés by Édouard Schuré and he had also introduced Bennett to an English woman living in Turkey, Winifred Polly Beaumont, whom Bennett later married. Among others to whom Sabahaddin had introduced Bennett, the most influential was G. I, gurdjieff – a man Bennett regarded as his mentor and master for the rest of his life