Category:People of the War against Sigismund
Pages in category "People of the War against Sigismund"
The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Anna Vasa of Sweden – Anna Vasa of Sweden was a Polish and Swedish princess, starosta of Brodnica and Golub. She was the youngest child of King John III of Sweden and she was close to her brother Sigismund Vasa, King of Poland and King of Sweden. Raised a Catholic, Anna converted to Lutheranism in 1584 which made her ineligible bride for many of Europes Catholic royals, Anna was the youngest child of Duke John of Finland and Catherine Jagiellon, sister of King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland. She was born in Eskilstuna just after her family was released from captivity at Gripsholm Castle and her father ascended in 1569 to the throne of Sweden as John III. Like her brother Sigismund, Anna was raised a Catholic by her mother, when her Catholic aunt Princess Cecilia of Sweden suggested a Catholic royal match for her in 1585, John III replied that Anna had converted to Lutheranism the year before. The queen sent the Jesuit away, but it made Anna feel distaste for the falseness of Roman Catholicism. After the death of her mother, her maternal aunt Queen Anna Jagiellon suggested that she be sent to Poland to be raised there and she had her own court, supervised by her mothers former Mistress of the Robes, Karin Gyllenstierna. In 1587, her brother Sigismund was elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania as Sigismund III, Anna left with Sigismund for Poland 12 September 1587 and was present at his coronation. During her stay at the Polish court, she attracted attention by celebrating Lutheran masses with her court. In 1589, Anna accompanied Sigismund to the meeting with their father in Reval and she was present during the stormy sessions of Riksråd where King John insisted that Sigismund abdicated the Polish throne and came back to Sweden. Swedish councilors protested the idea and furious John promised to persecute them, erik Sparre asked Anna to intercede as mediator and calm her father. While Sigismund returned to Poland, Anna followed her back to Sweden. In 1592, Anna returned to Poland to attend the wedding between her brother and Anna of Austria, the Archbishop was so provoked by her Lutheran services that he threatened both Anna and Sigismund with excommunication. Her sister-in-law Anna of Austria, however, prevented any persecution, in July 1593, she carried her new niece Anna Maria at her baptismal. Cardinal Andrew Báthory proposed a marriage for her with the Prince of Transylvania, however, Anna engaged herself to marry her fathers first cousin Count Gustav Brahe, son of Per Brahe the Elder and a future general in Poland. He was raised at the court and she fell in love with him as a child. The couple would meet at the house of Brahes sister Ebba, the meetings were considered scandalous and it was said that Brahe had plans for the throne through marriage with Anna. In 1589, Brahe came to Poland and her brother Sigismund was not averse to the idea of the marriage, although it was not the most desirable marriage proposed, Anna declined all other suitors
2. Charles IX of Sweden – Charles IX, also Carl, was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. He was the youngest son of King Gustav I and his wife, Margaret Leijonhufvud, brother of Eric XIV and John III. The Swedish kings Eric XIV and Charles IX took their numbers according to a fictitious History of Sweden and he was actually the third Swedish king called Charles. He came into the throne by championing the Protestant cause during the tense times of religious strife between competing sects of Christianity. In just over a decade, these would break out as the Thirty Years War and these conflicts had already caused the dynastic squabble rooted in religious freedom that deposed his nephew and brought him to rule as king of Sweden. His reign marked the start of the chapter of both the Reformation and Counter-reformation. With his brothers death in November 1592, the throne of Sweden went to his nephew and Habsburg ally, Sigismund of Poland, during these tense political times, Charles viewed the inheritance of the throne of Protestant Sweden by his devout Roman Catholic nephew with alarm. Thus, several years of controversy and discord followed. During the period, he and the Swedish privy council ruled in Sigismunds name while he stayed in Poland, after various preliminaries, the Riksens ständer forced Sigismund to abdicate the throne to Charles IX in 1595. In fact, it worsened European politics to the abandonment or prevention of settling events by diplomacy, in 1568 he was the real leader of the rebellion against Eric XIV. However, he took no part in the designs of his brother John III against the king after his deposition. Charless relations with John were always more or less strained and he had no sympathy with Johns High-Church tendencies on the one hand, and he sturdily resisted all the kings endeavours to restrict his authority as Duke of Södermanland on the other. The nobility and the majority of the Riksdag of the Estates supported John, however, in his endeavours to unify the realm, and Charles had consequently to resign his pretensions to autonomy within his duchy. But, steadfast Calvinist as he was, on the question he was immovable. The matter came to a crisis on the death of John III in 1592, the heir to the throne was Johns eldest son, Sigismund III Vasa, already king of Poland and a devoted Catholic. Under the agreement, Charles and the Swedish Privy Council shared power, in the ensuing years 1593—1595, Charless task was extraordinarily difficult. Finally, the Riksdag at Linköping,24 February 1604 declared that Sigismund abdicated the Swedish throne and he was declared king as Karl IX. Charless short reign was one of uninterrupted warfare, in all these struggles, he was more or less unsuccessful, owing partly to the fact that he and his forces had to oppose superior generals and partly to sheer ill-luck
3. Sigismund III Vasa – He was the son of King John III of Sweden and his first wife, Catherine Jagellonica of Poland. Elected to the throne of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sigismund sought to create a union between the Commonwealth and Sweden, and succeeded for a time in 1592. After he had deposed in 1599 from the Swedish throne by his uncle, Charles IX of Sweden. Shortly after his victory over his enemies, Sigismund took advantage of a period of civil unrest in Muscovy and invaded Russia. In 1617 the Polish–Swedish conflict, which had been interrupted by an armistice in 1611, while Sigismunds army was also fighting Ottoman forces in Moldavia, King Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden invaded Sigismunds lands, capturing Riga and seizing almost all of Polish Livonia. Sigismund, who concluded the Truce of Altmark with Sweden in 1629 and his Swedish wars resulted, moreover, in Polands loss of Livonia and in a diminution of the kingdoms international prestige. Sigismund remains a controversial figure in Poland. His long reign coincided with the apex of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealths prestige, power, on the other hand, it was during his reign that the symptoms of decline leading to the Commonwealths eventual demise surfaced. However, the question of whether the Commonwealths decline was caused by Sigismunds decisions or had its roots in historical processes beyond his personal control and he was commemorated in Warsaw with Sigismunds Column, commissioned by his son and successor, Władysław IV. Sigismund was born on 20 June 1566 to Catherine Jagiellon and the Grand Duke John of Finland at Gripsholm and his parents, at the time, were being held prisoner by King Eric XIV, but despite the Protestant domination of Sweden young Sigismund was raised as a Roman Catholic. In 1567 Sigismund and his parents where released from prison, and in 1568 Erik XIV was deposed, from 1568 Sigismund was the crown prince of Sweden. His mother was the daughter of Polish king Sigismund I the Old, in 1587 Sigismund stood for election to the Polish throne after the death of his uncle, King Stephen Bathory. He was supported by his aunt Queen Anna, Hetman Jan Zamoyski and it seemed that the issue of who would be King of Poland had been settled when Maximilian III invaded Poland to claim the crown. Hetman Jan Zamoyski defeated Maximilian at the Battle of Byczyna and took him prisoner, however, at the request of Pope Sixtus V, King Sigismund III released Maximilian, who surrendered his claim to Poland in 1589. King Sigismund also tried to maintain peace with his neighbor by marrying Archduchess Anne Habsburg in 1592. It was always his intention to maintain an alliance with Catholic Austria against the Protestant forces, when his father died King Sigismund III asked the Sejm to be allowed to claim his inheritance as the rightful King of Sweden. When he promised to respect Lutheranism as the religion of Sweden. Sigismund was crowned King of Sweden in 1594 and he appointed his uncle, Duke Charles, to rule as regent on his behalf in Sweden while he remained in Poland, since Sweden and the Commonwealth were only in a personal union, not united in one state
4. Klaus Fleming – Baron Clas Eriksson Fleming was a Finnish-born member of the Swedish nobility and admiral, who played an important role in Finnish and Swedish history during the rise of Sweden as a Great Power. He was a trustee of Swedish kings John III and Sigismund Vasa, in 1569 Fleming became a member of the Privy Council, in 1571 he was made Lord High Admiral and in 1590 Lord High Constable. As the Governor of Finland and Estonia he carried the duties of the highest authority of Finland and Estonia for the Swedish realm, flemings father – a grandson of Björn Ragvaldsson – was the Councilor of State Erik Fleming, also a remarkable man and King Gustav Vasas favourite. Flemings sons were executed in the Åbo Bloodbath of 1599, when studying Swedish history of the time it is noteworthy to know there were many persons in similar position with the name Clas Fleming at the time. Clas Eriksson Flemming should not be confused with Claes Larsson Fleming, admiral and advisor to the king, or Klas Fleming, Fleming of Louhisaari Club War War against Sigismund
5. Catherine Stenbock – Catherine Stenbock was Queen of Sweden between 1552 and 1560 as the third and last wife of King Gustav I. Catherine Stenbock was the daughter of Riksråd Gustaf Olofsson Stenbock and Brita Eriksdotter Leijonhufvud and she was thus the matrenal niece of Queen Margaret and first cousin of the royal children of that marriage, including future kings John III of Sweden and Charles IX of Sweden. There is little information about her prior to her marriage and her parents were both favored by the monarch. The King declared that a new marriage was necessary foremost because he needed a Queen for his court, Catherine herself is described as a short, dark blonde beauty with blue eyes. When the King came to her parents manor Torpa to propose to her personally, as the law demanded that she give her consent, it is said that she ran away. Whether truthful or not, the King had his way, the marriage was conducted in the chapel of the Vadstena Abbey 22 August 1552, followed by the coronation of Catherine as Queen the following day. She was dressed in a golden dress during the wedding, and a silver one during her coronation, escorted, as was Queen Margaret during official ceremonies, by her male relatives. The wedding was surrounded what was seen as bad omens, the swept through parts of the nation, the city of Turku burned down. The celebrations lasted for three days, when the court departed, the city of Vadstena burned down in a great fire, which was seen as another bad omen. There is little information of Catherine Stenbock as Queen and it seems as if her relationship to her royal stepchildren was a good one, with the exception of Duke Charles. Her private relationship to the King is not much mentioned, and it has said that she, Accepted her part as Queen of Sweden with silent dignity. There are no information that she ever involved herself in any political agenda of any kind. Her stepson Johns lover Karin Hansdotter originally belonged to her court, in 1554 and in 1556, there were signs that she was pregnant, but no pregnancy was ever officially announced and none was ever confirmed. In 1555, she and the royal children accompanied the King to the province of Finland, in Stockholm 1 October 1559, she was present at the wedding between her stepdaughter Princess Catherine and Edzard II, Count of East Frisia. On their departure from Sweden, the newly weds was accompanied by the sister of the bride, on their stay in Vadstena, Cecilia and Johan were discovered by Crown Prince Eric to have a sexual affair. The great scandal were to be known as Vadstenabullret, Catherine and Edzard were placed in house arrest, Johan were imprisoned, while Eric and Cecilia where both called back to Stockholm. The King is said to have cried when he related the story to Queen Catherine, during the whole affair, Catherine Stenbock were on numerous occasions asked to act as mediator between the King and his children. In May 1560, Prince Eric asked her for a permission from his father to travel to England to propose to Elizabeth I of England, King Gustav fell sick and died during the scandal