Pages in category "Phenomenology literature"
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Being and Nothingness – Being and Nothingness, An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology, sometimes subtitled A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology, is a 1943 book by philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartres main purpose is to assert the individuals existence as prior to the individuals essence and his overriding concern in writing the book was to demonstrate that free will exists. While a prisoner of war in 1940 and 1941, Sartre read Martin Heideggers Being and Time, reading Being and Time initiated Sartres own philosophical enquiry. Born into the reality of ones body, in a material universe. Consciousness has the ability to conceptualize possibilities, and to them appear. Sartres existentialism shares its philosophical starting point with René Descartes, The first thing we can be aware of is our existence, in Nausea, the main characters feeling of dizziness towards his own existence is induced by things, not thinking. This dizziness occurs in the face of ones freedom and responsibility for giving a meaning to reality, as an important break with Descartes, Sartre rejects the primacy of knowledge, as summed up in the phrase Existence precedes essence and offers a different conception of knowledge and consciousness. Important ideas in Being and Nothingness build on Edmund Husserls phenomenology, to both philosophers, consciousness is intentional, meaning that there is only consciousness of something. For Sartre, intentionality implies that there is no form of self that is hidden inside consciousness, an ego must be a structure outside consciousness, so that there can be consciousness of the ego. Being and Nothingness is a reply to Martin Heideggers Being and Time, in which he addressed being in its own right and laid ground for Sartres thought. In the introduction, Sartre sketches his own theory of consciousness, being, based on an examination of the nature of phenomena, he describes the nature of two types of being, being-in-itself and being-for-itself. While being-in-itself is something that can only be approximated by human being, in the first chapter, Sartre develops a theory of nothingness which is central to the whole book, especially to his account for bad faith and freedom. For him, nothingness is not just a concept that sums up negative judgements such as Pierre is not here. Though it is evident that non-being always appears within the limits of a human expectation, a concrete nothingness, e. g. not being able to see, is part of a totality, the life of the blind man in this world. This totality is modified by the nothingness which is part of it, in the totality of consciousness and phenomenon, both can be considered separately, but exist only as a whole. The human attitude of inquiry, of asking questions, puts consciousness at distance from the world, every question brings up the possibility of a negative answer, of non-being, e. g. For Sartre, this is how nothingness can exist at all, non-being can neither be part of the being-in-itself nor can it be as a complement of it. Being-for-itself is the origin of negation, the relation between being-for-itself and being-in-itself is one of questioning the latter
2. Being and Time – Being and Time is a 1927 book by the German philosopher Martin Heidegger, in which Heidegger seeks to analyse the concept of Being. This has fundamental importance for philosophy, he thought, because since the time of the Ancient Greeks, philosophy has avoided this question, Heidegger seeks a more fundamental ontology through understanding being itself. He approaches this through seeking understanding of beings to whom the question of being is important, i. e. Dasein, although written quickly, and though Heidegger did not complete the project outlined in the introduction, Being and Time remains his most important work. Being and Time has profoundly influenced 20th-century philosophy, particularly existentialism, hermeneutics, deconstruction, the book is dedicated to Edmund Husserl in friendship and admiration. According to Heideggers statement in Being and Time, the work was possible by his study of Husserls Logical Investigations. Heidegger never mentions Lukács in his writing, however, and Laurence Paul Hemming, writing in Heidegger and Marx, being and Time was originally intended to consist of two major parts, each part consisting of three divisions. Heidegger was forced to prepare the book for publication when he had completed only the first two divisions of part one, the remaining divisions planned for Being and Time were never published, although in many respects they were addressed in one form or another in Heideggers other works. Heidegger describes his project in the way, our aim in the following treatise is to work out the question of the sense of being. Heidegger claims that ontology has prejudicially overlooked this question, dismissing it as overly general, undefinable. Instead Heidegger proposes to understand being itself, as distinguished from any specific entities, being is not something like a being. Being, Heidegger claims, is what determines beings as beings, Heidegger is seeking to identify the criteria or conditions by which any specific entity can show up at all. If we grasp Being, we will clarify the meaning of being, or sense of being, where by sense Heidegger means that in terms of which something becomes intelligible as something. According to Heidegger, as this sense of being precedes any notions of how or in what any particular being or beings exist, it is pre-conceptual, non-propositional. At the same time, there is no access to being other than via beings themselves—hence pursuing the question of being inevitably means asking about a being with regard to its being, the methodological sense of phenomenological description is interpretation. Thus the question Heidegger asks in the introduction to Being and Time is, Heideggers answer is that it can only be that being for whom the question of Being is important, the being for whom Being matters. As this answer already indicates, the being for whom Being is a question is not a what, Dasein is not man, but is nothing other than man—it is this distinction that enables Heidegger to claim that Being and Time is something other than philosophical anthropology. Heideggers account of Dasein passes through a dissection of the experiences of Angst and mortality, from there he raises the problem of authenticity, that is, the potentiality or otherwise for mortal Dasein to exist fully enough that it might actually understand being. Heidegger is clear throughout the book that makes certain that Dasein is capable of this understanding
3. Cartesian Meditations – Over the next two years, he and his assistant Eugen Fink expanded and elaborated on the text of these lectures. These expanded lectures were first published in a 1931 French translation by Gabrielle Peiffer, in the Fourth Meditation, Husserl argues that transcendental phenomenology is nothing other than transcendental idealism. The name Cartesian Meditations refers to René Descartes Meditations on First Philosophy, Gabrielle Peiffer and Emmanuel Levinas, trans. Meditations Cartesiennes, Introduction à la phenomenologie, Gabrielle Peiffer and Emmanuel Levinas, trans. Studia Phaenomenologica, Vol. XV /2015
4. Contributions to Philosophy – Contributions to Philosophy is a work by German philosopher Martin Heidegger. It was first translated into English by Parvis Emad and Kenneth Maly, in 2012, a new translation was done by Richard Rojcewicz and Daniela Vallega-Neu and published by Indiana University Press as Contributions to Philosophy. In Contributions to Philosophy, Heidegger builds on the notions of earth and world, which he had introduced in The Origin of the Work of Art. The result is an away from the centrality of the phenomenological analyses of Dasein. Earth can be understood as the condition of possibilities for the world, neither earth nor world can exist without the other, and are thus engaged in a constant and productive struggle or strife. In a parallel fashion, human beings counter god, and a space between these four points is opened up for the moment of enowning, which grounds the essential sway of being, the up-welling of the present comes from the future before itself. This means that the being in the now changes the being of the future, playing-Forth refers to the hermeneutical relationship between the first beginning and the other beginning, bringing to mind Being and Times destruction of the history of ontology. Leap, the posing of the question of be-ing is the leap, the leap does not know what it is leaping into or towards, but in leaping opens up the space for more originary thinking. Since da-sein is projecting-opening, the leap opens a site in which the essential swaying of be-ing may be grounded in thinking-saying, the leap may simply be an originary phenomenological reduction, the leap into a genuine shift in thinking, and a new beginning in the history of philosophy. Grounding The Ones to Come The Last God
5. Logical Investigations (Husserl) – Logical Investigations is a work of philosophy by Edmund Husserl, published in two volumes in 1900 and 1901, with a second edition in 1913 and 1921. Logical Investigations helped to create phenomenology, and has credited with making twentieth century continental philosophy possible. Martin Heidegger was among the philosophers influenced by the work, an English translation of the second edition, by philosopher J. N. Findlay, was published in 1970. Between 1890 and 1900, Husserls philosophical interests expanded from mathematics to a concern with logic, Logical Investigations was the culmination of this development. In this work, Husserl gave a new account of mathematics, one opposed to his previous views, the two-part second volume of the Logical Investigations, called Investigations in Phenomenology and Knowledge, contains six investigations. The second volume of the Logical Investigations contains examinations of signs and words, abstraction, parts and wholes, logical grammar, the notion of presentation, truth, and evidence. Husserl here expands his earlier distinction between intuitive presentation and symbolic intention from awareness of numbers to awareness of all objects of consciousness. Husserl observes that simple material objects can be intended either emptily or intuitively, perception is thus seen by Husserl as a mixture of empty and filled intentions. Intentionality is a term Husserl uses to refer to empty and filled intuitions. It names the relationship consciousness has toward things, whether they are given or meant only in their absence. According to Husserl, the identity of things is given when an object that was once intended emptily becomes the same as what is given at the present moment and these phenomena are all described as forms of identity-synthesis. Husserls first major work, Logical Investigations has been credited with making twentieth century continental philosophy possible, nevertheless, the work impressed Heidegger and convinced him to study philosophy. Especially important for Heidegger was the sixth of the Logical Investigations, Heidegger, like Theodor W. Adorno, believed that the second volume of Logical Investigations marked an apparent revival of psychologism, which puzzled him. In Being and Time, Heidegger credited Husserls Logical Investigations with making his work possible, German philosopher Emil Lask was also influenced by Logical Investigations. Jacques Derrida, who studied Husserls Logical Investigations as a student in the 1950s, offered a critique of Husserls work in Speech, sokolowksi notes that between 1900 and 1910, Husserl abandoned the Kantian distinctions made in Logical Investigations. Derridas biographer Jason Powell described the analyses of signs and meaning in Logical Investigations as rigorous and abstract, scrupulous, but also tedious. The A numbers used as standard references refer to the numbers of the first edition of the Logische Untersuchungen. Books Online articles Logische Untersuchungen, Erster Theil – original text in German at archive. org Logische Untersuchungen, Zweiter Theil – original text in German at archive. org
6. Lukacs and Heidegger: Towards a New Philosophy – Lukacs and Heidegger, Towards a New Philosophy is a book by Lucien Goldmann published after his death in 1973. Goldmann tries to bring together the Marxist concept of reification from György Lukács and he argues that the concept of Being in Heidgger, was already present in the concept of Totality in Lukács. Lukácss critique of the alienation inherent in capitalism, is present in Dasein as an ontological concept. Both Lukács and Heidegger critique the reifcation or thing-ification of the human dasein, inauthentic dasein is parallel to the failure of the historical subject to awaken to praxis. Goldmann argues that the concept of reification as employed in Being and Time showed the influence of Lukácss work History. The fundamental goal of both Heidegger and Lukács was to overcome the traditional dichotomy of Western Philosophy. Laurence Paul Hemming, writing in Heidegger and Marx, finds Goldmanns suggestion that Lukács influenced Heidegger to be highly unlikely at best
7. Phenomenology of Perception – Phenomenology of Perception is a 1945 book by French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty, in which Merleau-Ponty expounds his thesis of the primacy of perception. The work established Merleau-Ponty as the pre-eminent philosopher of the body, the relationship between Phenomenology of Perception and Merleau-Pontys late, unfinished work has received much scholarly discussion. An English translation by Colin Smith was published in 1962, another English translation, Merleau-Ponty begins by attempting to define phenomenology, which according to him has not yet received a proper definition. Following the work of Husserl, Merleau-Ponty attempts to reveal the structure of perception. He writes that while the notion of sensation. seems immediate and obvious, Merleau-Ponty asserts that because traditional analyses have accepted it, they have missed the phenomenon of perception. He writes that, The alleged self-evidence of sensation is not based on any testimony of consciousness, Merleau-Pontys central thesis is that of the primacy of perception. He critiques of the Cartesian stance of cogito ergo sum and expounds a different conception of consciousness, the body is central to Merleau-Pontys account of perception. In his view, the ability to reflect comes from a ground that serves as the foundation for reflecting on actions. The body stands between this fundamental distinction between subject and object, ambiguously existing as both, Merleau-Ponty devotes a chapter to The Body in its Sexual Being, in which he suggests that the body can symbolize existence because it brings it into being and actualizes it. Phenomenology of Perception was an influential work, madison writes that the book was immediately and widely recognized as a major statement of French existentialism, and is best known for Merleau-Pontys central thesis of the primacy of perception. A. J. Ayer criticizes what he characterizes as Merleau-Pontys arguments against the sense datum theory of perception, finding them inconclusive, Ayer compares Merleau-Pontys views on sexual relations to those of Sartre in Being and Nothingness. Helmut R. Wagner describes Phenomenology of Perception as an important contribution to phenomenology, roger Scruton, writing in Sexual Desire, describes Merleau-Pontys chapter on The Body in its Sexual Being as surprisingly unhelpful. In a 1999 interview with the critic Louis Menand in The New Yorker, excerpts can be found at Google Books, Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. The complete book is available at Archive. org
8. Speech and Phenomena – Derrida also develops key discussions of the terms deconstruction and différance. Derrida commented that Speech and Phenomena is the essay I value the most, derridas best known work on Husserls phenomenology, it is widely considered one of his most important philosophical works. This early thesis then formed the basis for his 1959 paper Genesis and Structure, Derrida also translated Husserls Origin of Geometry from German into French and published his translation of this article with a book length introduction in 1962. Derrida identifies his theme in the first chapter as the sense of the word sign for Husserl. Derrida notes that Husserl makes a distinction in the use of the word sign between expression and indication. For Husserl, Derrida argues, the expression and the indication are both signs but the latter is a sign without meaning or sense, expression intends towards an ideal meaning and is tied to the possibility of spoken language. Originally translated into English by David B, for commentary on Speech and Phenomena see Leonard Lawlors book Derrida and Husserl and Joshua Katess book Essential History
9. Totality and Infinity – Totality and Infinity, An Essay on Exteriority is a 1961 work of philosophy by Emmanuel Levinas. It is one of his works, highly influenced by phenomenology. Levinas advances the thesis that all derive from a confrontation with an other. This other, with whom we interact concretely, represents a gateway into the more abstract Otherness, the distinction between totality and infinity divides the limited world, which contains the other as a material body, from a spiritual world. Subjects gain access to spiritual world, infinity, by opening themselves to the Otherness of the other. For example, To approach the other in conversation is to welcome his expression and it is therefore to receive from the Other beyond the capacity of the I, which means exactly, to have the idea of infinity. Levinas places heavy emphasis on the physical presence involved in meeting the other and he argues that only a face-to-face encounter allows true connection with Infinity, because of the incessance of this type of interaction. Written words and other words do not suffice because they have become past by the time the subject perceives them and that is, they have fallen into the register of totality. Jacques Derrida, in Violence and Metaphysics, takes Levinas to task for this assumption, the book contains several observations on History and the judgement of history, like the judgement of history is always pronounced by default. Totality and Infinity is considered an original and significant contribution to the world of philosophy in particular. The work can be read as a response to Levinass teachers, Edmund Husserl, the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and Britannica both identify Totality and Infinity, along with Otherwise Than Being as one of Levinass most important works. Totality and Infinity, Alterity, and Relation, From Levinas to Glissant, journal of Francophone Philosophy,19,2011. Violence and Metaphysics, Violence and Metaphysics, An Essay on the Thought of Emmanuel Levinas, in Writing, levinas’ Existential Analytic, A Commentary on Totality and Infinity, Evanston, Il