Ultimate Boeing 747 gambit
The Ultimate Boeing 747 gambit is a counter-argument to modern versions of the argument from design for the existence of God. It was introduced by Richard Dawkins in chapter 4 of his 2006 book The God Delusion, according to Dawkins, this logic is self-defeating as the theist must now account for the gods existence and explain whether or how the god was created. Richard Dawkins begins The God Delusion by making it clear that the God he talks about is the Abrahamic concept of a god who is susceptible to worship. Therefore, Dawkins concludes, the kind of reasoning can be applied to the God hypothesis as to any other scientific question. After discussing some of the most common arguments for the existence of God in chapter 3, Dawkinss name for the statistical demonstration that God almost certainly does not exist is the Ultimate Boeing 747 gambit. This is an allusion to the junkyard tornado, arguments against empirically based theism date back at least as far as the eighteenth-century philosopher David Hume, whose objection can be paraphrased as the question Who designed the designer.
Dawkins summarizes his argument as follows, the references to crane and this cause is seen as omnipotent and totally free. Dawkins argues that an entity that monitors and controls every particle in the universe and listens to all thoughts and its existence would require a mammoth explanation of its own. The theory of selection is much simpler – and thus preferable – than a theory of the existence of such a complex being. Dawkins turns to a discussion of Keith Wards views on divine simplicity to show the difficulty the theological mind has in grasping where the complexity of life comes from, Dawkins says that this scepticism is justified, because complexity doesnt come from biased mutations. Dawkins writes, as far as we know, is the only process ultimately capable of generating complexity out of simplicity, the theory of natural selection is genuinely simple. So is the origin from which it starts and that which it explains, on the other hand, is complex almost beyond telling, more complex than anything we can imagine, save a God capable of designing it.
Theist authors have presented extensive opposition, most notably by theologian Alister McGrath and philosophers Alvin Plantinga, Daniel Dennett took exception to Orrs review, leading to an exchange of open letters between himself and Orr. The philosopher Sir Anthony Kenny considers this argument to be flawed, cosmologist Stephen Barr responded as follows, Paley finds a watch and asks how such a thing could have come to be there by chance. Dawkins finds an immense automated factory that blindly constructs watches, both Alvin Plantinga and Richard Swinburne raise the objection that God is not complex. Plantinga writes, So first, according to classical theology, God is simple, more remarkable, perhaps, is that according to Dawkinss own definition of complexity, God is not complex. According to his definition, something is complex if it has parts that are arranged in a way that is unlikely to have arisen by chance alone, but of course God is a spirit, not a material object at all, and hence has no parts.
A fortiori God doesnt have parts arranged in ways unlikely to have arisen by chance, given the definition of complexity Dawkins himself proposes, God is not complex
Argument from free will
The argument may focus on the incoherence of people having free will or on God having free will. These arguments are deeply concerned with the implications of predestination, some arguments against God focus on the supposed incoherence of humankind possessing free will. These arguments are deeply concerned with the implications of predestination and this is the move made by compatibilistic philosophies. The sovereignty of God, existing within a free agent, provides strong inner compulsions toward a course of action, the actions of a human are thus determined by a human acting on relatively strong or weak urges and their own relative power to choose. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada has stated that man does have limited free will, all other material happenings and their implications are inconceivably predestined. Truths of the latter sort are called counterfactuals of freedom, molinsts say that such foreknowlege cant determine such outcomes, because thats not the kind of thing foreknowledge can do.
Compatibilistic Calvinism re-defines a free act as one that is done in accordance with ones desires, while this view avoids incoherence, it is arguable that this is the kind of freedom Theists are concerned to reconcile with divine foreknowledge. Open Theism holds that free decisions are known under the category of possibility. In his book Mere Christianity, Lewis argues that God is actually outside time and therefore does not foresee events and he explains, But suppose God is outside and above the Time-line. In that case, what we call tomorrow is visible to Him in just the way as what we call today. All the days are Now for Him and he does not remember you doing things yesterday, He simply sees you doing them, though you have lost yesterday, He has not. He does not foresee you doing things tomorrow, He simply sees you doing them, though tomorrow is not yet there for you and you never supposed that your actions at this moment were any less free because God knows what you are doing. Well, He knows your tomorrows actions in just the same way—because He is already in tomorrow, in a sense, He does not know your action till you have done it, but the moment at which you have done it is already Now for Him.
A criticism of this argument is that this does not seem to grant free will, regardless of how God perceives time, still seems to mean a persons actions will be determined. A logical formulation of this criticism might go as follows, God timelessly knows choice C that a human would claim to make freely, if C is in the timeless realm, it is now-necessary that C. If it is now-necessary that C, C cannot be otherwise and that is, there are no actual possibilities due to predestination. If you cannot do otherwise when you act, you do not act freely Therefore and this argument can be criticized in that it misunderstands timelessness. This argument requires that there is a now in time, which by the definition of timelessness, is impossible and it can be seen that C. S. Lewis used the word Now in his explanation merely to illustrate his argument
It is traditionally known as an argument from universal causation, an argument from first cause, or the causal argument. Whichever term is employed, there are three variants of the argument, each with subtle yet important distinctions, the arguments from in causa, in esse. The basic premise of all of these is the concept of causality, contemporary defenders of cosmological arguments include William Lane Craig, Robert Koons, Alexander Pruss, and William L. Rowe. Cosmological argument has been used by atheists and theists. Plato and Aristotle both posited first cause arguments, though each had certain notable caveats, in The Laws, Plato posited that all movement in the world and the Cosmos was imparted motion. This required a self-originated motion to set it in motion and to maintain it, in Timaeus, Plato posited a demiurge of supreme wisdom and intelligence as the creator of the Cosmos. Aristotle argued against the idea of a first cause, often confused with the idea of a prime mover or unmoved mover in his Physics and Metaphysics, like Plato, Aristotle believed in an eternal cosmos with no beginning and no end.
From an aspiration or desire, the spheres, imitate that purely intellectual activity as best they can. The unmoved movers inspiring the planetary spheres are no different in kind from the prime mover, the motions of the planets are subordinate to the motion inspired by the prime mover in the sphere of fixed stars. Aristotles natural theology admitted no creation or capriciousness from the immortal pantheon, plotinus, a third-century Platonist, taught that the One transcendent absolute caused the universe to exist simply as a consequence of its existence. His disciple Proclus stated The One is God, centuries later, the Islamic philosopher Avicenna inquired into the question of being, in which he distinguished between essence and existence. Thus, he reasoned that existence must be due to an agent cause that necessitates, gives, to do so, the cause must coexist with its effect and be an existing thing. Referring to the argument as the Kalam cosmological argument, Duncan asserts that it received its fullest articulation at the hands of Muslim and Jewish exponents of Kalam.
Thomas Aquinas adapted and enhanced the argument he found in his reading of Aristotle and his conception of First Cause was the idea that the Universe must have been caused by something that was itself uncaused, which he asserted was God. In the scholastic era, Aquinas formulated the argument from contingency, since the Universe could, under different circumstances, conceivably not exist, its existence must have a cause – not merely another contingent thing, but something that exists by necessity. In other words, even if the Universe has always existed, it owes its existence to an Uncaused Cause, Aquinas further said. Aquinass argument from contingency allows for the possibility of a Universe that has no beginning in time and it is a form of argument from universal causation. Aquinas observed that, in nature, there were things with contingent existences, since it is possible for such things not to exist, there must be some time at which these things did not in fact exist
The afterlife is the concept of a realm, or the realm itself, in which an essential part of an individuals identity or consciousness continues to exist after the death of the body. Belief in an afterlife, which may be naturalistic or supernatural, is in contrast to the belief in oblivion after death, in this latter view, such rebirths and deaths may take place over and over again continuously until the individual gains entry to a spiritual realm or Otherworld. Major views on the afterlife derive from religion and metaphysics, in metaphysical models, theists generally believe some type of afterlife awaits people when they die. Members of some generally non-theistic religions, tend to believe in an afterlife, the Sadducees were an ancient Jewish sect that generally believed that there was a God but no afterlife. Reincarnation refers to a concept found among Hindus, Jains, Rosicrucians, Spiritists. Reincarnation is a belief described in Kabbalistic Judaism as gilgul neshamot and this succession leads toward an eventual liberation.
One consequence of reincarnationist beliefs is that our current lives are both afterlife and a beforelife, according to those beliefs events in our current life are consequences of actions taken in previous lives, or Karma. In most denominations, heaven is a condition of reward for the righteous to go after they die, traditionally defined as eternal union with God. In contrast to heaven, hell is a condition of punishment and torment for the wicked, traditionally defined as eternal separation from God and confinement with other sinful souls and fallen angels. So they are seen as existing in a state of natural. In other Christian denominations it has described as an intermediate place or state of confinement in oblivion. The notion of purgatory is associated particularly with the Catholic Church, the tradition of the church, by reference to certain texts of scripture, speaks of a cleansing fire although it is not always called purgatory. Anglicans of the Anglo-Catholic tradition generally hold to the belief, traditional African religions are diverse in their beliefs in an afterlife.
For each soul remains distinct and each represents a new soul. In some societies like the Mende, multiple beliefs coexist, the Mende believe that people die twice, once during the process of joining the secret society, and again during biological death after which they become ancestors. However, some Mende believe that people are created by God they live ten consecutive lives. One cross-cultural theme is that the ancestors are part of the world of the living, interacting with it regularly, the afterlife played an important role in Ancient Egyptian religion, and its belief system is one of the earliest known in recorded history. When the body died, parts of its known as ka
Pascals Wager is an argument in apologetic philosophy devised by the seventeenth-century French philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. It posits that humans bet with their lives that God either exists or does not, Pascal argues that a rational person should live as though God exists and seek to believe in God. If God does actually exist, such a person will have only a loss, whereas they stand to receive infinite gains. Pascals Wager was based on the idea of the Christian God, the original wager was set out in section 233 of Pascals posthumously published Pensées. These previously unpublished notes were assembled to form an incomplete treatise on Christian apologetics, the Wager uses the following logic, God is, or God is not. Reason cannot decide between the two alternatives, where heads or tails will turn up. Let us weigh the gain and the loss in wagering that God is, let us estimate these two chances. If you gain, you all, if you lose. Wager, without hesitation that He is, there is here an infinity of an infinitely happy life to gain, a chance of gain against a finite number of chances of loss, and what you stake is finite.
And so our proposition is of infinite force, when there is the finite to stake in a game there are equal risks of gain and of loss. They should at least learn your inability to believe, and Endeavour to convince themselves. Pascal asks the reader to analyze humankinds position, where our actions can be enormously consequential, while we can discern a great deal through reason, we are ultimately forced to gamble. On Pascals view, human finitude constrains our ability to achieve truth. Given that reason alone cannot determine whether God exists, Pascal concludes that this question functions like a coin toss, even if we do not know the outcome of this coin toss, we must base our actions on some expectation about the outcome. We must decide whether to live as though God exists, or whether to live as though God does not exist, in Pascals assessment, participation in this wager is not optional. Merely by existing in a state of uncertainty, we are forced to choose between the courses of action for practical purposes.
The Pensées passage on Pascals Wager is as follows, If there is a God, He is infinitely incomprehensible, having neither parts nor limits and we are incapable of knowing either what He is or if He is. God is, or He is not. But to which side shall we incline, there is an infinite chaos which separated us
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe. In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient and it is the pervasive, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a concept is the single binding unity behind the diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads. The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle, in the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda and as the unchanging, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman in each being, Brahman is thus a gender-neutral concept that implies greater impersonality than masculine or feminine conceptions of the deity.
Brahman is referred to as the supreme self, puligandla states it as the unchanging reality amidst and beyond the world, while Sinar states Brahman is a concept that cannot be exactly defined. In Vedic Sanskrit, brahman from root bṛh-, means to be or make firm, solid, promote. Brahmana, from stems brha + Sanskrit -man- from Indo-European root -men- which denotes some manifested form of power, inherent firmness. In Sanskrit usage, brahman means the concept of the transcendent and immanent ultimate reality, the concept is central to Hindu philosophy, especially Vedanta, this is discussed below. Brahm is another variant of Brahman, Brahmā, means the deity or deva Prajāpati Brahmā. He is one of the members of the Hindu trinity and associated with creation, but does not have a cult in present-day India. This is because Brahmā, the creator-god, is long-lived but not eternal i. e. Brahmā gets absorbed back into Purusha at the end of an aeon, and is born again at the beginning of a new kalpa. These are distinct from, A brāhmaṇa, is a commentary on the Vedic mantras—an integral part of the Vedic literature.
A brāhmaṇa, means priest, in this usage the word is rendered in English as Brahmin. This usage is found in the Atharva Veda. Ishvara, in Advaita, is identified as a partial manifestation of the ultimate reality
It is an argument in natural theology. The earliest recorded versions of this argument are associated with Socrates in ancient Greece, Socratic philosophy influenced the development of the Abrahamic religions in many ways, and the teleological argument has a long association with them. In the Middle Ages, Islamic theologians such as Al-Ghazali used the argument, although it was rejected as unnecessary by Quranic literalists, the teleological argument was accepted by Saint Thomas Aquinas and included as the fifth of his Five Ways of proving the existence of God. In early modern England clergymen such as William Turner and John Ray were well-known proponents, in the early 18th century, William Derham published his Physico-Theology, which gave his demonstration of the being and attributes of God from his works of creation. From the beginning, there have been criticisms of the different versions of the teleological argument. Also starting already in classical Greece, two approaches to the argument developed, distinguished by their understanding of whether the natural order was literally created or not.
The non-creationist approach starts most clearly with Aristotle, although many thinkers, such as the Neoplatonists, the Neoplatonists did not find the teleological argument convincing, and in this they were followed by medieval philosophers such as Al-Farabi and Avicenna. Later and Thomas Aquinas considered the argument acceptable, religious thinkers in Judaism, Confucianism and Christianity developed versions of the teleological argument. Later, variants on the argument from design were produced in Western philosophy, Anaxagoras is the first person who is definitely known to have explained such a concept using the word nous. Aristotle reports an earlier philosopher from Clazomenae named Hermotimus who had taken a similar position, amongst Pre-Socratic philosophers before Anaxagoras, other philosophers had proposed a similar intelligent ordering principle causing life and the rotation of the heavens. For example Empedocles, like Hesiod much earlier, described cosmic order and living things as caused by a version of love.
In his Philebus 28c Plato has Socrates speak of this as a tradition, saying that all philosophers agree—whereby they really exalt themselves—that mind is king of heaven, and states that the ensuing discussion confirms the utterances of those who declared of old that mind always rules the universe. Xenophons report in his Memorabilia might be the earliest clear account of an argument that there is evidence in nature of intelligent design. In Platos Phaedo, Socrates is made to say just before dying that his discovery of Anaxagoras concept of a cosmic nous as the cause of the order of things, was an important turning point for him. But he expressed disagreement with Anaxagoras understanding of the implications of his own doctrine, Socrates complained that Anaxagoras restricted the work of the cosmic nous to the beginning, as if it were uninterested and all events since just happened because of causes like air and water. Socrates, on the hand, apparently insisted that the demiurge must be loving.
Plato has a character explain the concept of a demiurge with supreme wisdom, Platos teleological perspective is built upon the analysis of a priori order and structure in the world that he had already presented in The Republic. The story does not propose creation ex nihilo, the demiurge made order from the chaos of the cosmos, Platos student and friend Aristotle, continued the Socratic tradition of criticising natural scientists such as Democritus who sought to explain everything in terms of matter and chance motion
In monotheism, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and principal object of faith. The concept of God as described by most theologians includes the attributes of omniscience, omnipresence, divine simplicity, many theologians describe God as being omnibenevolent and all loving. Furthermore, some religions attribute only a purely grammatical gender to God and corporeity of God are related to conceptions of transcendence and immanence of God, with positions of synthesis such as the immanent transcendence of Chinese theology. God has been conceived as personal or impersonal. In theism, God is the creator and sustainer of the universe, while in deism, God is the creator, in pantheism, God is the universe itself. In atheism, God is not believed to exist, while God is deemed unknown or unknowable within the context of agnosticism, God has been conceived as the source of all moral obligation, and the greatest conceivable existent. Many notable philosophers have developed arguments for and against the existence of God, there are many names for God, and different names are attached to different cultural ideas about Gods identity and attributes.
In the ancient Egyptian era of Atenism, possibly the earliest recorded monotheistic religion, this deity was called Aten, premised on being the one true Supreme Being and creator of the universe. In the Hebrew Bible and Judaism, He Who Is, I Am that I Am, in the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, consubstantial in three persons, is called the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. In Judaism, it is common to refer to God by the titular names Elohim or Adonai, in Islam, the name Allah is used, while Muslims have a multitude of titular names for God. In Hinduism, Brahman is often considered a concept of God. In Chinese religion, God is conceived as the progenitor of the universe, intrinsic to it, other religions have names for God, for instance, Baha in the Baháí Faith, Waheguru in Sikhism, and Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism. The earliest written form of the Germanic word God comes from the 6th-century Christian Codex Argenteus, the English word itself is derived from the Proto-Germanic * ǥuđan.
The reconstructed Proto-Indo-European form * ǵhu-tó-m was likely based on the root * ǵhau-, in the English language, the capitalized form of God continues to represent a distinction between monotheistic God and gods in polytheism. The same holds for Hebrew El, but in Judaism, God is given a proper name, in many translations of the Bible, when the word LORD is in all capitals, it signifies that the word represents the tetragrammaton. Allāh is the Arabic term with no plural used by Muslims and Arabic speaking Christians and Jews meaning The God, Ahura Mazda is the name for God used in Zoroastrianism. Mazda, or rather the Avestan stem-form Mazdā-, nominative Mazdå and it is generally taken to be the proper name of the spirit, and like its Sanskrit cognate medhā, means intelligence or wisdom. Both the Avestan and Sanskrit words reflect Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdhā-, from Proto-Indo-European mn̩sdʰeh1, literally meaning placing ones mind, Waheguru is a term most often used in Sikhism to refer to God
Philosophy of religion
According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, philosophy of religion is, the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions. It is an ancient discipline, being found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy, and relates to other branches of philosophy, including metaphysics, epistemology. It is designed such that it can be carried out dispassionately by those who identify as believers or non-believers, some aspects of Philosophy of religion has classically been regarded as a part of metaphysics. In Aristotles Metaphysics, the necessarily prior cause of motion was an unmoved mover. This, according to Aristotle, is God, the subject of study in theology, although the term did not come into general use until the nineteenth century, perhaps the earliest strictly philosophical writings about religion can be found in the Hindu Upanishads. Around the same time, the works of Daoism and Confucianism dealt, in part, the Buddhist writing in the Pali canon contains acute philosophical thinking, and we have in Buddhism a very shrewd grasp of the nature of religion as philosophy illuminates it.
The philosophy of religion has been distinguished from theology by pointing out that, for theology, theology is responsible to an authority that initiates its thinking and witnessing. Philosophy bases its arguments on the ground of timeless evidence, three considerations that are basic to the philosophy of religion concerning deities are, the existence of God, the nature of God, and the knowledge of God. There are several positions with regard to the existence of God that one might take. Pantheism - the belief that God exists as all things of the cosmos, panentheism - the belief that God encompasses all things of the cosmos but that God is greater than the cosmos, God is both immanent and transcendent. Deism - the belief that God does exist but does not interfere with human life, monotheism - Usually defined as the belief that a single deity exists which is omnipotent and omnibenevolent created everything. Polytheism - the belief that deities exist which rule the universe as separate. Henotheism - the belief that multiple deities may or may not exist, henology - believing that multiple avatars of a deity exist, which represent unique aspects of the ultimate deity.
Agnosticism - the belief that the existence or non-existence of deities or God is currently unknown or unknowable, a weaker form of this might be defined as simply a lack of certainty about gods existence or nonexistence. Atheism - the rejection of belief in the existence of deities, apatheism - a complete disinterest in, or lack of caring for, whether or not any deity or deities exists. Possibilianism These are not mutually exclusive positions, for example, agnostic theists choose to believe God exists while asserting that knowledge of Gods existence is inherently unknowable. Similarly, agnostic atheists reject belief in the existence of all deities, the attempt to provide proofs or arguments for the existence of God is one aspect of what is known as natural theology or the natural theistic project. This strand of natural theology attempts to justify belief in God by independent grounds, there is plenty of philosophical literature on faith and other subjects generally considered to be outside the realm of natural theology
Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions. Holy Spirit is stated to be a realm beyond the ability of words to properly convey and it must be experienced, kindled within like a holy fire. The term is used to describe aspects of other religions. The word Spirit appears as either alone or with words, in the Hebrew Bible. Combinations include expressions such as the Holy Spirit, Spirit of God, the word Spirit is rendered as רוּחַ in Hebrew-language parts of the Old Testament. In its Aramaic parts, the term is rûacḥ, the Greek translation of the Old Testament, the Septuagint, translates the word as πνεῦμα. This is the word that is used throughout the New Testament. The English term Spirit comes from its Latin origin, the alternative term, Holy Ghost, comes from Old English translations of spiritus. The Hebrew Bible contains the term Spirit of God in the sense of the might of a unitary God and this meaning is different from the Christian concept of Holy Spirit as one personality of God in the Trinity.
According to theologian Rudolf Bultmann, there are two ways to think about the Holy Spirit and dynamistic, both kinds of thought appear in Jewish and Christian scripture, but animistic is more typical of the Old Testament whereas dynamistic is more common in the New Testament. The distinction coincides with the Holy Spirit as either a temporary or permanent gift, in the Old Testament and Jewish thought, it is primarily temporary with a specific situation or task in mind, whereas in the Christian concept the gift resides in man permanently. The Holy Spirit has an equivalent in non-Abrahamic Hellenistic mystery religions and they included a distinction of the Spirit and psyche, which Paul the Apostle incorporated into his epistles. According to proponents of the History of religions school, the Christian concept of the Holy Spirit cannot be explained from Jewish ideas alone without reference to the Hellenistic religions. However, according to theologian Erik Konsmo, the views are so dissimilar that the only legitimate connection one can make is with the term πνεῦμα itself, Another link with ancient Greek thought is the Stoic idea of the Spirit as anima mundi—or world soul—that unites all people.
In his Introduction to the 1964 book Meditations, the Anglican priest Maxwell Staniforth wrote, wishing to give more explicit meaning to Zenos creative fire, had been the first to hit upon the term pneuma, or spirit, to describe it. The Hebrew language phrase ruach ha-kodesh is a used in the Hebrew Bible. It literally means spirit of the holiness or spirit of the holy place, the Hebrew terms ruacḥ qodshəka, thy holy spirit, and ruacḥ qodshō, his holy spirit occur. The Holy Spirit in Judaism generally refers to the aspect of prophecy
Faith is confidence or trust in a person or thing, or the observance of an obligation from loyalty, or fidelity to a person, engagement. The word faith may refer to a particular system of religious belief. The term faith has numerous connotations and is used in different ways, the English word faith is thought to date from 1200–50, from the Middle English feith, via Anglo-French fed, Old French feid, feit from Latin fidem, accusative of fidēs, akin to fīdere. James W. Fowler proposes a series of stages of faith-development across the human life-span and his stages relate closely to the work of Piaget and Kohlberg regarding aspects of psychological development in children and adults. Fowler defines faith as an activity of trusting and relating to the world based on a set of assumptions of how one is related to others, intuitive-Projective, a stage of confusion and of high impressionability through stories and rituals. Mythic-Literal, a stage where provided information is accepted in order to conform with social norms, individuative-Reflective, In this stage the individual critically analyzes adopted and accepted faith with existing systems of faith.
Disillusion or strengthening of faith happens in this stage, based on needs and paradoxes. This stage is called negotiated settling in life, no hard-and-fast rule requires individuals pursuing faith to go through all six stages. There is a probability for individuals to be content and fixed in a particular stage for a lifetime. Stage 6 is the summit of faith development and this state is often considered as not fully attainable. There is a spectrum of opinion with respect to the epistemological validity of faith. Fideism is a theory which maintains that faith is independent of reason, or that reason and faith are hostile to each other. It states that faith is needed to determine some philosophical and religious truths, the word and concept had its origin in the mid- to late-19th century by way of Catholic thought, in a movement called Traditionalism. The Roman Catholic Magisterium has, repeatedly condemned fideism, in the Baháí Faith, faith is meant, conscious knowledge, and second, the practice of good deeds, ultimately the acceptance of the divine authority of the Manifestations of God.
In the religions view and knowledge are required for spiritual growth. Faith involves more than outward obedience to authority, but must be based on a deep personal understanding of religious teachings. Faith is an important constituent element of the teachings of Gautama Buddha— in both the Theravada and the Mahayana traditions, the teachings of Buddha were originally recorded in the language Pali and the word saddhā is generally translated as faith. Faith in Buddhism centers on the understanding that the Buddha is an Awakened being, on his role as teacher, in the truth of his Dharma
In the Platonic, Middle Platonic, and Neoplatonic schools of philosophy, the demiurge is an artisan-like figure responsible for the fashioning and maintenance of the physical universe. The term was adopted by the Gnostics, depending on the system, they may be considered to be either uncreated and eternal, or considered to be the product of some other entity. The philosophical usage and the proper noun derive from Platos Timaeus, written c.360 BC and this is accordingly the definition of the demiurge in the Platonic and Middle Platonic philosophical traditions. In the various branches of the Neoplatonic school, the demiurge is the fashioner of the real, perceptible world after the model of the Ideas, Plato, as the speaker Timaeus, refers to the Demiurge frequently in the Socratic dialogue Timaeus, c.360 BC. The main character refers to the Demiurge as the entity who fashioned and shaped the material world, Timaeus describes the Demiurge as unreservedly benevolent, and hence desirous of a world as good as possible.
The world remains imperfect, because the Demiurge created the world out of a chaotic, Platos work Timaeus is a philosophical reconciliation of Hesiods cosmology in his Theogony, syncretically reconciling Hesiod to Homer. In Numeniuss Neo-Pythagorean and Middle Platonist cosmogony, the Demiurge is second God as the nous or thought of intelligibles and sensibles and the Platonists worked to clarify the Demiurge. To Plotinus, the second emanation represents a second cause. In order to reconcile Aristotelian with Platonian philosophy, Plotinus metaphorically identified the demiurge within the pantheon of the Greek Gods as Zeus, the first and highest aspect of God is described by Plato as the One, the source, or the Monad. This is the God above the Demiurge, and manifests through the work of the Demiurge, the Monad emanated the demiurge or Nous from its indeterminate vitality due to the monad being so abundant that it overflowed back onto itself, causing self-reflection. This self-reflection of the indeterminate vitality was referred to by Plotinus as the Demiurge or creator, the second principle is organization in its reflection of the nonsentient force or dynamis, called the one or the Monad.
Plotinus form of Platonic idealism is to treat the Demiurge, nous as the contemplative faculty within man which orders the force into conscious reality. In this he claimed to reveal Platos true meaning, a doctrine he learned from Platonic tradition that did not appear outside the academy or in Platos text. This tradition of creator God as nous, can be validated in the works of philosophers such as Numenius. Before Numenius of Apamea and Plotinus Enneads, no Platonic works ontologically clarified the Demiurge from the allegory in Platos Timaeus. The idea of Demiurge was, addressed before Plotinus in the works of Christian writer Justin Martyr who built his understanding of the Demiurge on the works of Numenius. The figure of the Demiurge emerges in the theoretic of Iamblichus, here, at the summit of this system, the Source and Demiurge coexist via the process of henosis. The One is further separated into spheres of intelligence, the first and superior sphere is objects of thought, within this intellectual triad Iamblichus assigns the third rank to the Demiurge, identifying it with the perfect or Divine nous with the intellectual triad being promoted to a hebdomad