Pages in category "Placeholder names"
The following 52 pages are in this category, out of 52 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 52 pages are in this category, out of 52 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Alice and Bob – Alice and Bob are fictional characters commonly used in cryptology, as well as science and engineering literature. The Alice and Bob characters were invented by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, subsequently, they have become common archetypes in many scientific and engineering fields, such as quantum cryptography, game theory and physics. As the use of Alice and Bob became more popular, additional characters were added, Alice and Bob are the names of fictional characters used for convenience and to aid comprehension. In cryptography and computer security, Alice and Bob are used extensively as participants in discussions about cryptographic protocols or systems, the names are conventional, and often use a rhyming mnemonic. The first mention of Alice and Bob in the context of cryptography was in Rivest, Shamir and they wrote, For our scenarios we suppose that A and B are two users of a public-key cryptosystem. Previous to this article, cryptographers typically referred to message senders and receivers as A and B, in fact, in the two previous articles by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman, introducing the RSA cryptosystem, there is no mention of Alice and Bob. Within a few years, however, reference to Alice and Bob in cryptological literature became a common trope, cryptographers would often begin their academic papers with reference to Alice and Bob. For instance, Tal Rabin begun his 1981 paper, Bob and Alice each have a secret, SB and SA, respectively, although Alice and Bob were invented with no reference to their personality, authors soon began adding colorful descriptions. In 1983, Blum invented a backstory about a relationship between Alice and Bob, writing, Alice and Bob, recently divorced, mutually distrustful. They live on opposite coasts, communicate mainly by telephone, in 1984, John Gordon delivered his famous After Dinner Speech about Alice and Bob, which he imagines to be the first definitive biography of Alice and Bob. In addition to adding backstories and personalities to Alice and Bob, authors soon added other characters, the first to be added was Eve, the eavesdropper. Eve was invented in 1988 by Charles Bennet, Gilles Brassard, in Bruce Schneiers book Applied Cryptography, other characters are listed. The most common characters are Alice and Bob, Eve, Mallory, and Trent are also common names, and have fairly well-established personalities. The names often use rhyming mnemonics, other names are much less common, and flexible in use. Generally, Alice and Bob want to exchange a message or cryptographic key, a third participant, usually of malicious intent. A password cracker, often encountered in situations with stored passwords, a generic fifth participant, but rarely used, as E is usually reserved for Eve. An eavesdropper, who is usually a passive attacker, while she can listen in on messages between Alice and Bob, she cannot modify them. In quantum cryptography, Eve may also represent the environment, a trusted advisor, courier or intermediary
2. Tommy Atkins – Tommy Atkins is slang for a common soldier in the British Army. It was certainly well established during the century, but is particularly associated with World War I. It can be used as a term of reference, or as a form of address, German soldiers would call out to Tommy across no mans land if they wished to speak to a British soldier. French and Commonwealth troops would also call British soldiers Tommies, in more recent times, the term Tommy Atkins has been used less frequently, although the name Tom is occasionally still heard, especially with regard to paratroopers. Tommy Atkins or Thomas Atkins has been used as a name for a common British soldier for many years. The origin of the term is a subject of debate, a letter sent from Jamaica about a mutiny amongst the troops says except for those from N. America ye Marines and Tommy Atkins behaved splendidly. A common belief is that the name was chosen by the Duke of Wellington after having been inspired by the bravery of a soldier at the Battle of Boxtel in 1794 during the Flanders Campaign. After a fierce engagement, the Duke, in command of the 33rd Regiment of Foot, spotted the best man-at-arms in the regiment, Private Thomas Atkins, the private said Its all right, sir. Its all in a work and died shortly after. According to the Imperial War Museum, this theory has Wellington choosing the name in 1843, the Cavalry form had Trumpeter William Jones and Sergeant John Thomas, though they did not use a mark. Leslie observes the same name in the 1837 Kings Regulations, pages 204 and 210, leslie comments that this disproves the anecdote about the Duke of Wellington selecting the name in 1843. Richard Holmes, in the prologue to his 2005 book, Tommy, states that, Atkins became a sergeant in the 1837 version, pp. 75–87, published by the War Office,31 August 1815. The name is used for a cavalry and infantry soldier, other names used included William Jones. Thomas Atkins continued to be used in the Soldiers Account Book until the early 20th century, a further suggestion was given in 1900 by an army chaplain named Reverend E. J. Hardy. He wrote of an incident during the Sepoy Rebellion in 1857, when most of the Europeans in Lucknow were fleeing to the British Residency for protection, a private of the 32nd Regiment of Foot remained on duty at an outpost. Despite the pleas of his comrades, he insisted that he must remain at his post, Graves, an officer in the Royal Welch in 1915, mentions this among other regimental history but does not cite his reference. In the same volume, Graves quotes a German soldier addressing the British, Ach, Tommee, rudyard Kipling published the poem Tommy in 1892, and in 1893 the music hall song Private Tommy Atkins was published with words by Henry Hamilton and music by S. Potter. In 1898 William McGonagall wrote Lines in Praise of Tommy Atkins and it is also said that the name Tommy Atkins was the example name on conscription sheets during the First World War, and that teenagers who were underage often signed up as Tommy Atkins
3. Average Joe – It can be used both to give the image of a hypothetical completely average person or to describe an existing person. Parallel terms in languages for local equivalents exist worldwide. Today, statistics by the United States Department of Commerce provide information regarding the attributes of those who may be referred to as being average. While some individual attributes are easily identified as being average, such as the income, other characteristics. In 2001, for example no single household arrangement constituted more than 30% of total households, married couples with no children were the most common constituting 28. 7% of households. It would nonetheless be inaccurate to state that the average American lives in a childless couple arrangement as 71. 3% do not, Other average characteristics are easier to identify. In terms of class, the average American may be described as either being middle or working class. As social classes lack distinct boundaries the average American may have a status in the area where the lower middle, Average Joes are common fodder for characters in television or movies, comics, novels or radio dramas. On television, examples of average Joes include Doug Heffernan, Alan Harper and Homer Simpson. In the film Dodgeball, A True Underdog Story, the protagonist, Peter, owns a gym for those who dont want an intensive workout, the gym is named Average Joes Gymnasium. Newsweek proclaimed of the book, The journey toward run-of-the-mill has never been so remarkable, as the United States is a highly diverse nation, it should not be surprising that there is no single prevalent household arrangement. While the nuclear family consisting of a couple with their own children is often seen as the average American family. Married couples without children are currently the plurality constituting 28. 7% of households, another 25. 5% of households consisted of single persons residing alone. Recent trends have shown the numbers of families as well as childless married couples decrease. In 1970,40. 3% of US households consisted of families with childless couples making up 30. 3% of households and 10. 6% of households being arranged in Other family types. By 2000 the percentage of families had decreased by 40%. The percentage of households has also steadily increased. In 1970, only 17% of households consisted of singles, in 2000 that figure had increased by 50% with singles constituting 25. 5% of households
4. Dewey, Cheatem & Howe – Dewey, Cheatem & Howe is the gag name of a fictional law or accounting firm, used in several parody settings. The gag name pokes fun at the perceived propensity of some lawyers and accountants to take advantage of their clients and this gag name is also used more broadly as a placeholder for any hypothetical law firm. The second name varies somewhat, with regards to spelling but also to the word it is based upon, tom and Ray Magliozzi, of NPRs Car Talk radio program, named their business corporation Dewey, Cheetham & Howe. Their corporate offices were located on an office at the corner of Brattle and JFK Streets in Harvard Square in Cambridge. The Magliozzi brothers have declared that they established DC&H in 1989, a popular Three Stooges poster features the Stooges as bumbling members of such a firm, although the actual episodes use the name Dewey, Burnham, and Howe. The 2012 film uses this example among similar ones such as proctologists Proba, Keister, and Wince and divorce lawyers Ditcher, Quick, the champion Standardbred race horse Deweycheatumnhowe takes his name from this pun. On August 3,2008, that undefeated horse won harness racings most prestigious event, the British magazine Private Eye uses Sue, Grabbitt, and Runne when satirising the legal profession, reflecting the magazines experience defending from libel lawsuits. In a set of legal forms published for lawyers and other professionals, one fictitious law-firm name is Skrewer. The narrating presidential aide in Christopher Buckleys novel The White House Mess came from the law firm of Dewey, Scruem, and Howe. Winston Grooms sequel to Forrest Gump, names Dewey, Screwum, & Howe as legal representation for members, including Forrest Gump, of a New York firm accused of insider trading. In an episode of Gilmore Girls, Luke Danes, while dealing with his wifes irritating divorce lawyer, jokes that his own lawyer is Don Dewey at Dewey, Cheatem, and Howe. In an episode of Prison Break, Theodore Bagwell states that he won a sum of money after sustaining an injury on an oil rig, thanks to his lawyers at Dewey, Cheatem. In an episode of Friends, Chandler Bings boss states that the company they work for has signed a contract with a new law firm, Dewey, Cheatem. It is, of course, in the context of a party, shortly before the boss is heard giving the punchline Twenty dollars Sister. The novel The Plague Dogs by Richard Adams features a firm of architects by the name of Sir Conham Goode, Son, and Howe. In an episode of White Collar the document that has the Judges ID stamp lists the Plaintiff as being represented by Donald Dewey of the law firm Dewey, Chetham and Howe. In an episode of Blue Bloods Police Commissioner Frank Reagan rants about the new Inspector General hired to oversee the NYPD, in the video game, The Sims 4, Sims in the Business career go to work at the Dewey, Cheatem & Howe offices. Aptronym, a personal name descriptive of the person so named, blackacre, another legal placeholder name do-dew merger Lawyer jokes, which often use fictional firms or fictional names