Category:Politicians of the French Fourth Republic
This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.
- ► Popular Republican Movement politicians (1 C, 42 P)
- ► French Senators of the Fourth Republic (2 C, 99 P)
This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.
1. Jean Monnet – Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet was a French political economist and diplomat. An influential supporter of European unity, he is considered as one of the fathers of the European Union. Never elected to office, Monnet worked behind the scenes of American and European governments as a well-connected pragmatic internationalist. He was named patron of the 1980–1981 academic year at the College of Europe, Monnet was born in Cognac, a commune in the department of Charente in France, into a family of cognac merchants. Subsequently, he traveled widely – to Scandinavia, Russia, Egypt, Canada, Monnet firmly believed that the only path to an Allied victory lay in combining the war efforts of Britain and France, and he reflected on a concept that would coordinate war resources. In 1914, young Monnet was allowed to meet French Premier René Viviani on this issue and he managed to convince the French government to agree with him, in principle. However, during the first two years of the war, Monnet did not have much success pressing for an organization of the allied economic cooperation. It was not until two years later that stronger combines like the Wheat Executive and the Allied Maritime Transport Council were set into motion, adding to the overall war effort. At the Paris Peace Conference, Monnet was an assistant to the French minister of commerce and industry, Etienne Clémentel, the scheme was officially rejected by the Allies in April 1919. He returned to politics and, as an international financier, proved to be instrumental to the economic recovery of several Central. He helped stabilise the Polish złoty in 1927 and the Romanian leu in 1928, in 1935, when Monnet was still in Shanghai, he became a business partner of George Murnane in Monnet, Murnane & Co. He was considered among the most connected persons of his time, in December 1939, Monnet was sent to London to oversee the collectivization of the British and French war industries. His influence inspired Charles de Gaulle and Winston Churchill to agree on an Anglo-French union, in August 1940, he was sent to the United States by the British Government, as a member of the British Supply Council, to negotiate the purchase of war supplies. Soon after his arrival in Washington, D. C. he became an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in 1941, Roosevelt, with Churchills agreement, launched the Victory Program, which represented the involvement of the United States in the war effort. After the war, John Maynard Keynes, a British economist, claimed that through his coordinating, in 1943, Monnet became a member of the National Liberation Committee, the French government of De Gaulle in exile in Algiers, designated Commissaire à lArmement. During a meeting on 5 August of that year, Monnet declared to the Committee, There will be no peace in Europe, the countries of Europe are too small to guarantee their peoples the necessary prosperity and social development. The European states must constitute themselves into a federation, following World War II, France was in severe need of reconstruction and completely dependent on coal from Germanys main remaining coal-mining areas, the Ruhr and the Saar. In 1945, Monnet proposed the Monnet Plan, also known as the Theory of lEngrenage, the plan was adopted by Charles de Gaulle in early 1946
2. French Fourth Republic – The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution. It was in ways a revival of the Third Republic, which was in place before World War II. France adopted the constitution of the Fourth Republic on 13 October 1946, the greatest accomplishments of the Fourth Republic were in social reform and economic development. In 1946, the government established a social security system that assured unemployment insurance, disability and old-age pensions. Moreover, the government proved unable to make decisions regarding decolonization of the numerous remaining French colonies. After a series of crises, most importantly the Algerian crisis of 1958, wartime leader Charles de Gaulle returned from retirement to preside over a transitional administration which was empowered to design a new French constitution. The Fourth Republic was dissolved by a referendum on 5 October 1958 which established the modern-day Fifth Republic with a strengthened presidency. After the liberation of France in 1944, the Vichy government was dissolved, Charles de Gaulle led the GPRF from 1944 to 1946. Meanwhile, negotiations took place over the new constitution, which was to be put to a referendum. De Gaulle advocated a system of government, and criticized the reinstatement of what he pejoratively called the parties system. He resigned in January 1946 and was replaced by Félix Gouin, the new constituent assembly included 166 MRP deputies,153 PCF deputies and 128 SFIO deputies, giving the tripartite alliance an absolute majority. Georges Bidault replaced Félix Gouin as the head of government, a new draft of the Constitution was written, which this time proposed the establishment of a bicameral form of government. Léon Blum headed the GPRF from 1946 to 1947, after a new legislative election in June 1946, the Christian democrat Georges Bidault assumed leadership of the Cabinet. This culminated in the establishment in the year of the Fourth Republic. The President of the Republic was given a symbolic role, although he remained chief of the French Army. The wartime damage was extensive and expectations of large reparations from defeated Germany largely failed, the United States helped revive the French economy with the Marshall Plan, 1948-1951, whereby it gave France $2.3 billion with no repayment. France was the second largest recipient after Britain, the total of all American grants and credits to France from 1946 to 1953, amounted to $4.9 billion. The terms of the Marshall Plan required a modernization of French industrial and managerial systems, free trade, after the expulsion of the Communists from the governing coalition, France joined the Cold War against Stalin, as expressed by becoming a founding member of NATO in April 1949