Category:Port cities in New Zealand
Pages in category "Port cities in New Zealand"
The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Auckland – Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. It is the most populous area in the country. Auckland has a population of 1,495,000, which constitutes 32 percent of New Zealands population, a diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world. It has also been called Ākarana, the Māori pronunciation of Auckland, the Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the northwest, and Runciman in the south. It is not contiguous, the section from Waiwera to Whangaparāoa Peninsula is separate from its nearest neighbouring suburb of Long Bay, the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones. The central part of the area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitemata Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. It is one of the few cities in the world to have harbours on two major bodies of water. The isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich, Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson and he named the area Auckland for George Eden, Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865, but immigration to the new city stayed strong, today, Aucklands Central Business District is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta World City because of its importance in finance, commerce, media, entertainment, arts, education and tourism. Aucklands landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, the isthmus was settled by Māori around 1350, and was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created, mainly on the volcanic peaks, Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 people before the arrival of Europeans. As a result, the region had relatively low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began, there is, however, nothing to suggest that this was the result of a deliberate European policy. Auckland was officially declared New Zealands capital in 1841 and the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842. However, even in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island. After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. Each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers, the men being fully armed in case of emergency but spent nearly all their time breaking in the land and establishing roads
2. Dunedin – Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the Otago region. It is named for the capital of Scotland, generally Anglicised as Edinburgh, Dunedin was the largest New Zealand city by territorial land area until superseded by Auckland on the creation of the Auckland Council in November 2010. Dunedin was the largest city in New Zealand by population from the 1860s until about 1900, the city population at 5 March 2013 was 120,246. The Dunedin urban area lies on the central-eastern coast of Otago, the harbour and hills around Dunedin represent the remnants of an extinct volcano. The city suburbs extend out into the valleys and hills, onto the isthmus of the Otago Peninsula, and along the shores of the Otago Harbour. The citys most important activity in economic terms centres around tertiary education – Dunedin is home to the University of Otago, New Zealands first university, and the Otago Polytechnic. Students account for a proportion of the population,21.6 percent of the citys population was aged between 15 and 24 at the 2006 census, compared to the New Zealand average of 14.2 percent. In 2014 Dunedin was designated as a UNESCO Creative City of Literature, archaeological evidence shows the first human occupation of New Zealand occurred between AD 1250–1300, with population concentrated along the southeast coast. A camp site at Kaikai Beach, near Long Beach, has dated from about that time. There are numerous sites in what is now Dunedin, several of them large and permanently occupied. The population contracted but expanded again with the evolution of the Classic culture which saw the building of several pā, fortified settlements, notably Pukekura at, there was a settlement in what is now central Dunedin occupied as late as about 1785 but abandoned by 1826. Maori tradition tells first of a people called Kahui Tipua living in the area, then Te Rapuwai, semi-legendary, the next arrivals were Waitaha followed by Kāti Mamoe late in the 16th century and then Kai Tahu who arrived in the mid 17th century. These migration waves have often represented as invasions in European accounts. They were probably migrations like those of the European which incidentally resulted in bloodshed, the sealer John Boultbee recorded in the 1820s that the Kaika Otargo were the oldest and largest in the south. Lieutenant James Cook stood off what is now the coast of Dunedin between 25 February 1770 and 5 March 1770, naming Cape Saunders and Saddle Hill and he reported penguins and seals in the vicinity, which led sealers to visit from the beginning of the 19th century. Permanent European occupation dates from 1831, when the Weller brothers founded their whaling station at Otago, modern Otakou, epidemics badly reduced the Maori population. By the late 1830s the Harbour had become an international whaling port, johnny Jones established a farming settlement and a mission station, the South Islands first, at Waikouaiti in 1840. After inspecting several areas around the eastern coast of the south island, the name comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland
3. Gisborne, New Zealand – Gisborne is a city in northeastern New Zealand and the largest settlement in the Gisborne District. It has a population of 36,100, the district council has its headquarters in Whataupoko, in the central city. The settlement was known as Turanga and renamed Gisborne in 1870 in honour of New Zealand Colonial Secretary William Gisborne. The Gisborne region has been settled for over 700 years, for centuries the region has been inhabited by the tribes of Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki, Rongowhakaata, Ngāi Tāmanuhiri and Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti. Their people descend from the voyagers of the Te Ikaroa-a-Rauru, Horouta, East Coast oral traditions offer differing versions of Gisbornes establishment by Māori. According to one legend, Kiwa waited so long for the Horouta canoe to arrive that he called its final landing place Tūranganui-a-Kiwa, however, a more popular version of events is that Horouta preceded Takitimu. In 1931, Sir Āpirana Ngata stated that Horouta was the canoe that brought the people to the East Coast. Māori historian Rongowhakaata Halbert affirmed this account, stating that Paoas crew on the Horouta were the first inhabitants of the East Coast after migrating from Ahuahu or Great Mercury Island, paoa gave his name to various places across the region, most notably the Waipāoa River. During the 14th century, Māori tribes built fishing villages close to the sea, Gisbornes Kaiti Beach is the place where British navigator Captain James Cook made his first landing in New Zealand upon the Endeavour. Cook had earlier set off from Plymouth, England in August 1768 on a bound for Tahiti. Once he had concluded his duties in Tahiti, Cook continued south to look for a large landmass or continent. Young Nicks Head was thought to be the first piece of New Zealand land sighted by Cooks party, on 9 October, Cook came ashore on the eastern bank of the Tūranganui River, accompanied by a party of men. Their arrival was marred by misunderstanding and resulted in the death and it was also on the banks of the Tūranganui River that first the township of Tūranga, then the city of Gisborne, grew as European traders and whalers began to settle in the river and port area. The landing site was commemorated by a monument in 1906, on the 137th anniversary of Cooks arrival. Starting in the early 1830s, traders such as Captain John Harris, over the next 30 years, many more European traders and missionaries migrated to the region. In 1868 the government bought 300 hectares of land for a town site, the town was laid out in 1870 and the name changed from Tūranga to Gisborne, after the then colonial secretary, and to avoid confusion with Tauranga. In 1872, Gisbornes first public school was opened and its first newspaper, a town council was formed in 1877. Gisborne is a city located on the east cape of New Zealands North Island
4. Napier, New Zealand – Napier is a New Zealand city with a seaport, located in Hawkes Bay on the eastern coast of the North Island. The population of Napier is about 62,100 as of the June 2016, about 18 kilometres south of Napier is the inland city of Hastings. These two neighbouring cities are often called The Bay Cities or The Twin Cities of New Zealand, Napier is about 320 kilometres northeast of the capital city of Wellington. The City of Napier has an area of 106 square kilometres. Napier has also become an important grape and wine production area, with the grapes grown around Hastings, large amounts of sheeps wool, frozen meat, wood pulp, and timber also pass through Napier annually for export. Smaller amounts of materials are shipped via road and railway to the large metropolitan areas of New Zealand itself, such as Auckland. Napier is a popular tourist city, with a concentration of 1930s Art Deco architecture. It also has one of the most photographed tourist attractions in the country, thousands of people flock to Napier every February for the Tremains Art Deco Weekend event, a celebration of its Art Deco heritage and history. Other notable tourist events attracting many outsiders to the region annually include F. A. W. C, food and Wine Classic events, and the Mission Estate Concert at Mission Estate and Winery in the suburb of Taradale. Later, the Ngāti Kahungunu became the dominant force from Poverty Bay to Wellington and they were one of the first Māori tribes to come in contact with European settlers. The rivers were continually feeding freshwater into the area, captain James Cook was one of the first Europeans to see the future site of Napier when he sailed down the east coast in October 1769. He commented, On each side of this head is a low, narrow sand or stone beach. He said the harbour entrance was at the Westshore end of the shingle beach, the site was subsequently visited and later settled by European traders, whalers and missionaries. By the 1850s, farmers and hotel-keepers arrived, the Crown purchased the Ahuriri block in 1851. In 1854 Alfred Domett, a future Prime Minister of New Zealand, was appointed as the Commissioner of Crown Lands, Domett named many streets in Napier to commemorate the colonial era of the British Indian Empire. Napier was designated as a borough in 1874, but the development of the surrounding marshlands, development was generally confined to the hill and to the port area of Ahuriri. There was a swamp between the now Hastings Street and Wellesley Road and the sea extended to Clive Square, on 3 February 1931, most of Napier and nearby Hastings was levelled by an earthquake. The collapses of buildings and the fires killed 256 people
5. Nelson, New Zealand – Nelson is a city on the eastern shores of Tasman Bay, and is the economic and cultural centre of the Nelson Region. Nelson is the oldest city in the South Island and the second-oldest settled city in New Zealand, Nelson city is bordered to the west and south-west by the Tasman District Council and the north-east, east and south-east by the Marlborough District Council. The city does not include Richmond, the areas second-largest settlement, Nelson City has a population of around 50,000, making it New Zealands 12th most populous city and the geographical centre of New Zealand. When combined with the town of Richmond which has close to 14,000 residents, Nelson is well known for its thriving local arts and crafts scene, Each year, the city hosts events popular with locals and tourists alike, such as the Nelson Arts Festival. The annual Wearable Art Awards began near Nelson and a local museum, Nelson was named in honour of the Admiral Horatio Nelson who defeated both the French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Many roads and public areas around the city are named after people and ships associated with that battle, inhabitants of Nelson are referred to as Nelsonians. Nelsons Māori name, Whakatū, means build, raise, or establish, in an article to The Colonist newspaper on 16 July 1867, Francis Stevens described Nelson as The Naples of the Southern Hemisphere. Today, Nelson has the nicknames of Sunny Nelson due to its high sunshine hours per year or the Top of the South because of its geographic location, settlement of Nelson began about 700 years ago by Māori. There is evidence the earliest settlements in New Zealand are around the Nelson-Marlborough regions, the earliest recorded iwi in the Nelson district are the Ngāti Kuia, Ngāti Tumatakokiri, Ngāti Apa and Rangitane tribes. Raids from northern tribes in the 1820s, led by Te Rauparaha and his Ngāti Toa, soon decimated the local population, the New Zealand Company in London planned the settlement of Nelson. They intended to buy cheaply from the Māori some 200,000 acres which they planned to divide into one thousand lots, the Company earmarked future profits to finance the free passage of artisans and labourers and their families, and for the construction of public works. However, by September 1841 only about one third of the lots had sold, despite this the Colony pushed ahead, and land was surveyed by Frederick Tuckett. Three ships sailed from London under the command of Captain Arthur Wakefield, however, after some delay, Hobson allowed the Company to investigate the Tasman Bay area at the north end of the South Island. The Company selected the now occupied by Nelson City because it had the best harbour in the area. The Company secured a vague and undetermined area from the Māori for £800 that included Nelson, Waimea and this allowed the settlement to begin, but the lack of definition would prove the source of much future conflict. The three colony ships sailed into Nelson Haven during the first week of November 1841, within 18 months the Company had sent out 18 ships with 1052 men,872 women and 1384 children. However, fewer than ninety of the settlers had the capital to start as landowners, the early settlement of Nelson province included a proportion of German immigrants, who arrived on the ship Sankt Pauli and formed the nucleus of the villages of Sarau and Neudorf. These were mostly Lutheran Protestants with a number of Bavarian Catholics
6. New Plymouth – New Plymouth is the major city of the Taranaki Region on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand. It is named after the British city of Plymouth from where the first English settlers migrated, the New Plymouth District includes New Plymouth City and several smaller towns. The New Plymouth District is the 10th largest district in New Zealand, the district has a population of 74,184 – about two-thirds of the total population of the Taranaki Region. This includes New Plymouth City, Waitara, Inglewood, Oakura, Okato, the city itself is a service centre for the regions principal economic activities including intensive pastoral activities as well as oil, natural gas and petrochemical exploration and production. It is also the financial centre as the home of the TSB Bank. As described under awards, New Plymouth won multiple awards in 2008, the city was in 2010 chosen as one of two walking & cycling Model Communities by the government. Based on New Plymouths already positive attitude towards cyclists and pedestrians and it is also noted for being a coastal city with a mountain within 30 minutes drive, where residents and visitors to New Plymouth can snowboard, ski, water ski and surf all in the same day. In 1828 Richard Dicky Barrett set up a trading post at Ngamotu after arriving on the trading vessel Adventure, Barrett traded with the local Māori and helped negotiate the purchase of land from them on behalf of the New Zealand Company. Settlers were selected by the Plymouth Company, which was set up to attract emigrants from the West Country of England, the first of the towns settlers arrived on the William Bryan, which anchored off the coast on 31 March 1841. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 created the New Plymouth Province, with a Provincial Council given jurisdiction over an area of 400, five years later the name of the province changed to Taranaki Province. The province was abolished in 1876, a Town Board was formed in 1863 and in August 1876 the town was constituted as a borough. Its new status did little to overcome some outside perceptions, however, I find a great liking for this slow, old hole. It is a quiet, unassuming place and has not done so much to attract immigrants and settlers by exaggerating reports, as some districts have done. The Fitzroy Town District was merged with New Plymouth borough in August 1911, Vogeltown, Frankleigh Park and Westown were added a year later, by 1913 the town had a population of 7538. New Plymouth was declared a city in 1949, every three years the Mayor,14 councillors and 16 community board members are elected by the New Plymouth Districts enrolled voters. The full council, sub-committees and standing committees meet on a six-weekly cycle, the Policy and Monitoring standing committees have delegated authority from the council to make final decisions on certain matters, and they make recommendations to the council on all others. The four community boards–Clifton, Waitara, Inglewood and Kaitake–as well as the subcommittees, New Plymouth District Councils annual operating revenue for 2008/2009 is more than $188 million. The current Mayor of New Plymouth is Andrew Judd, in May 2016 Judd announced that he will not run for mayor again in the upcoming local government elections
7. Oamaru – Oamaru (/ɒməˈruː/, the largest town in North Otago, in the South Island of New Zealand, is the main town in the Waitaki District. It is 80 kilometres south of Timaru and 120 kilometres north of Dunedin, on the Pacific coast, and State Highway 1 and the railway Main South Line connect it to both. With a population of 13,850, Oamaru is the 28th largest urban area in New Zealand, the name Oamaru derives from Māori words meaning the place of Maru. The identity of Maru remains open to conjecture, there are some important archaeological sites around Oamaru. Those at the Waitaki River mouth and at Awamoa both date from the Archaic phase of Māori culture, when New Zealands human population clustered along the south-east coast from about AD1100, the Waitaki River mouth had at least 1,200 ovens. Awamoa saw the first archaeological excavation in New Zealand when W. B. D, mantell dug there at Christmas 1847 and in 1852. Smaller Archaic sites exist at Cape Wanbrow and at Beach Road in central Oamaru, the distinctive Archaic art of the Waitaki Valley rock shelters dates from this period — some of it presumably made by the occupants of these sites. The area also features Classic and Protohistoric sites, from after about AD1500, at Tamahaerewhenua, Tekorotuaheka, Te Punamaru, Papakaio and Kakanui. Māori tradition tells of the ancient people Kahui Tipua building a canoe, Arai Te Uru, on its return it became waterlogged off the Waitaki River mouth, lost food baskets at Moeraki beach and ended up wrecked at Matakaea where it turned into Danger Reef. Modern academics have suggested this tale is an explanation of the fact that kumara will not grow south of Banks Peninsula. On 20 February 1770 James Cook in the Endeavour reached a very close to the Waitaki mouth. He said the land here is low and flat and continues so up to the skirts of the Hills which are at least 4 or 5 Miles in land. The whole face of the Country appears barren, nor did we see any signs of inhabitants and he stayed on this part of the coast four days. Sydney Parkinson, the expeditions artist, described what seems to be Cape Wanbrow, on 20 February he wrote. we were near the land, which formed an agreeable view to the naked eye. The hills were of a height, having flats that extended from them a long way. Māori did live in the area, and sealers visited the coast in 1814, the Creed manuscript, discovered in 2003, records, Some of the people absent on a feasting expedition to meet a great party from Taumutu, Akaroa, Orawenua. The boat passed on to the Bluff 8 miles north of Moeraki where they landed & arranged their boat – & lay down to sleep in their boat. At night Pukuheke, father of Te More, went to the boat and they went with 100 killing 5 Europeans & eat them
8. Onehunga – Onehunga is a suburb of Auckland City in New Zealand and the location of the Port of Onehunga, the citys small port on the Manukau Harbour. It is eight kilometres south of the city centre, close to the cone of Maungakiekie/One Tree Hill. Onehunga is a residential and light-industrial suburb, according to the 2006 census, there were 7,824 residents in Onehunga. There are almost 1,000 commercial and industrial businesses in the area, Onehunga stretches south from Royal Oak to the north shore of the Manukau Harbour. To the east are the areas of Oranga and Te Papapa, to the west, on the southern shore of the Manukau Harbour, and linked to Onehunga by two bridges, is the suburb of Mangere Bridge. Onehunga is slightly unusual in that it has an underground freshwater source, the Onehunga aquifer. While most of drinking water of the Auckland area is drawn from reservoirs in the Hunua and Waitakere Ranges, the up to 20,000 m³ that are daily drawn from the source receive treatment in a local plant before being fed into the freshwater supply network. In contrast, while the waters of Western Springs also seep through the lava fields. The port area of Onehunga is now smaller than Aucklands east coast port on the Waitemata Harbour. The wharves are located on reclaimed land bordering a low volcanic crater called Te Hopua, once occupied by a tidal lagoon opening to the southwest, but which was also reclaimed. Onehungas southwestern side, near the Mangere Harbour, lost its direct waterfront access in the 1970s, when the Southwest Motorway was built there. Only a tidal lagoon remains on the city side, though in 2008, as of 2013, a project is underway to restore the Onehunga foreshore, which will be connected to the city-side park by a pedestrian and cycle bridge over State Highway 20. The name Onehunga is Māori and probably means place, referring to the Māori burial caves in the area. Another possible meaning is beach or sand for one and people for hunga, Onehunga was close to one of the richest areas of the Auckland Isthmus, and saw many battles in pre-European times. With the arrival of the Europeans, settlement of the Manukau Harbour area was begun from, raiding of enemy settlements also occurred from here as a base during the Māori Wars. However, by the war actually occurred, it was mostly fought with regular soldiers. During the 19th century most shipping between New Zealand and Great Britain came to Onehunga, via South Africa and Australia. While some shipping entered the Waitemata Harbour and docked at Auckland, much of it entered the Manukau Heads and docked at Onehunga, the Manukau Harbour was treacherous however but the coastal Steamship lines carried virtually all passenger and freight trade between Auckland and Wellington via Wanganui and Onehunga
9. Port Chalmers – Port Chalmers is a suburb and the main port of the city of Dunedin, New Zealand, with a population of 3,000. Port Chalmers lies ten kilometres inside Otago Harbour, some 15 kilometres northeast from Dunedins city centre, much of Port Chalmers is located on a small hilly peninsula, at the northern end of which is a large reclaimed area which is now the site of Dunedins container port. Close to the shore of this peninsula are a pair of islands. These two islands are Quarantine Island/Kamau Taurua and Goat Island, although the harbour beyond Port Chalmers is regularly dredged, most of the port activity is centred on Port Chalmers rather than on central Dunedin. Any big ships venturing into the upper harbour wharfs need to be piloted in with the help of tugs, according to Herries Beattie an old Māori name for Port Chalmers was Potakere or Pou-takere which may have indicated the hill where the tuahu, or altar, was sited. Koputai is a name and refers to an incident in which the tide rose. When a peace was made between Kati Mamoe and Kai Tahu, about 1780, Koputai was one of two southern terminuses of Kai Tahu territory. By February 1839 the Weller brothers of Otago on the side of the harbour had set up a saw pit which appears to have been at Sawyers Bay. By September the following year a big boat, supposedly the schooner Anne, was under construction, the first Christian service at Koputai was held by the Reverend James Watkin, the Wesleyan missionary at Waikouaiti, in 1842. Taiaroas cousin Kohi was living at Koputai Bay in 1843 but, according to Shortland, allowed himself to be strangled by Taiaroa, by 1844 the place was deserted. He nominated Koputai as its deep water port to be called Port Chalmers after the Presbyterian Free Church leader Thomas Chalmers, the sale of the Otago Block from Māori to the Otago Association was concluded at Port Chalmers 31 July 1844. Already, by June 9, there were two whares, Māori-style houses, and a pile of bricks waiting to be turned into Tucketts house, mr. and Mrs. Lethbridge were in residence, David Scott and several others. In December 1844 Alexander McKay and his wife arrived to open the first public house, the town was surveyed by Charles Kettle in 1846 and a Town Board was formed in that year. The first ships of Otago Association settlers, the John Wickliffe, thereafter the town developed as a port for the city and the province, superseding the earlier Otago as the harbours international port. It was first connected by lighter with Dunedin at the head of the harbour, then also by a road from North East Valley to Sawyers Bay. By the 1860s a harbourside road from the city had been formed. In 1866 the Town Board was superseded by a Borough, on 1 January 1873, the first 1,067 mm narrow gauge railway in New Zealand opened, the Port Chalmers Branch, linking Dunedin and Port Chalmers. 1881 saw the opening of the Victoria Ship Channel allowing ocean-going vessels passage up the harbour to central Dunedin,1882 saw the inauguration of New Zealands refrigerated meat trade when the ship Dunedin left Port Chalmers with the first such cargo
10. Tauranga – Tauranga is the most populous city in the Bay of Plenty Region of the North Island of New Zealand. It was settled by Māori late in the 13th century and by Europeans in the early 19th century and was constituted as a city in 1963, Tauranga City is the centre of the fifth largest urban area in New Zealand, with an urban population of 134,400. The city lies in the corner of the Bay of Plenty. Tauranga is one of New Zealands main centres for business, international trade, culture, fashion, the Port of Tauranga is New Zealands largest port in terms of gross export tonnage and efficiency. This sudden population growth has made Tauranga New Zealands 5th largest city, the earliest known settlers were Māori who arrived at Tauranga in the Takitimu and the Mataatua waka in the 13th century. At 9 am on Friday 23 June 1826 the Herald was the first European ship to enter Tauranga Harbour, henry Williams conducted a Christian service at Otamataha Pā. In December 1826 and again on March 2007 the Herald travelled to Tauranga from the Bay of Islands to obtain supplies of potatoes, pigs, in 1835 a Church Missionary Society mission station was established at Tauranga by William Wade. Rev. Alfred N. Brown arrived at the CMS mission station in 1838, john Morgan also visited the mission in 1838. Europeans trading in flax were active in the Bay of Plenty during the 1830s, some were transient, others married local women and settled permanently. The first permanent non-Maori trader was James Farrow, who travelled to Tauranga in 1829, obtaining flax fibre for Australian merchants in exchange for muskets and gunpowder. Farrow acquired an area of 2,000 square metres on 10 January 1838 at Otumoetai Pā from the chiefs Tupaea, Tangimoana and Te Omanu. In 1840, a Catholic mission station was established, bishop Pompallier was given land within the palisades of Otumoetai Pā for a church and a presbytery. The mission station closed in 1863 due to wars in the Waikato district. The Tauranga Campaign took place in and around Tauranga from 21 January to 21 June 1864, the Battle of Gate Pa is the best known. The battle of Gate Pā was an attack on the well fortified Pā and its Māori defenders on 29 April 1864 by British forces made up of approximately 300 men of the 43rd Regiment and a naval brigade. It was the single most devastating loss of life suffered by the British military in the whole of the Māori Wars, the British casualties were 31 dead including 10 officers and 80 wounded. The Māori defenders abandoned the Pā during the night with casualties estimated at 25 dead, under the Local Government Order 2003, Tauranga became legally a city for a second time, from 1 March 2004. In August 2011, Tauranga received Ultra-Fast Broadband as part of the New Zealand Governments rollout, Tauranga is located around a large harbour that extends along the western Bay of Plenty, and is protected by Matakana Island and the extinct volcano of Mauao
11. Timaru – The Timaru urban area is home to 28,800 people, and is the largest urban area in South Canterbury, and the second largest in the Canterbury Region overall, after Christchurch. The city is the seat of the Timaru District, which includes the rural area and the towns of Geraldine, Pleasant Point and Temuka. Caroline Bay beach is a recreational area located close to Timarus city centre. Beyond Caroline Bay, the suburb of Washdyke is at a major junction with State Highway 8. This provides a link to Fairlie, Twizel, Lake Tekapo, Aoraki / Mount Cook. Timaru has been built on rolling hills created from the flows of the extinct Mt Horrible volcano. The result is that most of the streets are undulating. This volcanic rock is used for the construction of local bluestone buildings, the origin of the name Timaru is disputed. Some believe that it derives from Māori Te Maru, which can mean a place of shelter, however, other authorities allege that Timaru originates from a literal translation of the combination of ti, a cabbage tree and maru, meaning shady. Māori canoes seem to have employed the site of Timaru as a place to rest on journeys up and down the eastern coastline for many years before the arrival of the first Europeans in the 19th century. The area includes over 500 sites with traces of Māori rock art, particularly in the rock overhangs and caves of the Opuha and Opihi river valleys, archaeologists have suggested that Māori tribes were permanently settled in the district before 1400 AD. During the 17th or 18th century the resident Ngāti Mamoe were driven southwards into Fiordland by an invasion of the Ngāi Tahu, European settlement began with the construction of a whaling station in 1839 by the Weller brothers of Otago at Patiti Point, close to the present town centre. A supply ship, The Caroline, provided the name for a local bay, later a sheep station, known as The Levels, was set up on land obtained by the Rhodes brothers, and run by George Rhodes. One of the earliest settlers was Captain Henry Cain, who set up a store in 1857 on behalf of Henry Le Cren of Lyttelton, few lived in Timaru until 1859 when the ship SS Strathallan arrived from England, carrying a party of 120 immigrants. Persistent land disputes arose between the brothers and local government officials with the result that two townships were established in the area, Government Town and Rhodestown. These eventually merged into a community in 1868. Given this division, until none of the main north-south streets lined up. Stafford Street, which became the thoroughfare, was formed along the early bullock wagon trail
12. Wellington – Wellington is the capital and second most populous urban area of New Zealand, with 405,000 residents. It is at the tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Rimutaka Range. Wellington is the population centre of the southern North Island and is the administrative centre of the Wellington Region. It is the worlds windiest city, with a wind speed of over 26 km/h. Situated near the centre of the country, Wellington was well placed for trade. In 1839 it was chosen as the first major planned settlement for British immigrants coming to New Zealand, the settlement was named in honour of the Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo. As the nations capital since 1865, the New Zealand Government and Parliament, Supreme Court, despite being much smaller than Auckland, Wellington is also referred to as New Zealands cultural capital. The city is home to the National Archives, the National Library, architectural sights include the Government Building—one of the largest wooden buildings in the world—as well as the iconic Beehive. Wellington plays host to artistic and cultural organisations, including the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra. It has an urban culture, with many cafés, restaurants. One of the worlds most liveable cities, the 2014 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranked Wellington 12th in the world, Wellingtons economy is primarily service-based, with an emphasis on finance, business services, and government. It is the centre of New Zealands film and special effects industries, Wellington ranks as one of New Zealands chief seaports and serves both domestic and international shipping. The city is served by Wellington International Airport, the third busiest airport in the country, Wellingtons transport network includes train and bus lines which reach as far as the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa, and ferries connect the city to the South Island. Wellington takes its name from Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo, his title comes from the town of Wellington in the English county of Somerset. One of the founders of the settlement, Edward Jerningham Wakefield, reported that the settlers took up the views of the directors with great cordiality, in Māori, Wellington has three names. In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is signed by raising the index, middle and ring fingers of one hand, palm forward, to form a W, and shaking it slightly from side to side twice. The citys location close to the mouth of the narrow Cook Strait leads to its vulnerability to strong gales, legends recount that Kupe discovered and explored the district in about the 10th century. The earliest date with hard evidence for Maori living in New Zealand is about 1280, European settlement began with the arrival of an advance party of the New Zealand Company on the ship Tory on 20 September 1839, followed by 150 settlers on the Aurora on 22 January 1840
13. Whanganui – Whanganui, also spelt Wanganui, is a city on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand. The Whanganui River, New Zealands longest navigable waterway, runs from Mount Tongariro to the sea, Whanganui is part of the Manawatu-Wanganui region. Like several New Zealand centres, it was designated a city until administrative reorganisation in 1989. Whanganui is located on the South Taranaki Bight, close to the mouth of the Whanganui River and it is 200 kilometres north of Wellington and 75 kilometres northwest of Palmerston North, at the junction of State Highways 3 and 4. Most of the lies on the rivers northwestern bank, due to the greater extent of flat land. Much of the town is on the rivers northwest bank, the river is crossed by four bridges – Cobham Bridge, City Bridge, Dublin Street Bridge and Aramoho Railway Bridge. Suburbs of the include, Gonville, Castlecliff, Tawhero, Springvale, St. Johns Hill, Otamatea, Aramoho, Wanganui East, Bastia Hill, Durie Hill. Of these, all except Wanganui East, Bastia Hill, Durie Hill, both Mount Ruapehu and Mount Taranaki can be seen from Durie Hill and other vantage points around the city. The area around the mouth of the Whanganui river was a site of pre-European Māori settlement. The pā named Pūtiki was and is home to the Ngāti Tūpoho hapū of the iwi Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi and it took its name from the legendary explorer Tamatea-pōkai-whenua, who sent a servant ashore to find flax for tying up his topknot. In the 1820s coastal tribes in the area assaulted the Kapiti Island stronghold of Ngāti Toa chief Te Rauparaha, Te Rauparaha retaliated in 1830 sacking Pūtiki and slaughtering the inhabitants. The first European traders arrived in 1831, followed in 1840 by missionaries Octavius Hadfield, on 20 June 1840, the Revd John Mason, Mrs Mason, Mr Richard Matthews and his wife Johanna arrived to establish a mission station of the Church Missionary Society. Revd Richard Taylor joined the CMS mission station in 1843, the Revd Mason drowned on 5 January 1843 while crossing the Turakina River. By 1844 the brick built by Mason was inadequate to meet the needs of the congregation. A new church was built under the supervision of Taylor, with the timber supplied by each pā on the river in proportion to its size, after the New Zealand Company had settled Wellington it looked for other suitable places for settlers. The settlement was threatened in 1846 by Te Mamaku, a chief from up the Whanganui River, the British military arrived on 13 December 1846 to defend the township. Two stockades, the Rutland and York, were built to defend the settlers, two minor battles were fought on 19 May and 19 July 1847 and after a stalemate the up river iwi returned home. By 1850 Te Mamaku was receiving Christian instruction from Revd Taylor, there were further incidents in 1847 when four members of the Gilfillan family were murdered and their house plundered
14. Whangarei – Whangarei is the northernmost city in New Zealand and the regional capital of Northland Region. It is part of the Whangarei District, a body created in 1989 to administer both the city proper and its hinterland from the former Whangarei City, Whangarei County and Hikurangi Town councils. The city population was estimated to be 56,400 at the June 2016, the wider Whangarei area had an estimated population of 85,900 in 2015. South and west of the city centre are Morningside, Raumanga, Maunu, Horahora, Woodhill, and the Avenues, and to the east are Riverside, Sherwood Rise, Onerahi, and Parihaka. The Māori iwi Ngāpuhi occupied Whangarei from the early 19th century, captain James Cook and the crew of the Endeavour were the first Europeans to contemplate the Whangarei Harbour entrance. On 15 November 1769 they caught about one hundred fish there which they classified as bream prompting Cook to name the area Bream Bay, in the 1820s the area was repeatedly attacked by Waikato and Ngāti Paoa raiders during the Musket Wars. The first European settler was William Carruth, a Scotsman and trader who arrived in 1839 and was joined, six years later, by Gilbert Mair and his family. For the most part, relations between the settlers and local Māori were friendly, but in February 1842, all farms were plundered in revenge for transgressions of tapu. In April 1845, during the Flagstaff War, all settlers fled from Whangarei, most of the original settlers never returned, but by the mid-1850s there were a number of farmers and orchardists in the area. From 1855, a town developed, driven by the kauri gum trade. Todays Town Basin on the Hātea River was the port and early exports included kauri gum and native timber followed later by coal from Whau Valley, Kamo. Coal from the Kiripaka field was exported via the Ngunguru River, by 1864, the nucleus of the present city was established. Fire bricks made from clay deposits near the Kamo mines supported a brick works over several decades. Local limestone is used in cement manufacture but the coal is now imported from the West Coast of the South Island. Whangarei was the most urbanised area in Northland towards the end of the 19th century, the district slowly exhausted most of its natural resources but was sustained by agriculture, especially dairying. Shipping was the transport link until the North Auckland railway line reached the town in 1925. These terrestrial travel routes forced a decline in coastal shipping. The population was 14,000 in 1945, but grew rapidly in the 1960s, incorporating Kamo, in 1964, Whangarei was declared a city