1920 Republican National Convention
The 1920 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States nominated Ohio Senator Warren G. Harding for President and Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge for Vice President. The convention was held in Chicago, Illinois, at the Chicago Coliseum from June 8 to June 12,1920, many Republicans sought the nomination, including General Leonard Wood, Illinois Governor Frank Lowden and California Senator Hiram Johnson. Dark horse Harding was nominated at the convention, many wanted to nominate Wisconsin Senator Irvine L. Lenroot for Vice President, but Coolidge was nominated instead, because he was known for his response to the Boston Police Strike in 1919. The convention adopted a platform opposed to the accession of the United States to the League of Nations, the plank was carefully drawn up by Henry Cabot Lodge to appease opponents of the League such as Johnson, while still allowing for eventual American entry into the League. At the start of the convention, the race was wide open, General Leonard Wood, Illinois Governor Frank Lowden, and California Senator Hiram Johnson were considered the three most likely, nominees.
Ohio Senator Warren G. Harding had been a front-runner, many expected a dark horse to be chosen, such as Pennsylvania Governor William Cameron Sproul, Pennsylvania Senator Philander C. Knox, Kansas Governor Henry Justin Allen, Massachusetts Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Sproul in particular had been gaining momentum at the expense of Lowden, the candidate of the conservative wing of the party. The issue of joining the League of Nations took center stage at the convention, the convention adjourned for the night after four ballots produced no clear leader, and many states stuck to favorite-son candidates. Conservatives strongly opposed Wood, while Lowden was opposed by the wing of the party. Harding emerged as a conservative candidate acceptable to the progressive wing of the party. After the eighth ballot, the recessed, During the recess. Harding was helped by the fact that the Democrats had nominated James M. Cox of Ohio, Harding jumped into the lead on the ninth ballot, and clinched the nomination on the tenth ballot.
Many thought that Johnson could have stopped the Harding movement by throwing his support behind Knox, Johnson disliked Hardings policies and disliked Harding personally, and was friends with Knox. However, Johnson never released his supporters, and Harding took the nomination, at that decisive time, the friends of Harding will suggest him and we can well afford to abide by the result. Daughertys prediction described essentially what occurred, but historians Richard C, bain and Judith H. Parris argue that Daughertys prediction has been given too much weight in narratives of the convention. Once the presidential nomination was finally settled and the party bosses asked Johnson to join the ticket as a balance to Harding. When Johnson turned down the offer, they approached Lenroot, who accepted, when Illinois Senator Medill McCormick stood up to nominate Lenroot, several delegates began to shout for Coolidge. A groundswell of support built up for Coolidge, who won the nomination over Lenroot, who was not at the convention during the vice presidential nomination, agreed to join the ticket
The 18th century lasted from January 1,1701 to December 31,1800 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age and this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789-, though compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power, the Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. The 18th century marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state, the once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued.
Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in North America in the 1760s, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States of America. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society, western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, 1700-1721, Great Northern War between Tsarist Russia and the Swedish Empire. 1701, Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I,1701, Ashanti Empire is formed under Osei Kofi Tutu I. 1701–1714, The War of the Spanish Succession is fought, involving most of continental Europe, 1701–1702, The Daily Courant and The Norwich Post become the first daily newspapers in England.
1702, Forty-seven Ronin attack Kira Yoshinaka and commit seppuku in Japan,1703, Saint Petersburg is founded by Peter the Great, it is the Russian capital until 1918. 1703–1711, The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy,1704, End of Japans Genroku period. 1704, First Javanese War of Succession,1705, George Frideric Handels first opera, premieres. 1706, War of the Spanish Succession, French troops defeated at the Battles of Ramilies,1706, The first English-language edition of the Arabian Nights is published. 1707, The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English Parliaments,1707, After Aurangzebs death, the Mughal Empire enters a long decline and the Maratha Empire slowly replaces it. 1707, Mount Fuji erupts in Japan for the first time since 1700,1707, War of 27 Years between the Marathas and Mughals ends in India
1864 National Union National Convention
The party name was created in May 1864, during the American Civil War, ahead of the 1864 presidential election, in which President Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, was running for reelection. Frémont, who had been the Republicans first presidential nominee during the 1856 election, the convention dropped then-Vice President Hannibal Hamlin, a Radical Republican from the ticket, and chose War Democrat Andrew Johnson as Lincolns running mate. The National Unionists hoped that the new party and the Lincoln-Johnson ticket would stress the national character of the war and it praised the use of black troops and Lincolns management of the war. On the first ballot, Missouri delegates cast their 22 votes for General Ulysses S. Grant, the Missourians quickly changed their votes to make Lincoln’s renomination unanimous. Andrew Johnson, the former Senator from and current Military Governor of Tennessee, was named as Lincolns running-mate, in keeping with the tradition of the time, Lincoln did not attend the convention
1908 Republican National Convention
The 1908 Republican National Convention was held in Chicago Coliseum, Illinois on June 16 to June 19,1908. It convened to nominate a successor to the popular GOP President, Theodore Roosevelt and his Vice President, in the event, United States Secretary of War William Howard Taft of Ohio won Roosevelts endorsement and received the nomination. The convention nominated New York Representative James Schoolcraft Sherman to be his running mate. In foreign policy, it supported a buildup of the forces, protection of American citizens abroad, extension of foreign commerce, vigorous arbitration and the Hague treaties. Merchant Marine, support of war veterans, self-government for Cuba, the platform lastly expressed pride in U. S. The following individuals spoke at the 1908 Republican National Convention, many spoke with the goal of nominating a specific nominee as this was before the age of the primary and they were all decided at the convention. Entering the convention, buoyed by the support of the popular Roosevelt, was assured of the nomination.
Taft won the nomination on the first ballot, overcoming Fairbanks. Sherman was a fairly conservative Republican who was acceptable to the more progressive wing of the party. Sherman won the presidential nomination on the first ballot, taking 816 of the 979 votes cast
1892 Republican National Convention
The 1892 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held at the Industrial Exposition Building, Minnesota, from June 7 to June 10,1892. The party nominated President Benjamin Harrison for re-election on the first ballot, james S. Clarkson of Iowa was the outgoing chairman of the Republican National Committee. J. Sloat Fassett of New York was Temporary Chairman, future president William McKinley tied Blaine for second place among the delegates. He lost the fall 1892 election to former president Grover Cleveland, the 1892 RNC was the first convention where women were allowed to be delegates. Therese Alberta Jenkins, delegate from Wyoming, cast the first vote by a woman for president, Wyoming had granted full suffrage for women at statehood in 1890. The Candidates, Source, US President - R Convention, Source, US Vice President - R Convention. Incumbent Vice President Levi Morton was dumped from the ticket, as Harrison was not particularly fond of Morton and Morton was closer to Blaine supporters, Morton was replaced by Ohioan and Ambassador, Whitelaw Reid.
This was the first and so far only time in U. S, political History where the Presidential and Vice-Presidential nominees were both graduates from the same university. It expressed sympathy for the Irish Home Rule Movement and the plight of Jews under persecution in czarist Russia and we call attention to its growth abroad. We maintain that the condition of our country is largely due to the wise revenue legislation of the Republican Congress. We assert that the prices of manufactured articles of consumption have been reduced under the operations of the tariff act of 1890. The interests of the producers of the country, its farmers and its workingmen, demand that every dollar, paper or coin, issued by the government, SOUTHERN OUTRAGES We denounce the continued inhuman outrages perpetrated upon American citizens for political reasons in certain Southern States of the Union. We reaffirm our approval of the Monroe Doctrine and believe in the achievement of the manifest destiny of the Republic in its broadest sense and we favor the enactment of stringent laws and regulations for the restriction of criminal and contract immigration.
The ultimate reliance of free popular government is the intelligence of the people, and we commend the spirit and evidence of reform in the civil service, and the wise and consistent enforcement by the Republican party of the laws regulating the same. TERRITORIES We favor the admission of the remaining Territories at the earliest practicable date, having due regard to the interests of the people of the Territories and of the United States. All the Federal officers appointed for the Territories should be selected from bona-fide residents thereof, INTEMPERANCE We sympathize with all wise and legitimate efforts to lessen and prevent the evils of intemperance and promote morality. HARRISONS ADMINISTRATION We commend the able and thoroughly American administration of President Harrison, United States presidential election,1892 Huber, Molly. Republican Party platform of 1892 at The American Presidency Project Harrison acceptance letter at The American Presidency Project
1868 Republican National Convention
The 1868 Republican National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held in Crosbys Opera House, Cook County, Illinois, on May 20 to May 21,1868. General Ulysses S. Grant had emerged as the frontrunner for the Republican presidential nomination after being the Union commander in the Civil War and he was nominated for President unopposed on the first ballot. To balance Grant, a former Democrat and a drinker, the convention chose House Speaker Schuyler Colfax. In Grants acceptance telegram he said Let us have peace, which captured the imagination of the American people, benjamin F. Wade John A. J. Creswell Andrew G. Curtin Reuben E. Fenton Hannibal Hamlin James Harlan William D. Kelley Samuel C. Pomeroy James Speed Henry Wilson United States presidential election,1868 Presidential election,1868, proceedings of the National union Republican convention, held at Chicago, May 20 and 21,1868. / reported by Ely, Burnham & Bartlett, official reporters of the convention. Republican Party Platform of 1868 at The American Presidency Project
420 (cannabis culture)
420,4,20, or 4/20 is a code-term that refers to the consumption of cannabis, especially smoking cannabis around the time 4,20 p. m. /a. m. and smoking and celebrating cannabis on the date April 20. The Waldos designated the Louis Pasteur statue on the grounds of San Rafael High School as their meeting place, the Waldos referred to this plan with the phrase 4,20 Louis. Several failed attempts to find the crop eventually shortened their phrase to simply 4,20, hager wrote Stoner Smart or Stoner Stupid. in which he called for 4,20 p. m. to be the socially accepted hour of the day to consume cannabis. He attributes the early spread of the phrase to Grateful Dead followers, April 20 has become a counterculture holiday in North America, where people gather to celebrate and consume cannabis. Some events have a nature to them, advocating for the legalization of cannabis. Events have occurred in London, United Kingdom, in Hyde Park, snapchat has a 420 face filter option on April 20. The filter shall show the text 420 on April 20 and this filter disappears the day after April 20.
Signs bearing the number 420 have been frequently stolen, in Colorado, the Colorado Department of Transportation replaced the Mile Marker 420 sign on I-70 east of Denver with one reading 419.99 in an attempt to stop the thievery. The Idaho Department of Transportation replaced the Mile Marker 420 sign on U. S. Highway 95, just south of Coeur dAlene and that marker was eventually stolen as well, leading ITD to just post the marker with spray paint on the pavement. In Goodhue County, officials have changed 420 St street signs to 42x St, in 2003, California Senate Bill 420 was introduced to regulate medical marijuana use, in deliberate reference to the status of 420 in marijuana culture. An unsuccessful 2010 bill to legalize cannabis in Guam was called Bill 420
1924 Republican National Convention
The 1924 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held in Cleveland, Ohio, at the Public Auditorium from June 10 to June 12. For this convention the method of allocating delegates changed in order to reduce the overrepresentation of the South and it made history by being the first GOP convention to give women equal representation. The Republican National Committee approved a rule providing for a national committee-man, more controversy ensued over whether to condemn the Ku Klux Klan with the result ultimately being to say nothing either way. President Calvin Coolidge was formally nominated for a term and went on to win the general election. The convention nominated Illinois Governor Frank Lowden for Vice President on the second ballot, the convention selected Charles G. Dawes. Also considered for the nomination was Senator Charles Curtis of Kansas, Coolidge faced a challenge from California Senator Hiram Johnson and Wisconsin Senator Robert La Follette in the 1924 Republican primaries.
Coolidge fended off his progressive challengers with convincing wins in the Republican primaries, after his defeat in the primaries, La Follette ran a third party candidacy that attracted significant support. Former Vice President Coolidge had ascended to the presidency after the death of Warren G. Harding in 1923, as the 25th Amendment had not yet been passed, Coolidge served the remainder of Hardings term without a vice president. The 1924 Republican Convention was thus tasked with picking a mate for Coolidge. With Coolidge having locked up re-nomination, most attention was focused on the presidential nomination. Coolidges first choice was reported to be Idaho Senator William E. Borah, a progressive Westerner, despite saying that he would not accept the nomination, Lowden was nominated for Vice President on the second ballot over Dawes and Ohio Congressman Theodore E. Burton. However, Lowden declined the nomination, an action, that as of 2017, has never been repeated, the Republicans thus held a new vice presidential ballot, with Coolidge favoring Hoover.
However, the Republicans picked Dawes, partly as a reaction to the dominance of Coolidge in running the convention. Each of the three days of the convention opened with an invocation by a different clergymen—one Methodist, one Jewish. Each was listed among the officers as an official chaplain. On June 10, the prayer was given by William F. Anderson. Among other things, he called for stricter observance of the law, the next days session was opened by Rev. Dr. Samuel Schulman, rabbi of Temple Beth-El in New York. Speaking of Calvin Coolidge, he praised the integrity, the wisdom, on June 12, the final days invocation was given by Roman Catholic Bishop Joseph Schrembs of Cleveland
300-page iPhone bill
Ezariks video focused on the unnecessary waste of paper, as the detailed bill itemized all data transfers made during the billing period, including every email and text message. The information technology magazine Computerworld included this incident in its list of Technologys 10 Most Mortifying Moments, Apple released the iPhone in the United States with a software lock so it could only be used on the AT&T Mobility network. Detailed billing itemized every data transfer, including background traffic for e-mail, text messaging and this generated a large number of entries on the detailed bills. After a months time, as early adopters started receiving their first monthly bills, stories of unusually large, the 300-page bill was exceptional, but other heavy users received 50- to 100-page bills. However, it was the release of Justine Ezariks video that acted as a catalyst to bring media attention to this aspect of the iPhone story. She posted the edited one-minute clip to several popular Internet video hosting services by the following Monday, total views were reported to exceed 8 million by the end of 2007.
Ezarik said she earned $2,000 from the video from Revver, ABC News Now included independent reporting by an ABC News Radio reporter in their video interview. Ezariks Internet video commentary focused on the waste of paper billing. In the video she highlights the physical size of the bill, I have an iPhone and I had to switch to AT&T. So, thats wonderful. Well, I got my first AT&T bill, right here in a box, the rest of the video, set to the distinctive music used in American iPhone television commercials, shows her opening the box and flipping through the pages in fast motion. The clip ends with the caption, Use e-billing. Her other comments followed along the same lines, in a blog posting, she wrote, they give you a detailed transaction of every text message sent and received. She told a USA Today reporter, This is so silly and she had no complaints about the iPhone itself, saying, I made the video only to point out the comical aspect of my phone bill being delivered in a box. AT&T Mobility, the phone service provider for the iPhone.
Were not sending lots of boxed bills to customers, he told USA Today and he said that the billing is the same for all AT&T mobile users, but the popularity and functionality of the iPhone gave it new visibility. Its no different than any other bill for any other device or any other service that we offer. Later, on August 18, AT&T issued a statement saying, also, we have for years encouraged our customers to switch to online billing because it is convenient and environmentally friendly. Then, on August 22, AT&T announced via text message to users that it was removing itemized detail from paper bills
The 19th century was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the worlds land, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, europes population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century, London became the worlds largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later, liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe.
Slavery was greatly reduced around the world, following a successful slave revolt in Haiti and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UKs Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, americas 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia, in the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America. The 19th century saw the creation and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain. Also, ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time. 1801, Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab,1801, Napoleon signs the Concordat of 1801 with the Pope. 1801, Cairo falls to the British,1801, Assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia. 1802, Ludwig van Beethoven performs his Moonlight Sonata for the first time,1803, William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the first practical steamboat.
1803, The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out Frances territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U. S. s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain,1803, The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina
1856 Republican National Convention
The 1856 Republican National Convention, known as the first Republican National Convention, met from June 17 to June 19,1856, at the Musical Fund Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. The gathering nominated Major General and former Senator John C, Frémont of California and former Senator William Dayton of New Jersey for President and Vice President, respectively, as the fledgling partys standard-bearers the 1856 presidential election. The convention appointed a Republican National Committee to govern the new organization, on June 19,1855, a small gathering of like-minded individuals met in Washington, D. C. A number of organizations were soon established along similar lines. This was slated to begin on June 17,1856, in Philadelphia, each state organization was to be allocated six at-large delegates, plus three delegates for each congressional district. The candidates to be nominated by the New Republican party were first nominated by the Antislavery rump of the American party, the anti-slavery Americans from the North formed their own party after the nomination of Fillmore in Philadelphia.
This party called for its convention to be held in New York, New York. Party leaders hoped to nominate a joint ticket with the Republicans to defeat Buchanan, the national convention was held on June 12 to 20,1856 in New York. The delegates voted repeatedly on a nominee for president without a result, banks was nominated for president on the 10th ballot over John C. Frémont and John McLean, with the understanding that he would withdraw from the race, Frémont once he had won the Republican nomination. The delegates, preparing to return home, unanimously nominated Frémont on the 11th ballot shortly after his nomination by the Republican Party in Philadelphia, the chairman of the convention, William F. The first Republican National Convention was held in the Musical Fund Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Frémont, John McLean, William Seward, Salmon Chase, and Charles Sumner all were considered by those at the convention, but the latter three requested that their names be withdrawn. McLeans name was withdrawn by his manager Rufus Spalding.
Frémont was nominated for president overwhelmingly on the ballot. Gienapp, William E. Origins of the Republican Party, 1852–1856, Charles W. ed. Minneapolis, MN, Harrison and Smith, Printers. Republican Party Platform of 1856 at The American Presidency Project OurCampaigns overview of the First Republican National Convention