Pages in category "PostScript"
The following 15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. PostScript – PostScript is a page description language in the electronic publishing and desktop publishing business. It is a typed, concatenative programming language and was created at Adobe Systems by John Warnock, Charles Geschke, Doug Brotz, Ed Taft. The concepts of the PostScript language were seeded in 1976 when John Warnock was working at Evans & Sutherland, at that time John Warnock was developing an interpreter for a large three-dimensional graphics database of New York harbor. Warnock conceived the Design System language to process the graphics, concurrently, researchers at Xerox PARC had developed the first laser printer and had recognized the need for a standard means of defining page images. In 1975-76 Bob Sproull and William Newman developed the Press format, but Press, a data format rather than a language, lacked flexibility, and PARC mounted the Interpress effort to create a successor. In 1978 Evans & Sutherland asked Warnock to move from the San Francisco Bay Area to their headquarters in Utah. He then joined Xerox PARC to work with Martin Newell and they rewrote Design System to create J & M which was used for VLSI design and the investigation of type and graphics printing. This work later evolved and expanded into the Interpress language, Warnock left with Chuck Geschke and founded Adobe Systems in December 1982. They, together with Doug Brotz, Ed Taft and Bill Paxton created a language, similar to Interpress, called PostScript. At about this time they were visited by Steve Jobs, who urged them to adapt PostScript to be used as the language for driving laser printers. In March 1985, the Apple LaserWriter was the first printer to ship with PostScript, the combination of technical merits and widespread availability made PostScript a language of choice for graphical output for printing applications. For a time an interpreter for the PostScript language was a component of laser printers. However, the cost of implementation was high, computers output raw PS code that would be interpreted by the printer into an image at the printers natural resolution. This required high performance microprocessors and ample memory, the LaserWriter used a 12 MHz Motorola 68000, making it faster than any of the Macintosh computers to which it attached. When the laser printer engines themselves cost over a thousand dollars the added cost of PS was marginal, the first version of the PostScript language was released to the market in 1984. The term Level 1 was added when Level 2 was introduced, PostScript 3 came at the end of 1997, and along with many new dictionary-based versions of older operators, introduced better color handling, and new filters. Prior to the introduction of PostScript, printers were designed to print character output given the text—typically in ASCII—as input and this changed to some degree with the increasing popularity of dot matrix printers. The characters on these systems were drawn as a series of dots, dot matrix printers also introduced the ability to print raster graphics
2. Evince – Evince is a document viewer for PDF, PostScript, DjVu, TIFF, XPS and DVI formats. It was designed for the GNOME desktop environment, the developers of Evince intended to replace the multiple GNOME document viewers with a single and simple application. The Evince motto sums up the project aim, Simply a Document Viewer, GNOME releases have included Evince since GNOME2.12. Evince code consists mainly of C, with a part written in C++. A large number of Linux distributions – including Ubuntu, Fedora, Evince is free and open-source software subject to the requirements of the GNU General Public License version 2 or later. The Evince FAQ highlights the meaning of the word Evince as to show or express something clearly, Evince began as a rewrite of GPdf, which its support programmers had started to find unwieldy to maintain. Evince quickly surpassed the functionality of GPdf and replaced both GPdf and GGV in the September 2005 release of GNOME2.12, Evince is included on the VALO-CD, a collection of all the best Windows programs. Evince incorporates a search that displays the number of results found. Users can optionally display thumbnails of pages to assist in page navigation within a document, when documents support indices, Evince gives the option of showing the document index for quickly moving from one section to another. Evince can show two pages at a time, left and right, and offers full-screen and slide-show views, Evince allows the selection of text in PDF files and allows users to highlight and copy text from documents made from scanned images, if the PDF includes OCR data. Evince used to obey the DRM restrictions of PDF files, which may prevent copying, printing, or converting some PDF files, however this has been made optional, and turned off by default in gconf. Evince supports many different single and multi-page document formats, Built-in support PDF using the Poppler backend PostScript using the Ghostscript backend, the Windows package of Evince ships with a copy of Ghostscripts libgs version 8, so no external Ghostscript installation is needed on that platform
3. Ghostscript – Ghostscript is a suite of software based on an interpreter for Adobe Systems PostScript and Portable Document Format page description languages. Its main purposes are the rasterization or rendering of such page description language files, for the display or printing of document pages, and the conversion between PostScript and PDF files. Ghostscript can be used as an image processor for raster computer printers—for instance, as an input filter of line printer daemon—or as the RIP engine behind PostScript. Ghostscript can also be used as a file format converter, such as PostScript to PDF converter, the ps2pdf conversion program, which comes with the ghostscript distribution, is described by its documentation as a work-alike for nearly all the functionality of Adobes Acrobat Distiller product. This converter is basically a thin wrapper around ghostscripts pdfwrite output device, Ghostscript can also serve as the back-end for PDF to raster image converter, this is often combined with a PostScript printer driver in virtual printer PDF creators. As it takes the form of an interpreter, Ghostscript can also be used as a general purpose programming environment. Ghostscript has been ported to many operating systems, including Unix-like systems, classic Mac OS, OpenVMS, Microsoft Windows, Plan 9, MS-DOS, FreeDOS, OS/2, Atari TOS and AmigaOS. Ghostscript was originally written by L. Peter Deutsch for the GNU Project, with version 8.54 in 2006, both development branches were merged again, and dual-licensed releases were still provided. Ghostscript is currently owned by Artifex Software and maintained by Artifex Software employees, according to Artifex, as of version 9. Artifex point of view on aggregated software was challenged in court for MuPDF, in February 2013, Ghostscript changed its license from GPLv3 to GNU AGPL, which raised license compatibility questions for example by Debian. AGPL Ghostscript is the variant available, since February 2013. GNU Ghostscript is part of the GNU project and is now derived from GPL Ghostscript, ESP Ghostscript was distributed by Easy Software Products under the GPL. It was based on GPL Ghostscript and contains several modifications to improve compatibility with ESPs Common Unix Printing System and this version is no longer developed, since it was merged with GPL Ghostscript. Ghostscript is the current commercial proprietary version licensed by Artifex Software for inclusion in closed-source products, ghost Trap is a variant of GPL Ghostscript secured and sandboxed using Google Chromes sandbox technology. Aladdin Ghostscript was before June 2006 the leading edge of Ghostscript development, the GPL version is also used as the basis for a Display Ghostscript, which adds the functionality needed to fully support Display PostScript. Uses the libspectre library to render postscript, which in turn needs libgs from ghostscript, the current Windows package of Evince comes with libgs version 8. GSview runs under Microsoft Windows, OS/2, and Unix-like operating systems and it is best known in its Windows and OS/2 versions. On UNIX it uses the GTK+ toolkit, although released under Aladdin Free Public Licence, it also employs a nag screen to urge users to register so as to support the development of GSview
4. MetaPost – MetaPost refers to both a programming language and the interpreter of the MetaPost programming language. Both are derived from Donald Knuths Metafont language and interpreter, MetaPost produces diagrams in the PostScript programming language from a geometric/algebraic description. The language shares Metafonts declarative syntax for manipulating lines, curves, points, the MetaPost language can include text labels on the diagrams, either strings from a specified font, or anything else that can be typeset with TeX. Many of the limitations of MetaPost derive from features of Metafont, moreover, MetaPost does not support all features of PostScript. Most notably, paths can have one segment, and regions can be filled only with uniform colours. PostScript level 1 supports tiled patterns and PostScript 3 supports Gouraud shading, to this end, the Asymptote graphics language has been developed to address these shortcomings. MetaPost is distributed with many distributions of the TeX and Metafont framework, in particular, it is included in the teTeX and the TeX Live distribution, common on Linux and Unix platforms. The encapsulated postscript produced by Metapost can be included in TeX, ConTeXt and this output can also be included in the PDFTeX dialect of TeX, thus directly giving PDF output from TeX. This ability is implemented in ConTeXt and in the LaTeX graphics package, ConTeXt even supports the creation of MetaPost files from within the TeX file. This is a single file example. mp which when processed by the MetaPost interpreter produces three eps files example.1, example.2, example.3 and these are pictured on the right. The resulting three eps files can be used in TeX via LaTeXs \includegraphics command, ConTeXts \externalfigure, Plain TeXs \epsfbox command, to view or print the third diagram, this inclusion is necessary, as the TeX fonts are not included in the eps files produced by MetaPost. Available as a file mpman. ps distributed with MetaPost, or from the Bell Labs web site, also available in PDF format from CTAN
5. NeWS – NeWS is a discontinued windowing system developed by Sun Microsystems in the mid-1980s. Originally known as SunDew, its authors were James Gosling. The NeWS interpreter was based on PostScript extending it to allow interaction, like PostScript, NeWS could be used as a complete programming language, but unlike PostScript, NeWS could be used to make complete interactive programs with mouse support and a GUI. It also added a complete view hierarchy, based on known as canvases. Like the view system in most GUIs, NeWS included the concept of a tree of embedded views along which events were passed, for instance, a mouse click would generate an event that would be passed to the object directly under the mouse pointer, say a button. If this object did not respond to the event, the object under the button would then receive the message, the input handling system was designed to provide strong event synchronization guarantees that were not possible with asynchronous protocols like X. To support user interface widgets, NeWS expanded the original PostScript stack-based language into an object oriented programming style with inheritance. This eliminated the need for an external OO language to build a complete application, since all of these additions were implemented as extensions to PostScript, it was possible to write simple PostScript code that would result in a running, onscreen, interactive program. Two popular demonstration programs were an onscreen clock, which required about two pages of code, and a program which drew a pair of eyes that followed the cursor as it moved around the screen. The eyeball program was shown at SIGGRAPH in 1988, and was the inspiration for the later well-known X application xeyes, NeWS included several libraries of user interface elements, themselves written in NeWS. These widgets ran all of their behaviour in the NeWS interpreter, for example, a toggle buttons display routine can query the buttons state and change its display accordingly. The buttons PostScript code can also react to mouse clicks by changing its state from pressed to not pressed and vice versa. All this can happen in the server without interaction with the client program. If client and server are not on the machine, these interactions must travel over the network. NeWS was architecturally similar to what is now called AJAX, except that NeWS coherently, used PostScript graphics instead of DHTML and CSS for rendering. Used PostScript data instead of XML and JSON for data representation, the best example of such a library is TNT which Sun released in 1989. Sun also shipped an earlier Lite toolkit intended for example purposes, although adoption was never widespread, several companies licensed NeWS and adapted it for various uses. SGI used a version of it named 4Sight to replace their proprietary MEX windowing system, grasshopper Group created a Macintosh port called MacNeWS
6. Okular – Okular is the document viewer for KDE SC4. It is based on KPDF and it replaced KPDF, KGhostView, KFax, KFaxview and its functionality can be easily embedded in other applications. Okular was started for the Google Summer of Code of 2005, Okular was identified as a success story of the 2007 Season of Usability. In this season the Okular toolbar mockup was created based on an analysis of other popular document viewers, okulars annotation features include commenting on PDF documents, highlighting and drawing lines, geometric shapes, adding textboxes, and stamps. Annotations are stored separately from the unmodified PDF file, or can be saved in the document as standard PDF annotations, text can be extracted to a text file. It is possible to select parts of the document and copy the text or image to the clipboard and this can be turned off in the options under Obey DRM limitations, however. List of PDF software Evince, the counterpart PDF viewer for GNOME Okular home page Okular user wiki
7. Zathura (document viewer) – Zathura is a free, plugin-based document viewer. Plugins are available for PDF, PostScript, DjVu, and EPUB and it was written to be lightweight and controlled with vim-like keybindings. Zathuras customizability makes it well-liked by many Linux users, Zathura has a mature, well-established codebase and a large development team. It has official packages available in Arch Linux, Debian, Fedora, Gentoo, OpenBSD, OpenSUSE, Source Mage GNU/Linux, Ubuntu, development on Zathura began on 12 August 2009. On 18 September 2009, version 0.0.1 was announced to the Arch Linux community, Zathura has been an official Arch Linux package since April 2010. Same year, by the end of July it was imported into Source Mage test grimoire and it has been an official Debian package since at least 2011, as part of Debian Squeeze. When working in compiled documents such as written in LaTeX. Zathura has the option of enabling inverse search, Zathura can adjust the document to best-fit or to fit width, and it can rotate pages. It can view pages side-by-side and has a fullscreen mode, pages can also be recolored to have a black background and white foreground. Zathura can search for text and copy text to the primary X selection and it supports bookmarks and can open encrypted files. The behavior and appearance of Zathura can be customised using a configuration file, Zathura has the ability to execute external shell commands. It can be opened in tabs using tabbed, list of PDF software Zathura Official website Arch Linux list of document viewers