Pages in category "Poststructuralists"
The following 52 pages are in this category, out of 52 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 52 pages are in this category, out of 52 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Poststructuralism – Existential phenomenology is a significant influence, Colin Davis has argued that post-structuralists might just as accurately be called post-phenomenologists. Post-structuralist philosophers like Derrida and Foucault did not form a self-conscious group, Structuralism rejected the phenomenological idea that knowledge could be centred on the human knower, and sought what they considered a more secure foundation for knowledge. In phenomenology, this foundation is experience itself, in structuralism, knowledge is founded on the structures that make possible, concepts. By contrast, post-structuralism argues that founding knowledge either on experience or systematic structures is impossible. This impossibility was not meant as a failure or loss, a major theory associated with Structuralism was binary opposition. This theory proposed that there are theoretical and conceptual opposites, often arranged in a hierarchy. Such binary pairs could include Enlightenment/Romantic, male/female, speech/writing, rational/emotional, signifier/signified, the only way to properly understand these meanings is to deconstruct the assumptions and knowledge systems that produce multiplicity, the illusion of singular meaning. It emphasized the logical and scientific nature of its results, post-structuralism offers a way of studying how knowledge is produced and critiques structuralist premises. It argues that history and culture condition the study of underlying structures. A post-structuralist approach argues that to understand an object, it is necessary to both the object itself and the systems of knowledge that produced the object. Post-structuralists generally assert that post-structuralism is historical, and they classify structuralism as descriptive and this terminology relates to Ferdinand de Saussures distinction between the views of historical and descriptive reading. From this basic distinction, post-structuralist studies often emphasize history to analyze descriptive concepts, by studying how cultural concepts have changed over time, post-structuralists seek to understand how those same concepts are understood by readers in the present. For example, Michel Foucaults Madness and Civilization is both a history and an inspection of cultural attitudes about madness, the uncertain distance between structuralism and post-structuralism is further blurred by the fact that scholars rarely label themselves as post-structuralists. Some scholars associated with structuralism, such as Roland Barthes and Foucault, some observers from outside the post-structuralist camp have questioned the rigor and legitimacy of the field. American philosopher John Searle argued in 1990 that The spread of poststructuralist literary theory is perhaps the best known example of a silly, similarly, physicist Alan Sokal in 1997 criticized the postmodernist/poststructuralist gibberish that is now hegemonic in some sectors of the American academy. Has elicited wrong film and literary theory on a grand scale, one can find dozens of books of literary theory bogged down in signifiers and signifieds, but only a handful that refer to Chomsky. Post-structuralism emerged in France during the 1960s as a movement critiquing structuralism, merquior a love–hate relationship with structuralism developed among many leading French thinkers in the 1960s. In a 1966 lecture Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences, Jacques Derrida presented a thesis on an apparent rupture in intellectual life, Derrida interpreted this event as a decentering of the former intellectual cosmos
2. Roland Barthes – Roland Gérard Barthes was a French literary theorist, philosopher, linguist, critic, and semiotician. Roland Barthes was born on 12 November 1915 in the town of Cherbourg in Normandy and his father, naval officer Louis Barthes, was killed in a battle during World War I in the North Sea before Barthes first birthday. His mother, Henriette Barthes, and his aunt and grandmother raised him in the village of Urt, when Barthes was eleven, his family moved to Paris, though his attachment to his provincial roots would remain strong throughout his life. Barthes showed great promise as a student and spent the period from 1935 to 1939 at the Sorbonne and he was plagued by ill health throughout this period, suffering from tuberculosis, which often had to be treated in the isolation of sanatoria. His repeated physical breakdowns disrupted his career, affecting his studies. They also exempted him from service during World War II. His life from 1939 to 1948 was largely spent obtaining a license in grammar and philology, publishing his first papers, taking part in a medical study and he received a diplôme détudes supérieures from the University of Paris in 1941 for his work in Greek tragedy. In 1948, he returned to academic work, gaining numerous short-term positions at institutes in France, Romania. During this time, he contributed to the leftist Parisian paper Combat, out of which grew his first full-length work, in 1952, Barthes settled at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, where he studied lexicology and sociology. During his seven-year period there, he began to write a series of bi-monthly essays for the magazine Les Lettres Nouvelles. Knowing little English, Barthes taught at Middlebury College in 1957 and befriended the future English translator of much of his work, Richard Howard, that summer in New York City. Barthes spent the early 1960s exploring the fields of semiology and structuralism, chairing various faculty positions around France, many of his works challenged traditional academic views of literary criticism and of renowned figures of literature. By the late 1960s, Barthes had established a reputation for himself and he traveled to the US and Japan, delivering a presentation at Johns Hopkins University. Barthes continued to contribute with Philippe Sollers to the literary magazine Tel Quel. In 1970, Barthes produced what many consider to be his most prodigious work, throughout the 1970s, Barthes continued to develop his literary criticism, he developed new ideals of textuality and novelistic neutrality. In 1971, he served as visiting professor at the University of Geneva, in 1975 he wrote an autobiography titled Roland Barthes and in 1977 he was elected to the chair of Sémiologie Littéraire at the Collège de France. In the same year, his mother, Henriette Barthes, to whom he had been devoted, died, aged 85 and they had lived together for 60 years. The loss of the woman who had raised and cared for him was a blow to Barthes
3. Jean Baudrillard – Jean Baudrillard was a French sociologist, philosopher, cultural theorist, political commentator, and photographer. He is best known for his analyses of media, contemporary culture and he wrote about diverse subjects, including consumerism, gender relations, economics, social history, art, Western foreign policy, and popular culture. Among his best known works are Simulacra and Simulation, America and his work is frequently associated with postmodernism and specifically post-structuralism. Baudrillard was born in Reims, northeastern France, on 27 July 1929 and his grandparents were peasant farm workers and his father a policeman. During high school, he became aware of pataphysics, which is said to be crucial for understanding Baudrillards later thought and he became the first of his family to attend university when he moved to Paris to attend the Sorbonne. There he studied German language and literature, which led him to teaching the subject at several different lycées. Subsequently, he began teaching sociology at the Paris X Nanterre, during this time, Baudrillard worked closely with Philosopher Humphrey De Battenburge, who described Baudrillard as a visionary. At Nanterre he took up a position as Maître Assistant, then Maître de Conférences, eventually becoming a professor after completing his accreditation, LAutre par lui-même. In 1970, Baudrillard made the first of his trips to the United States, and in 1973. He was given his first camera in 1981 in Japan, which led to his becoming a photographer, in 1986 he moved to IRIS at the Université de Paris-IX Dauphine, where he spent the latter part of his teaching career. He nonetheless continued supporting the Institut de Recherche sur lInnovation Sociale at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and was Satrap at the Collège de Pataphysique. Baudrillard taught at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland, and collaborated at the Canadian theory, culture, and technology review Ctheory and he also participated in the International Journal of Baudrillard Studies from its inception in 2004 until his death. In 1999–2000, his photographs were exhibited at the Maison européenne de la photographie in Paris, in 2004, Baudrillard attended the major conference on his work, Baudrillard and the Arts, at the Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe in Karlsruhe, Germany. Baudrillard thought, as do many post-structuralists, that meaning is brought about through systems of working together. Following on from the structuralist linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, Baudrillard argued that meaning is created through difference—through what something is not, from this starting point Baudrillard theorized broadly about human society based upon this kind of self-referentiality. His writing portrays societies always searching for a sense of meaning—or a total understanding of the world—that remains consistently elusive. In Baudrillards view, the subject may try to understand the object, the subject is, rather, seduced by the object. Reality, in sense, dies out
4. Homi K. Bhabha – Homi K. Bhabha is the Anne F. Rothenberg Professor of English and American Literature and Language, and the Director of the Mahindra Humanities Center at Harvard University. Such terms describe ways in which colonised peoples have resisted the power of the coloniser, in 2012, he received the Padma Bhushan award in the field of literature and education from the Indian government. He was Steinberg Visiting Professor at the University of Pennsylvania where he delivered the Richard Wright Lecture Series, at Dartmouth College, Bhabha was a faculty fellow at the School of Criticism and Theory. From 1997 to 2001 he served as Chester D. Tripp Professor in the Humanities at the University of Chicago, in 2001–02, he served as a Distinguished Visiting Professor at University College, London. He has been the Anne F. Rothenberg Professor of English and American Literature, Bhabha also serves on the Editorial Collective of Public Culture, an academic journal published by Duke University Press. He was awarded the Padma Bhushan award by the Government of India in 2012, one of his central ideas is that of hybridisation, which, taking up from Edward Saids work, describes the emergence of new cultural forms from multiculturalism. His work transformed the study of colonialism by applying post-structuralist methodologies to colonial texts, the idea of ambivalence sees culture as consisting of opposing perceptions and dimensions. Ambivalence contributes to the reason why colonial power is characterized by its belatedness, colonial signifiers of authority only acquire their meanings after the traumatic scenario of colonial difference, cultural or racial, returns the eye of power to some prior archaic image or identity. Paradoxically, however, such an image can neither be original—by virtue of the act of repetition that constructs it—nor identical—by virtue of the difference that defines it. Accordingly, the colonial presence remains ambivalent, split between its appearance as original and authoritative and its articulation as repetition and difference and this opens up the two dimensions of colonial discourse, that which is characterized by invention and mastery and that of displacement and fantasy. Bhabha presents cultural difference as an alternative to cultural diversity, enunciation is the act of utterance or expression of a culture that takes place in the Third Space. Since culture is never pre-given, it must be uttered and it is through enunciation that cultural difference is discovered and recognized. Therefore, cultural difference is a process of identification, while cultural diversity is comparative, an important aspect of colonial and post-colonial discourse is their dependence on the concept of fixity in the construction of otherness. Fixity implies repetition, rigidity and an order as well as disorder. The stereotype depends on this notion of fixity, like Bhabhas concept of hybridity, mimicry is a metonym of presence. Mimicry appears when members of a colonized society imitate and take on the culture of the colonizers, Lacan asserts, The effect of mimicry is camouflage. it is not a question of harmonizing with the background, but against a mottled background. Colonial mimicry comes from the desire for a reformed, recognizable Other, as a subject of a difference that is, as Bhabha writes, almost the same. Thus, mimicry is a sign of an articulation, a strategy which appropriates the Other as it visualizes power
5. Judith Butler – Judith Butler is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer and literary theory. Since 1993, she has taught at the University of California, Berkeley, where she is now Maxine Elliot Professor in the Department of Comparative Literature and she is also the Hannah Arendt Chair at the European Graduate School. This theory has had a influence on feminist and queer scholarship. Her works are implemented in film studies courses emphasizing gender studies. Butler has actively supported lesbian and gay rights movements and has spoken out on many political issues. Judith Butler was born in Cleveland, Ohio, to a family of Hungarian and Russian Jewish descent, most of her maternal grandmothers family perished in the Holocaust. As a child and teenager, she attended both Hebrew school and special classes on Jewish ethics, where she received her first training in philosophy, could German Idealism be held accountable for Nazism. And how was one to understand existential theology, including the work of Martin Buber, Butler attended Bennington College and then Yale University where she studied philosophy, receiving her B. A. in 1978 and her Ph. D. in 1984. She spent one year at Heidelberg University as a Fulbright-Scholar. She taught at Wesleyan University, George Washington University, and Johns Hopkins University before joining University of California, Berkeley, in 2002 she held the Spinoza Chair of Philosophy at the University of Amsterdam. In this essay, Judith Butler proposes her theory of gender performativity and she begins by basing her theory of gender performativity on a feminist phenomenological point of view. She suggests that both phenomenology and feminism ground their theories in lived experience and this combination of theories is essential for founding Butlers view of theatrical or performative genders in society. Butler argues that it is valid to perceive gender as a performance in which an individual agent acts. The performative element of her theory suggests a social audience, for Butler, the script of gender performance is effortlessly transmitted generation to generation in the form of socially established meanings, She states, gender is not a radical choice. Imposed or inscribed upon the individual, given the social nature of human beings, most actions are witnessed, reproduced, and internalized and thus take on a performative or theatric quality. Currently, the actions appropriate for men and women have been transmitted to produce an atmosphere that both maintains and legitimizes a seemingly natural gender binary. Butler argues that the performance of gender itself creates gender, additionally, she compares the performativity of gender to the performance of the theater. She brings many similarities, including the idea of each individual functioning as an actor of their gender, however she also brings into light a critical difference between gender performance in reality and theater performances
6. Anna Camaiti Hostert – Anna Camaiti Hostert is an Italian American philosopher and a scholar of Visual Studies. She lives and works between Italy and the United States and she obtained her degree in Philosophy at the University of Pisa defending a dissertation with the philosopher Nicola Badaloni. Then she received a Ph. D in Literature and Film from the University of Chicago and she has taught at Loyola University of Chicago, at the University of Illinois, Chicago, and at the University of Rome La Sapienza. She was Visiting Professor at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles and she was also Distinguished Visiting Professor at Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton. She was Acting Associate Dean at the Loyola University’s campus in Rome, in 1999 she founded along the philosopher Mario Perniola the magazine Agalma, Magazine of Aesthetic and Cultural Studies of whose editorial committee she is still a member. Since 1986 she has part of the Italian Bar Association of Journalists. Later, she had a TV program about cinema on RaiSat channel titled Metix from the title of one of her books and she has been a guest at numerous Film Festivals in Italy and of several TV and radio cultural programs. She has collaborated with the director Fiorella Infascelli in the movie Italiani presented at the Venice Film Festival in 1998 and she has written for the newspaper Il Manifesto. In her first work, Giuseppe Toniolo, the same historical-philosophical perspective defines also the second work by Camaiti Hostert titled Politica e diritto di resistenza. Kant ed Erhard, democrazia e libertà del soggetto, through the concepts of «resistance» and «insurrection», she interprets Erhard’s theses as an attempt to build a theory of the antagonistic subject. Her major work in field of investigation is Passing. Dissolvere le identità, superare le differenze, Visual Studies - that were born as a field of interdisciplinary research on the wake of the Anglo-American Cultural Studies – have become since the late ‘90s the focus of Camaiti Hostert’s research. The pivotal passage of the text is the transition from the idea that an image is able to mean something and this work is linked to Camaiti Hostert’s parallel research into the field of Film Studies. Regarding this domain of studies, the two particularly relevant essays collection are Sentire il cinema - entirely composed of Camaiti Hostert’s essays and interviews –, alle origini del partito cattolico, Pisa, ETS,1984 Politica e diritto di resistenza. Kant ed Erhard, democrazia e libertà del soggetto, Pisa, dissolvere le identità, superare le differenze, Roma, Castelvecchi,1996. Afterword to the American edition of Dacia Marainis book The Silent Duchess, New York, ISBN9781558611948 «Il tempo, la musica, le cose, intervista a Bernardo Bertolucci» in Agalma. Rivista di estetica e studi culturali, No 1, giugno 2000, «Pulp Passion and Rusty Feelings» in Agalma. Rivista di estetica e studi culturali, No 1, giugno 2000, Sentire il cinema, Firenze, Casalini-Cadmo,2002