Vincent Ferrer, O. P. was a Valencian Dominican friar, who gained acclaim as a missionary and a logician. He is honored as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church, Vincent was the fourth child of the nobleman Guillem Ferrer, a notary who came from Palamós, and wife, Constança Miquel, apparently from Valencia itself or Girona. It was said that his father was told in a dream by a Dominican friar that his son would be throughout the world. His mother is never to have experienced pain when she gave birth to him. He was named after St. Vincent Martyr, the saint of Valencia. He would fast on Wednesdays and Fridays and he loved the Passion of Christ very much and he would help the poor and distribute alms to them. He began his studies at the age of eight, his study of theology. Four years later, at the age of nineteen, Ferrer entered the Order of Preachers, commonly called the Dominican Order, as soon as he had entered the novitiate of the Order, though, he experienced temptations urging him to leave. Even his parents pleaded with him to do so and become a secular priest and he prayed and practiced penance to overcome these trials.
Thus he succeeded in completing the year of probation and advancing to his profession, for a period of three years, he read solely Sacred Scripture and eventually committed it to memory. He published a treatise on Dialectic Suppositions after his solemn profession and he eventually became a Master of Sacred Theology and was commissioned by the Order to deliver lectures on philosophy. He was sent to Barcelona and eventually to the University of Lleida, Vincent Ferrer is described as a man of medium height, with a lofty forehead and very distinct features. His hair was fair in color and tonsured and his eyes were very dark and expressive, his manner gentle. His voice was strong and powerful, at times gentle, the Western Schism divided Roman Catholicism between two, eventually three, claimants to the papacy. Clement VII lived at Avignon in France, and Urban VI in Rome, Vincent was convinced that the election of Urban was invalid, although Catherine of Siena was just as devoted a supporter of the Roman pope.
In the service of Cardinal Pedro de Luna, Vincent worked to persuade Spaniards to follow Clement, when Clement died in 1394, Cardinal de Luna was elected to the Avignon papacy and took the name Benedict XIII. Vincent was loyal to Benedict XIII, commonly known as Papa Luna in Castile and he worked for Benedict XIII as apostolic penitentiary and Master of the Sacred Palace. Nonetheless Vincent labored to have Benedict XIII end the schism, Vincent encouraged King Ferdinand I of Aragon to withdraw his support from Benedict XIII
Julian of Norwich
Julian of Norwich was an English anchoress and an important Christian mystic and theologian. Her Revelations of Divine Love, written around 1395, is the first book in the English language known to have been written by a woman, Julian was known as a spiritual authority within her community, where she served as a counsellor and advisor. She is venerated in the Anglican and Lutheran churches, the Roman Catholic Church has not declared her to be a saint or given her the title Blessed. Accordingly, she not appear in the Roman Martyrology, nor is she included in the calendar of the Catholic Church in England. Very little is known about Julians life, even her name is uncertain, the name Julian is generally thought to have been derived from the Church of St Julian in Norwich, to which her anchorites cell was joined. Julian was, however, a name among women in the Middle Ages. Julians writings indicate that she was born around 1342 and died around 1416. She may have been from a family residing in or near Norwich.
At least one source considered it likely that she received her education with the Benedictine nuns at nearby Carrow. Plague epidemics were rampant during the 14th century and, according to scholars, Julian may have become an anchoress unmarried or, having lost her family in the plague. Becoming an anchoress may have served as a way to quarantine her from the rest of the population, there is scholarly debate as to whether Julian was a nun in a nearby convent or a laywoman. When she was 30 and living at home, Julian suffered from a serious illness, since she was presumed to be near death, her curate came to administer the last rites of the Catholic Church on 8 May 1373. As part of the ritual, he held a crucifix in the air above the foot of her bed, Julian reported that she was losing her sight and felt physically numb, but as she gazed on the crucifix she saw the figure of Jesus begin to bleed. Over the next hours, she had a series of sixteen visions of Jesus Christ. It is believed to be the earliest surviving book written in the English language by a woman and this work seems to have gone through many revisions before it was finished, perhaps in the 1410s or even the 1420s.
The English mystic Margery Kempe, who was the author of the first known written in England. Adam Eastons Defense of St Birgitta, Alfonso of Jaens Epistola Solitarii, the Short Text survives in only one manuscript, the mid-15th century Amherst Manuscript, which was copied from an original written in 1413 in Julian’s lifetime. The Short Text does not appear to have been read and was not edited until 1911
Clare of Assisi
Saint Clare of Assisi is an Italian saint and one of the first followers of Saint Francis of Assisi. Following her death, the order she founded was renamed in her honor as the Order of Saint Clare, St. Clare was born in Assisi, the eldest daughter of Favorino Sciffi, Count of Sasso-Rosso and his wife Ortolana. Traditional accounts say that Clares father was a representative of an ancient Roman family, who owned a large palace in Assisi. Ortolana belonged to the family of Fiumi, and was a very devout woman who had undertaken pilgrimages to Rome, Santiago de Compostela. Later in life, Ortolana entered Clares monastery, as did Clares sisters, Beatrix, as a child, Clare was devoted to prayer. Although there is no mention of this in any historical record, however, at the age of 18 she heard Francis preach during a Lenten service in the church of San Giorgio at Assisi and asked him to help her to live after the manner of the Gospel. On the evening of Palm Sunday, March 20,1212, she left her fathers house and accompanied by her aunt Bianca, her hair was cut, and she exchanged her rich gown for a plain robe and veil.
Francis placed Clare in the convent of the Benedictine nuns of San Paulo and her father attempted to force her to return home. She clung to the altar of the church and threw aside her veil to show her cropped hair and she resisted any attempt, professing that she would have no other husband but Jesus Christ. In order to provide the greater solitude Clare desired, a few days Francis sent her to Sant Angelo in Panzo, Clare was soon joined by her sister Catarina, who took the name Agnes. They remained with the Benedictines until a small dwelling was built for them next to the church of San Damiano, other women joined them, and they were known as the Poor Ladies of San Damiano. They lived a life of poverty and seclusion from the world. San Damiano became the center of Clares new religious order, which was known in her lifetime as the Order of Poor Ladies of San Damiano, hugolino wanted San Damiano as part of the order he founded because of the prestige of Clares monastery. San Damiano emerged as the most important house in the order, by 1263, just ten years after Clares death, the order had become known as the Order of Saint Clare.
Unlike the Franciscan friars, whose members moved around the country to preach, Saint Clares sisters lived in enclosure and their life consisted of manual labour and prayer. The nuns went barefoot, slept on the ground, ate no meat, for a short period, the order was directed by Francis himself. Then in 1216, Clare accepted the role of abbess of San Damiano, as abbess, Clare had more authority to lead the order than when she was the prioress and required to follow the orders of a priest heading the community. Clare defended her order from the attempts of prelates to impose a rule on them more closely resembled the Rule of Saint Benedict than Francis stricter vows
Anselm of Canterbury
Anselm of Canterbury was a Benedictine monk, abbot and theologian of the Catholic Church, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. After his death, he was canonized as a saint, his feast day is 21 April, beginning at Bec, Anselm composed dialogues and treatises with a rational and philosophical approach, sometimes causing him to be credited as the founder of Scholasticism. Despite his lack of recognition in this field in his own time, Anselm is now famed as the originator of the argument for the existence of God. He was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church by a bull of Pope Clement XI in 1720, as archbishop, he defended the churchs interests in England amid the Investiture Controversy. For his resistance to the English kings William II and Henry I, he was exiled twice, once from 1097 to 1100, while in exile, he helped guide the Greek bishops of southern Italy to adopt Roman rites at the Council of Bari. Anselm was born in or around Aosta in Upper Burgundy sometime between April 1033 and April 1034, the area now forms part of the Republic of Italy, but Aosta had been part of the Carolingian Kingdom of Arles until the death of the childless Rudolph III in 1032.
The Emperor and the Count of Blois went to war over his succession, humbert the White-Handed, count of Maurienne, so distinguished himself that he was granted a new county carved out of the secular holdings of the less helpful bishop of Aosta. Otto and Adelaides unified lands controlled the most important passes in the western Alps and formed the county of Savoy whose dynasty would rule the kingdoms of Sardinia. Records during this period are scanty, but both sides of Anselms immediate family appear to have been dispossessed by these decisions in favour of their extended relations. The marriage was probably arranged for political reasons but was incapable of resisting Conrads decrees after his successful annexation of Burgundy on 1 August 1034. Ermenberga appears to have been the wealthier of the two, Gundulph moved to his wifes town, where she held a palace, likely near the cathedral, along with a villa in the valley. In life, there are records of three relations who visited Bec, Folceraldus and Rainaldus.
The first repeatedly attempted to impose on Anselms success but was rebuffed owing to his ties to another monastery, at the age of fifteen, Anselm desired to enter a monastery but, failing to obtain his fathers consent, he was refused by the abbot. The illness he suffered has been considered a psychosomatic effect of his disappointment, once Gundulph had entered a convent, Anselm, at age 23, left home with a single attendant, crossed the Alps, and wandered through Burgundy and France for three years. His countryman Lanfranc of Pavia was prior of the Benedictine abbey of Bec, attracted by the fame of his fellow countryman, after spending some time in Avranches, he returned the next year. His father having died, he consulted with Lanfranc as to whether to return to his estates and employ their income in providing alms or to renounce them, becoming a hermit or a monk at Bec or Cluny. Professing to fear his own bias, Lanfranc sent him to Maurilius, the archbishop of Rouen, probably in his first year, he wrote his first work on philosophy, a treatment of Latin paradoxes called the Grammarian.
Over the next decade, the Rule of Saint Benedict reshaped his thought, a notable opponent was a young monk named Osborne
Richard of Chichester
Richard of Chichester, known as Richard de Wych, is a saint who was Bishop of Chichester. In Chichester Cathedral a shrine dedicated to Richard had become a richly decorated centre of pilgrimage, in 1538, during the reign of Henry VIII, the shrine was plundered and destroyed by order of Thomas Cromwell. St Richard of Chichester is patron saint of Sussex in southern England, since 2007, Richard was born in Burford, near the town of Wyche and was an orphan member of a gentry family. On the death of their parents Richards elder brother was heir to the estates but he was not old enough to inherit, so the lands were subject to a feudal wardship. On coming of age his brother took possession of his lands, but was required to pay a medieval form of duty that left the family so impoverished. His brother made Richard heir to the estate, according to Richards biographers, friends tried to arrange a match with a certain noble lady. However Richard rejected the proposed match, suggesting that his brother might marry her instead, he reconveyed the estates back to his brother, preferring a life of study, educated at the University of Oxford, Richard soon began to teach in the university.
From there he proceeded to Paris and Bologna, where he distinguished himself by his proficiency in canon law, on returning to England in 1235, Richard was elected Oxfords chancellor. His former tutor, Edmund of Abingdon, had become archbishop of Canterbury, Richard shared Edmunds ideals of clerical reform and supported papal rights even against the king. In 1237, Archbishop Edmund appointed Richard chancellor of the diocese of Canterbury, Richard joined the archbishop during his exile at Pontigny, and was with him when the archbishop died circa 1240. Richard decided to become a priest and studied theology for two years with the Dominicans at Orléans, upon returning to England, Richard became the parish priest at Charing and at Deal, but soon was reappointed chancellor of Canterbury by the new archbishop Boniface of Savoy. In 1244 Richard was elected Bishop of Chichester, Henry III and part of the chapter refused to accept him, the king favouring the candidature of Robert Passelewe. Archbishop Boniface refused to confirm Passelew, so both sides appealed to the pope, the king confiscated the sees properties and revenues, but Innocent IV confirmed Richards election and consecrated him bishop at Lyons in March 1245.
Richard returned to Chichester, but the refused to restore the sees properties for two years, and did so only after being threatened with excommunication. Henry III forbade anyone to house or feed Richard, at first, Richard lived at Tarring in the house of his friend Simon, the parish priest of Tarring, visited his entire diocese on foot, and cultivated figs in his spare time. Richards private life was supposed to have displayed rigid frugality and temperance, Richard was an ascetic who wore a hair-shirt and refused to eat off silver. He kept his diet simple and rigorously excluded animal flesh, having been a vegetarian since his days at Oxford, Richard was merciless to usurers, corrupt clergy and priests who mumbled the Mass. He was a stickler for clerical privilege, when the men of Lewes dragged a thief out of sanctuary and hanged him, he made them cut down the corpse and bury it in the sanctuary
John Wycliffe was an English scholastic philosopher, Biblical translator and seminary professor at Oxford. He was an influential dissident within the Roman Catholic priesthood during the 14th century, Wycliffe attacked the privileged status of the clergy, which was central to their powerful role in England. He attacked the luxury and pomp of local parishes and their ceremonies, Wycliffe was an advocate for translation of the Bible into the vernacular. He completed a translation directly from the Vulgate into Middle English in the year 1382, Wycliffes Bible appears to have been completed by 1384, with additional updated versions being done by Wycliffes assistant John Purvey and others in 1388 and 1395. Beginning in the 16th century, the Lollard movement was regarded as the precursor to the Protestant Reformation, Wycliffe was accordingly characterised as the evening star of scholasticism and the Morning Star of the English Reformation. Wycliffes writings in Latin greatly influenced the philosophy and teaching of Czech reformer Jan Hus, whose execution in 1415 sparked a revolt, Wycliffe was born in the village of Hipswell in the North Riding of Yorkshire, England in the mid-1320s.
His family was settled in Yorkshire. The family was large, covering considerable territory, principally centred on Wycliffe-on-Tees. Wycliffe received his early education close to his home and it is not known when he first came to Oxford, with which he was so closely connected until the end of his life, but he is known to have been at Oxford around 1345. From his frequent references to it in life, it appears to have made a deep. According to Robert Vaughn, the effect was to give Wycliffe Very gloomy views in regard to the condition, Wycliffe would have been at Oxford during the St Scholastica Day riot in which sixty-three students and a number of townspeople were killed. Wycliffe completed his arts degree at Merton College as a fellow in 1356. That same year he produced a treatise, The Last Age of the Church. In the light of the virulence of the plague that had subsided only seven years previously, while other writers viewed the plague as Gods judgment on a sinful people, Wycliffe saw it as an indictment of an unworthy clergy.
The mortality rate among the clergy had been high. In this same year, he was presented by the college to the parish of Fillingham in Lincolnshire, for this he had to give up the headship of Balliol College, though he could continue to live at Oxford. He is said to have had rooms in the buildings of The Queens College, in 1362 he was granted a prebend at Aust in Westbury-on-Trym which he held in addition to the post at Fillingham. His performance led Simon Islip, Archbishop of Canterbury, to him in 1365 at the head of Canterbury Hall
Hildegard of Bingen
Hildegard of Bingen, O. S. B. known as Saint Hildegard and Sibyl of the Rhine, was a German Benedictine abbess, composer, Christian mystic and polymath. She is considered to be the founder of scientific history in Germany. Hildegard was elected magistra by her fellow nuns in 1136, she founded the monasteries of Rupertsberg in 1150, One of her works as a composer, the Ordo Virtutum, is an early example of liturgical drama and arguably the oldest surviving morality play. She is noted for the invention of a language known as Lingua Ignota. Although the history of her formal consideration is complicated, she has recognized as a saint by branches of the Roman Catholic Church for centuries. On 7 October 2012, Pope Benedict XVI named her a Doctor of the Church, Hildegard was born around the year 1098, although the exact date is uncertain. Her parents were Mechtild of Merxheim-Nahet and Hildebert of Bermersheim, a family of the lower nobility in the service of the Count Meginhard of Sponheim. Sickly from birth, Hildegard is traditionally considered their youngest and tenth child, in her Vita, Hildegard states that from a very young age she had experienced visions.
The date of Hildegards enclosure at the monastery is the subject of debate and her Vita says she was professed with an older woman, the daughter of Count Stephan II of Sponheim, at the age of eight. However, Juttas date of enclosure is known to have been in 1112 and their vows were received by Bishop Otto Bamberg on All Saints Day,1112. Some scholars speculate that Hildegard was placed in the care of Jutta at the age of eight, in any case and Jutta were enclosed together at the Disibodenberg, and formed the core of a growing community of women attached to the male monastery. Jutta was a visionary and thus attracted many followers who came to visit her at the cloister, Hildegard tells us that Jutta taught her to read and write, but that she was unlearned and therefore incapable of teaching Hildegard sound biblical interpretation. The written record of the Life of Jutta indicates that Hildegard probably assisted her in reciting the psalms, working in the garden and other handiwork and this might have been a time when Hildegard learned how to play the ten-stringed psaltery.
Volmar, a frequent visitor, may have taught Hildegard simple psalm notation, the time she studied music could have been the beginning of the compositions she would create. Upon Juttas death in 1136, Hildegard was unanimously elected as magistra of the community by her fellow nuns, Abbot Kuno of Disibodenberg asked Hildegard to be Prioress, which would be under his authority. Hildegard, wanted more independence for herself and her nuns and this was to be a move towards poverty, from a stone complex that was well established to a temporary dwelling place. When the abbot declined Hildegards proposition, Hildegard went over his head and it was only when the Abbot himself could not move Hildegard that he decided to grant the nuns their own monastery. Hildegard and about twenty nuns thus moved to the St. Rupertsberg monastery in 1150, in 1165 Hildegard founded a second monastery for her nuns at Eibingen
Edmund the Martyr
Edmund the Martyr was king of East Anglia from about 855 until his death. Almost nothing is known about Edmund and he is thought to have been of East Anglian origin and was first mentioned in an annal of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, written some years after his death. The kingdom of East Anglia was devastated by the Vikings, who destroyed any evidence of his reign. Later writers produced fictitious accounts of his life, asserting that he was born in 841, the son of Æthelweard, an obscure East Anglian king, whom it was said Edmund succeeded when he was fourteen. Later versions of Edmunds life relate that he was crowned on 25 December 855 at Burna, which at that time functioned as the capital. In 869, the Great Heathen Army advanced on East Anglia and killed Edmund. According to one legend, his head was thrown into the forest. Commentators have noted how Edmunds death bears resemblance to the fate suffered by St Sebastian, St Denis, a coinage commemorating Edmund was minted from around the time East Anglia was absorbed by the kingdom of Wessex and a popular cult emerged.
In about 986, Abbo of Fleury wrote of his life, the saints remains were temporarily moved from Bury St Edmunds to London for safekeeping in 1010. His shrine at Bury was visited by kings, including Canute, who was responsible for rebuilding the abbey. During the Middle Ages, when Edmund was regarded as the saint of England and its magnificent abbey grew wealthy. Edmund is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle annal for 870, by tradition, Edmund is thought to have been born in 841 and to have acceded to the East Anglian throne in around 855. Nothing is known of his life or reign, as no contemporary East Anglian documents from this period have survived, medieval chroniclers have provided dubious accounts of his life, in the absence of any real details. The most credible theory for Edmund’s parentage suggests Ealhhere, brother-in-law to King Æthelstan of Kent, as Edmund’s father, Edmund cannot be placed within any ruling dynasty. Numismatic evidence suggests he succeeded Æthelweard and it is known that a variety of different coins were minted by Edmunds moneyers during his reign.
The letters AN, standing for Anglia, only appear on the coins of Edmund and Æthelstan of East Anglia, specimens read + EADMUND REX and so it is possible for his coins to be divided chronologically. Otherwise, no chronology for his coins has been confirmed and it relates that Her rad se here ofer Mierce innan East Engle and wiñt setl namon. And þy wint Eadmund cying him wiþ feaht. and þa Deniscan sige naman þone cyning ofslogon. by tradition the leaders who slew the king were Ivar the Boneless and his brother Ubba
Elizabeth of Hungary
Francis, by which she is honored as its patroness. Elizabeth was married at the age of 14, and widowed at 20, after her husbands death she sent her children away and regained her dowry, using the money to build a hospital where she herself served the sick. She became a symbol of Christian charity after her death at the age of 24 and was quickly canonized, Elizabeth was the daughter of King Andrew II of Hungary and Gertrude of Merania. Her mothers sister was St. Hedwig of Andechs, wife of Duke Heinrich I of Silesia and her ancestry included many notable figures of European royalty, going back as far as Vladimir the Great of Kievan Rus. According to tradition, she was born in Kingdom of Hungary, possibly in the castle of Sárospatak, on 7 July 1207. A sermon printed in 1497 by the Franciscan friar Osvaldus de Lasco, the veracity of this account is not without reproach, Osvaldus transforms the miracle of the roses to Elizabeths childhood in Sárospatak, and has her leave Hungary at the age of five.
According to a different tradition she was born in Pozsony, Kingdom of Hungary and she was raised by the Thuringian court, so she would be familiar with the local language and culture. In 1221, at the age of fourteen, Elizabeth married Louis, the year he was enthroned as Landgrave. After her marriage, she continued her charitable practices, which included spinning wool for the clothing of the poor, in 1223, Franciscan friars arrived, and the teenage Elizabeth not only learned about the ideals of Francis of Assisi, but started to live them. It was about time that the priest and inquisitor Konrad von Marburg gained considerable influence over Elizabeth when he was appointed as her confessor. Elizabeth assumed control of affairs at home and distributed alms in all parts of their territory, even giving away state robes, below Wartburg Castle, she built a hospital with twenty-eight beds and visited the inmates daily to attend to them. Elizabeths life changed irrevocably on 11 September 1227 when Louis, en route to join the Sixth Crusade, died of a fever in Otranto, on hearing the news of her husbands death, Elizabeth is reported to have said, He is dead.
It is to me as if the world died today. His remains were returned to Elizabeth in 1228 and entombed at the Abbey of Reinhardsbrunn, after Louis death, his brother, Henry Raspe, assumed the regency during the minority of Elizabeths eldest child, Hermann. About 1888 various investigators asserted that Elizabeth left the Wartburg voluntarily and she was not able at the castle to follow Konrads command to eat only food obtained in a way that was certainly right and proper. Following her husbands death, Elizabeth made solemn vows to Konrad similar to those of a nun and these vows included celibacy, as well as complete obedience to Konrad as her confessor and spiritual director. Konrads treatment of Elizabeth was extremely harsh, and he held her to standards of behavior which were almost impossible to meet, among the punishments he is alleged to have ordered were physical beatings, he ordered her to send away her three children. Her pledge to celibacy proved a hindrance to her familys political ambitions, Elizabeth was more or less held hostage at Pottenstein, the castle of her uncle, Bishop Ekbert of Bamberg, in an effort to force her to remarry
Hugh of Lincoln
Hugh of Lincoln, known as Hugh of Avalon, was a French noble and Carthusian monk, bishop of Lincoln in the Kingdom of England, and Catholic saint. At the time of the Reformation, he was the best-known English saint after Thomas Becket and his feast is observed by Catholics on 16 November and by Anglicans on 17 November. Hugh was born at the château of Avalon, at the border of the Dauphiné with Savoy and his mother Anne de Theys died when he was eight, and because his father was a soldier, he went to a boarding school for his education. Guillaume retired from the world to the Augustinian monastery of Villard-Benoît, near Grenoble, at the age of fifteen, Hugh became a religious novice and was ordained a deacon at the age of nineteen. About 1159, he was sent to be prior of the monastery at Saint-Maximin. From that community, he left the Benedictine Order and entered the Grande Chartreuse, at the height of its reputation for the austerity of its rules. There he rose to become procurator of his new Order, in office he served until he was sent in 1179 to become prior of the Witham Charterhouse in Somerset.
There were difficulties in advancing the building works and the first prior was retired and it was by the special request of the English king that St. Hugh, whose fame had reached him through one of the nobles of Maurienne, was made prior. Hugh found the monks in great straits, living in log huts, Hugh interceded with the king for royal patronage and at last, probably on 6 January 1182, Henry issued a charter of foundation and endowment for Witham Charterhouse. His first attention was given to the building of the Charterhouse, Hugh presided over the new house till 1186 and attracted many to the hermitage. Among the frequent visitors was King Henry, for the charterhouse lay near the borders of the chase in Selwood Forest. Hugh admonished Henry for keeping dioceses vacant in order to keep their income for the royal chancellery, in May 1186, Henry summoned a council of bishops and barons at Eynsham Abbey to deliberate on the state of the Church and the filling of vacant bishoprics, including Lincoln.
On 25 May 1186 the cathedral chapter of Lincoln was ordered to elect a new bishop, Hugh insisted on a second, private election by the canons, securely in their chapterhouse at Lincoln rather than in the kings chapel. His election was confirmed by the result, Hugh was consecrated Bishop of Lincoln on 21 September 1186 at Westminster. After the excommunications, he came upon the hunting and was greeted with dour silence. He waited several minutes and the called for a needle to sew up a leather bandage on his finger. Eventually Hugh said, with gentle mockery, How much you remind me of your cousins of Falaise, at this Henry just burst out laughing and was reconciled. As a bishop, he was exemplary, constantly in residence or travelling within his diocese, generous with his charity and he raised the quality of education at the cathedral school
Andrei Rublev is considered to be one of the greatest medieval Russian painters of Orthodox icons and frescos. Little information survives about the life of Andrei Rublev and it is not known where he was born. He probably lived in the Trinity-St, Sergius Lavra near Moscow under Nikon of Radonezh, who became hegumen after the death of Sergii Radonezhsky in 1392. The first mention of Rublev is in 1405 when he decorated icons and frescos for the Cathedral of the Annunciation of the Moscow Kremlin in company with Theophanes the Greek and his name was the last of the list of masters as the junior both by rank and by age. Theophanes was an important Byzantine master who moved to Russia, and is considered to have trained Rublev. Chronicles tell us that together with Daniil Cherni he painted the Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir in 1408 as well as the Trinity Cathedral in the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius between 1425 and 1427. After Daniils death, Andrei came to Moscows Andronikov Monastery where he painted his last work and he is believed to have painted at least one of the miniatures in the Khitrovo Gospels.
The only work authenticated as entirely his is the icon of the Trinity and it is based on an earlier icon known as the Hospitality of Abraham. Rublev removed the figures of Abraham and Sarah from the scene, in Rublevs art two traditions are combined, the highest asceticism and the classic harmony of Byzantine mannerism. The characters of his paintings are always peaceful and calm, after some time his art came to be perceived as the ideal of Eastern Church painting and of Orthodox iconography. Rublev died at Andronikov Monastery on 29 January 1430, Rublevs work influenced many artists including Dionisy. The Stoglavi Sobor promulgated Rublevs icon style as a model for church painting, since 1959 the Andrei Rublev Museum at the Andronikov Monastery has displayed his and related art. The Russian Orthodox Church canonized Rublev as a saint in 1988, the liturgical of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America remembers Rublev on January 29. In 1966, Andrei Tarkovsky made a film Andrei Rublev, loosely based on the artists life, western painting Andrei Rublev, a 1966 film by Andrei Tarkovsky loosely based on the painters life.
Mikhail V. Alpatov, Andrey Rublev, Iskusstvo,1972, gabriel Bunge, The Rublev Trinity, transl. Andrew Louth, St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, New York,2007, Sergius Golubtsov, Voplosh’enie bogoslovskih idey v tvorchestve prepodobnogo Andreya Rubleva. Viktor N. Lazarev, The Russian Icon, From Its Origins to the Sixteenth Century, priscilla Hunt, Andrei Rublev’s Old Testament Trinity Icon in Cultural Context, The Trinity-Sergius Lavr in Russian History and Culture, Readings in Russian Religious Culture, vol. 3, ed. Deacon Vladimir Tsurikov, 99-122, zur 600–Jahrfeier des grossen russischen Malers, vol