Category:Priests of the Spanish missions in California
Pages in category "Priests of the Spanish missions in California"
The following 29 pages are in this category, out of 29 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 29 pages are in this category, out of 29 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Spanish missions in California – The missions were part of a major effort by the Spanish Empire to extend colonization into the most northern and western parts of Spains North American claims. Following a long-term secular and religious policy of Spain in Latin America, Mexico achieved independence in 1821, taking Alta California along with it, but the missions maintained authority over native neophytes and control of vast land holdings until the 1830s. At the peak of its development in 1832, the mission system controlled an area equal to approximately one-sixth of Alta California. The Alta California government secularized the missions after the passage of the Mexican secularization act of 1833 and this divided the mission lands into land grants, which became many of the Ranchos of California. In the end, the missions had mixed results in their objectives, to convert, educate, today, the surviving mission buildings are the states oldest structures, and its most-visited historic monuments. Prior to 1754, grants of lands were made directly by the Spanish Crown. The missions were to be interconnected by a route which later became known as the Camino Real. The detailed planning and direction of the missions was to be carried out by Friar Junípero Serra, work on the coastal mission chain was concluded in 1823, completed after Serras death in 1784. Plans to build a mission in Santa Rosa in 1827 were canceled. The Santa Ysabel Asistencia had been founded in 1818 as a mother mission, in addition to the presidio and pueblo, the misión was one of the three major agencies employed by the Spanish sovereign to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories. Each frontier station was forced to be self-supporting, as existing means of supply were inadequate to maintain a colony of any size. California was months away from the nearest base in colonized Mexico, to sustain a mission, the padres required converted Native Americans, called neophytes, to cultivate crops and tend livestock in the volume needed to support a fair-sized establishment. The scarcity of imported materials, together with a lack of skilled laborers, compelled the missionaries to employ simple building materials, although the missions were considered temporary ventures by the Spanish hierarchy, the development of an individual settlement was not simply a matter of priestly whim. The padres blessed the site, and with the aid of their military escort fashioned temporary shelters out of tree limbs or driven stakes and it was these simple huts that ultimately gave way to the stone and adobe buildings that exist to the present. The first priority when beginning a settlement was the location and construction of the church, once the spot for the church had been selected, its position was marked and the remainder of the mission complex was laid out. The cuadrángulo was rarely a perfect square because the missionaries had no surveying instruments at their disposal and it was a doctrine established in 1531, which based the Spanish states right over the land and persons of the Indies on the Papal charge to evangelize them. It was employed wherever the indigenous populations were not already concentrated in native pueblos, the civilized and disciplined culture of the natives, developed over 8,000 year, was not considered. A total of 146 Friars Minor, mostly Spaniards by birth, were ordained as priests, sixty-seven missionaries died at their posts, while the remainder returned to Europe due to illness, or upon completing their ten-year service commitment
2. Eusebio Kino – Eusebio Francisco Kino, was an Italian Jesuit, missionary, geographer, explorer, cartographer and astronomer. For the last 24 years of his life he worked in the then known as the Pimería Alta, modern-day Sonora in Mexico. He explored the region and worked with the indigenous Native American population, including primarily the Tohono OOdham, Sobaipuri and he proved that the Baja California Peninsula is not an island by leading an overland expedition there. By the time of his death he had established 24 missions, Kino was born Eusebius Chinus in the village of Segno, then in the sovereign Prince-bishopric of Trent, a part of the Holy Roman Empire. Other sources cite his name as Eusebio Francesco Chini and his parents were Franciscus Chinus and Margherita Luchi. The exact date of his birth is unknown but he was baptized on 10 August 1645 in the parish church, Kino was educated in Innsbruck, Austria, and after recuperating from a serious illness, he joined the Society of Jesus on 20 November 1665. From 1664-69, he received training as a member of the Society at Freiburg, Ingolstadt. After completing a stage of training in the Society, during which he taught mathematics in Ingolstadt. Although Kino wanted to go to the Orient, he was sent to New Spain, due to travel delays while crossing Europe, he missed the ship on which he was to travel and had to wait a year for another ship. While waiting in Cádiz, Spain, he wrote some observations, done during late 1680 and early 1681, about his study of a comet, which he published as the Exposición astronómica de el cometa. This publication was later the subject of a sonnet by the noted colonial nun and poet of New Spain, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, kinos first assignment was to lead the Atondo expedition to the Baja California peninsula of Las Californias Province of New Spain. He established the Misión San Bruno in 1683, after a prolonged drought there in 1685, Kino and the Jesuit missionaries were forced to abandon the mission and return to the viceregal capital of Mexico City. See also Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Father Kino began his career in the Pimería Alta on the morning of 14 March 1687,24 years and this was the morning he left Cucurpe, a town once considered the Rim of Christendom. Once Father Kino arrived in the Pimería Alta, at the request of the natives, subsequently Kino traveled across northern Mexico, and to present day California and Arizona. He followed ancient trading routes established millennia prior by the natives and these trails were later expanded into roads. His many expeditions on horseback covered over 50,000 square miles, Kino was important in the economic growth of the area, working with the already agricultural indigenous native peoples and introducing them to European seed, fruits, herbs and grains. He also taught them to raise cattle, sheep and goats, kinos initial mission herd of twenty cattle imported to Pimería Alta grew during his period to 70,000. Historian Herbert Bolton referred to Kino as Arizonas first rancher, in his travels in the Pimería Alta, Father Kino interacted with 16 different tribes
3. Luis Jayme – Born Melchor Jayme, was a Spanish-born Roman Catholic priest of the Franciscan Order. Born at the farm Son Baró in the village of Sant Joan, Majorca, at the age of fifteen Melchor was enrolled at the convent school of San Bernardino, where Fray Junípero Serra had studied some years earlier. Melchor Jayme was admitted to the Franciscan Order on September 27,1760 in the Convento de Santa Maria de los Angeles de Jesus, the friar conducted his theological studies at the Convento de San Francisco, and was ordained to the priesthood on December 22,1764. Fray Luis was appointed Lector of Philosophy upon completion of his coursework, Jayme arrived in New Spain in early 1770 after a long and arduous trans-Atlantic voyage. Fray Luis set out for California along with nine other priests to begin a ten-year commitment ministering to the indigenous population, Jayme was assigned to Mission San Diego de Alcalá, where his earliest efforts were devoted to mastering the complexities of the local Kumeyaay language. Once he had gained a facility with its vocabulary, he was able to compile a polyglot Christian catechism, almost immediately there was a noticeable increase in the number of conversions which, by 1775, stood at 431. Some of the local Kumeyaay people resented the Spanish intrusion into their land, at approximately 1,30 a. m. on the moonlit morning of November 4,1775, more than 600 warriors from the surrounding rancherías silently crept into the mission compound. After plundering the chapel, they set the other buildings ablaze, the commotion soon awakened the two missionaries, the Spanish guards, and the Christian neophytes. Rather than run to the hold for shelter, Fray Luis walked toward the band of warriors, uttering the traditional Franciscan greeting, Amar a Dios, hijos. —Love God. The Kumeyaay seized him, stripped off his garments, shot some eighteen arrows into his torso, then smashed his face with clubs, jaymes body was, at first, interred in the Presidio chapel. When the new church at the mission was completed, the body was reinterred in the sanctuary, there it rested until November 12,1813 when it was transferred once more. Today, the remains of Fray Luis Jayme lie in a vault between the main and side altar. He is considered to be the first Catholic martyr in Alta California, james H. Barry Company, San Francisco, CA. CS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Leffingwell, Randy, California Missions and Presidios, The History & Beauty of the Spanish Missions. The Death of Fray Luís Jayme Two Hundredth Anniversary, the Journal of San Diego History 22. Chronicle Books LLC, San Francisco, CA, sociopolitical Aspects of the 1775 Revolt at Mission San Diego de Alcalá, an Ethnohistorical Approach by Richard L. Carrico Msgr. Francis J. Weber, The Death of Fray Luís Jayme, Two Hundredth Anniversary, The Journal of San Diego History, Winter 1976, Volume 22, Number 1
4. Juan de Ugarte – Juan de Ugarte, S. J. was a Jesuit missionary and explorer in Baja California Sur, New Spain, and the successor to Juan María de Salvatierra as head of the peninsulas missions. Ugarte was born in Tegucigalpa, then in the Kingdom of Guatemala, part of New Spain and he went to Mexico to enter the Society of Jesus in 1679. His younger brother, Pedro de Ugarte, was also a Jesuit missionary in Baja California, after his ordination, he was assigned to teach philosophy at the Colegio Máximo de San Pedro y San Pablo in Mexico City. Through conversing with them, Ugarte chose to commit his life to these misisons as well, Ugarte was initially the procurator for the newly established missions of California in 1697–1700. In 1701, Ugarte went to the peninsula as its missionary, following in the footsteps of Salvatierra. Stopping first at Mission Loreto, he proceeded to Mission San Francisco Javier which had abandoned the previous year due to threats from the native population. It was there that he established his home for the rest of his life, Ugarte was an able and energetic leader in the expansion and development of the mission system. He served as visitador or Visitator for the missions in Salvatierras absence, Ugarte led several expeditions of overland exploratio to seek out mission or visita sites in the region surrounding San Javier. More spectacularly, he oversaw the construction of a ship, El Triunfo de la Cruz, in September 1720, Ugarte sailed his new ship from Loreto to La Paz to help found a new mission there. In the following year, he sailed to the head of the Gulf of California and he died at Mission San Francisco Javier in 1730. Antigua California, Mission and Colony on the Peninsular Frontier, 1697–1768, university of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. Testimonios sudcalifornianos, nueva entrada y establicimiento en el puerto de la Paz,1720, universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City. Tres documentos sobre el descubrimiento y exploración de Baja California por Francisco María Píccolo, Juan de Ugarte, y Guillermo Stratford