Category:Princes of Taranto
Pages in category "Princes of Taranto"
The following 15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Bohemond I of Antioch – Bohemond I was the Prince of Taranto from 1089 to 1111 and the Prince of Antioch from 1098 to 1111. He was a leader of the First Crusade, which was governed by a committee of nobles, the Norman monarchy he founded in Antioch arguably outlasted those of England and of Sicily. Bohemond was the son of Robert Guiscard, Count of Apulia and Calabria and he was born between 1050 and 1058—in 1054 according to historian John Julius Norwich. He was baptised Mark, possibly because he was born at his fathers castle at San Marco Argentano in Calabria and he was nicknamed Bohemond after a legendary giant. His parents were related within the degree of kinship that made their marriage invalid under canon law, with the annulment of his parents marriage, Bohemond became a bastard. Before long, Alberada married Robert Guiscards nephew, Richard of Hauteville and she arranged for a knightly education for Bohemond. Robert Guiscard was taken ill in early 1073. Fearing that he was dying, Sikelgaita held an assembly in Bari, Roberts nephew, Abelard of Hauteville, was the only baron to protest, because he regarded himself Roberts lawful heir. Bohemond fought in his fathers army during the rebellion of Jordan I of Capua, Geoffrey of Conversano and his father dispatched him at the head of an advance guard against the Byzantine Empire in early 1081 and he captured Valona. He sailed to Corfu, but did not invade the island since the local garrison outnumbered his army and he withdrew to Butrinto to await the arrival of his fathers forces. After Robert Guiscard arrived in the half of May, they laid siege to Durazzo. The Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos came to the rescue of the town but, on 18 October, Bohemond commanded the left flank, which defeated the Emperors largely Anglo-Saxon Varangian Guard. The Normans captured Durazzo on 21 February 1082 and they marched along the Via Egnatia as far as Kastoria, but Alexioss agents stirred up a rebellion in Southern Italy, forcing Robert Guiscard to return to his realm in April. He charged Bohemond with the command of his army in the Balkans, Bohemond defeated the Byzantines at Ioannina and at Arta, taking control of most of Macedonia and Thessaly, however, the six-month siege of Larissa was unsuccessful. Supply and pay problems undermined the morale of the Norman army, during his absence, most of the Norman commanders deserted to the Byzantines and a Venetian fleet recaptured Durazzo and Corfu. Bohemond accompanied his father to the Byzantine Empire again in 1084, an epidemic decimated the Normans and Bohemond, who was taken seriously ill, was forced to return to Italy in December 1084. Robert Guiscard died at Cephalonia on 17 July 1085 and she persuaded the army to acclaim Roger Borsa his fathers successor and they hurried back to Southern Italy. Two months later, the assembly of the Norman barons confirmed the succession and he made an alliance with Jordan of Capua, and captured Oria and Otranto
2. Louis I of Naples – Louis I, also known as Louis of Taranto, was a member of the Capetian House of Anjou who reigned as King of Naples, Count of Provence and Forcalquier, and Prince of Taranto. Louis gained the crown of Naples by marrying his first cousin, Queen Joanna I, whose prior husband, immediately after securing his status as her co-ruler, Louis successfully wrested away all power from his wife, leaving her a sovereign in name only. Their disastrous marriage resulted in the birth of two daughters, Catherine and Frances, neither of whom survived their parents, during their joint reign, Louis dealt with numerous uprisings, attacks, and unsuccessful military operations, he is generally considered an inefficient monarch. Following his death, Joanna resumed her power and refused to share it with her subsequent husbands, a member of the Capetian House of Anjou, Louis was born in Naples as the second son of Philip I, Prince of Taranto, and Catherine of Valois. He was a patrilineal first cousin once removed of both Queen Joanna I of Naples and her husband Andrew, Duke of Calabria, in addition to being Joannas maternal first cousin, Louis older brother Robert, Prince of Taranto, was having an open affair with Queen Joanna. When the 17-year-old Andrew was assassinated on 18 September 1345 for seeking to co-reign with his wife, Joanna was immediately suspected of ordering the murder with the help of Louis and Robert. Following her husbands death, the queen was strongly influenced by Robert. The brothers mother died the month, leaving her claim to the Latin Empire to Robert. Louis and Joanna married in Naples on 22 August 1347, without seeking dispensation from Pope Clement VI – necessary because of their closely related. The marriage was an attempt to secure the kingdom for Louis rather than to pacify the belligerent branches of the House of Anjou. The couple fled to Provence, which Joanna ruled as countess and they met Clement, feudal overlord of the Kingdom of Naples, in Avignon. To secure his acceptance of their marriage and support against the accusations of Andrews murder, the Black Death forced the Hungarians to retreat from Naples in August 1348. Louis and Joanna, who had just had their daughter, Catherine. From early 1349 onwards, all documents for the kingdom were issued in the names of husband and wife, and Louis was indisputably in control of military fortresses. On coins issued during their joint reign, Louis name always preceded Joannas, although he was not officially recognised by Clement as king and co-ruler until 1352, it is likely that Neapolitans considered him their monarch from the moment he started acting as such. Louis took advantage of the caused by yet another Hungarian attack to wrest complete royal authority from his wife. He purged the court of her supporters, and struck down her favourite, Enrico Caracciolo, in 1350, the King of Hungary launched another invasion, forcing Louis and Joanna to flee to Gaeta. Louis narrowly defeated Hungarian forces with Pope Clements help and their younger daughter, Frances, was born soon thereafter
3. Ladislaus of Naples – Ladislaus the Magnanimous was King of Naples and titular King of Jerusalem and Sicily, titular Count of Provence and Forcalquier, and titular King of Hungary and Croatia. He was the last male of the senior Angevin line, Ladislaus of Naples became a skilled political and military leader, protector and controller of Pope Innocent VII, however, he earned a bad reputation concerning his personal life. He profited from disorder throughout Italy to greatly expand his kingdom and his power, moreover, he murdered many of his enemies. He was born in Naples, the son of Charles III and he spent his early life with his family in the royal court of Naples, and in 1381 he was created Duke of Calabria and heir by Charles III. He became King of Naples at the age of nine under his mothers regency, urban VI refused to recognize Ladislaus, and in 1387 called a crusade against him. Margaret and her son at the time controlled not much more than Naples, in 1389 the new Pope Boniface IX recognized Ladislaus as King of Naples, although he forbade him to unite it with his family lands in Germany and Italy. In Gaeta, he married Costanza Chiaramonte, the daughter of the powerful Sicilian Baron, Manfredi Chiaramonte, in 1390, the archbishop of Arles poisoned Ladislaus, and though he survived, he subsequently stuttered and was forced to take repeated periods of rest. Also in 1390, Louis II invaded Naples, starting a war with Ladislaus lasting nine years, Ladislaus limited Louis control to the city of Naples and the Terra dOtranto. In 1399, while Louis was fighting against the Count of Lecce, Ladislaus regained the city of Naples with the support of powerful barons of the Kingdom. The Angevins then decided to return to Provence, Ladislaus spent the year 1400 subduing Onorato Caetani, count of Fondi, and the last rebellions in Abruzzo and Apulia. In 1401 Ladislaus married Mary of Lusignan, daughter of the King of Cyprus and she arrived in Naples in 1402. His father, Charles III of Naples, grew up in Hungary governing Croatia as Viceroy, Ladislaus ordered the painting of a cycle of Saint Ladislaus legend in the church of Santa Maria dellIncoronata in Naples between 1403 and 1414. There the Hungarian King is depicted receiving the crown, also fighting against the pagans. Considering himself as a descendant of the Holy Kings of Hungary and he also had himself crowned Duke of Slavonia, a title with no basis. He first negotiated a treaty with the Republic of Venice, ceding the island of Corfu and he thus obtained free passage in the Adriatic Sea and, with the partial support of the Pope, landed at Zadar on 19 July 1403. However, Ladislaus remained inactive, and returned to Apulia, his authority in Dalmatia remained restricted to Zadar and few other lands. The following year, after the death of Boniface IX, he intervened in Rome in support of the Colonna family, two days after the election of the new pope, Innocent VII. Ladislaus endeavored to consolidate the power at the expense of the barons
4. William I of Sicily – William I, called the Bad or the Wicked (Sicilian, Gugghiermu lu Malu, was the second King of Sicily, ruling from his fathers death in 1154 to his own in 1166. He was the son of Roger II and Elvira of Castile. Williams title the Bad seems little merited and expresses the bias of the historian Hugo Falcandus and the class against the king. William was the son of King Roger II of Sicily, grandson of Roger I of Sicily and he grew up with little expectation of ruling. The deaths of his three older brothers Roger, Tancred, and Alfonso between 1138 and 1148 changed matters, though when his father died William was still not well-prepared to take his place. On assuming power, William kept the administration which had guided his fathers rule for his final years, only the Englishman Thomas Brun was removed, and the chancellor Maio of Bari was promoted. The real power in the kingdom was at first exercised by Maio, Maio continued Rogers policy of excluding the nobles from the administration, and sought also to curtail the liberties of the towns. At the end of 1155, Greek troops recovered Bari, Trani, Giovinazzo, Andria, Taranto, William and his army landed on the peninsula and destroyed the Greek fleet and army at Brindisi on May 28,1156 and recovered Bari. Adrian came to terms at Benevento on June 18,1156 where he and William signed the Treaty of Benevento, abandoning the rebels, during the summer of 1157, he sent a fleet of 164 ships carrying 10,000 men to sack Euboea and Almira. In 1158 William made peace with the Greeks, in 1156, a revolt began in Sfax and quickly spread and nothing was done to put it down. In 1159, the admiral Peter led an expedition against the Saracen-held Balearic Islands with 160 ships. He tried to relieve besieged Mahdia with the fleet. Peter did not fall out of favour, but no assistance was sent to the Christians holding out in Mahdia. The policy of Maio led to a conspiracy, and in November 1160 Maio was murdered in Palermo by Matthew Bonello. The barons, however, had long been plotting to overthrow the king, desiring a weak power on the throne, they had been eyeing the kings eldest son, Roger, Duke of Apulia, as a possible replacement for his father. The king was captured along with his family, his life being barely spared by one Richard of Mandra. Roger was then paraded through the streets and it was announced that he would be crowned in the three days thence. During the initial assault on the palace, to release the captive king and his latter years were peaceful, he became the champion of the true pope against the Holy Roman Emperor, and Alexander III was installed in the Lateran Palace in November 1165 by a guard of Normans
5. James II, Count of La Marche – James II of Bourbon-La Marche was the first son of John I, Count of La Marche and Catherine of Vendôme. He first bore arms in the crusade which culminated in the Battle of Nicopolis, after returning to France, he commanded a force which invaded England in support of Owain Glyndŵr. His troops burned Plymouth in 1403, but twelve ships of his fleet were lost in a storm while returning to France in 1404 and he was an adherent of John the Fearless and foe of the Armagnac party. However, his affairs in France were interrupted by a sojourn abroad. In 1415, the barons of the Kingdom of Naples arranged his marriage to Joanna II of Naples, hoping he would break the power of her favorites, Pandolfo Alopo and Muzio Sforza. He had Alopo executed and imprisoned Sforza, but he kept the queen in confinement. The indignant barons captured and imprisoned him in 1416, he was compelled to free Sforza and resign the kingship, however their marriage does not seem to have been annulled and neither Joanna nor James would ever marry again. Returning to France, he fought against the English for Charles VII of France in 1428 and was made Governor of Languedoc, in 1435, he resigned his titles and became a Franciscan monk, dying in 1438. In 1406 in Pamplona, he married Beatrix dÉvreux, daughter of Charles III of Navarre and Eleanor of Castile. The couple had three children, Isabelle, a nun at Besançon Marie, a nun at Amiens Eleanor of Bourbon-La Marche, married Bernard dArmagnac, Count of Pardiac In 1415, James married Joanna II of Naples
6. Philip I, Prince of Taranto – Philip I of Taranto, of the Angevin house, was titular Latin Emperor of Constantinople, despot of Epirus, King of Albania, Prince of Achaea and Taranto, and Lord of Durazzo. Born in Naples, Philip was a son of Charles II of Anjou, King of Naples. On 4 February 1294, his father named him Prince of Taranto at Aix-en-Provence and these dignities were a prelude to Charles plan to bestow upon Philip an empire east of the Adriatic. The day he was invested as Vicar-General, he married by proxy Thamar Angelina Komnene, daughter of Nikephoros I Komnenos Doukas, threatened by the Byzantine Empire, Nikephoros had decided to seek Angevin patronage, and agreed to the marriage of Thamar and Philip. The two were married in person on 13 August 1294 at LAquila, upon their marriage, Charles ceded to Philip the suzerainty of Achaea and the Kingdom of Albania, and all his rights to the Latin Empire and the Lordship of Vlachia. Upon the death of Nikephoros, Philip took the title of Despot of Romania, claiming Epirus, Aetolia, Acarnania, however, Nikephoros Byzantine widow, Anna Kantakouzene, had Thomas proclaimed Despot of Epirus and assumed the regency. As Vicar-General of Sicily, he was part of the invasion of that island during the stage of the War of the Sicilian Vespers. His army was defeated in 1299 at the Battle of Falconara by Frederick III of Sicily, in 1306, Philip of Savoy and Isabella of Villehardouin, the Prince and Princess of Achaea, visited Charles court in Naples. Philip of Savoy was accused of disloyalty and failure to support Charles in a campaign against Epirus, as Isabelle had not sought her suzerains consent before marrying him, Charles deprived the two of Achaea and bestowed it directly upon Philip of Taranto on 5 May 1306. He made his personal visit to Achaea shortly thereafter, accepting the homage of his vassals at Glarentza. He left Guy II, Duke of Athens, as his bailli in Achaea, meanwhile, Philip and Isabella relinquished their claims on Achaea on 11 May 1307 in exchange for the County of Alba. In 1309, he accused Thamar of adultery, probably on a falsified charge and this freed him to take part in a complex marital pact. Catherine of Valois, the titular Latin Empress, had been betrothed to Hugh V, Duke of Burgundy and this engagement was broken, and she married Philip on 29 July 1313, at Fontainebleau. In exchange, her lands of Courtenay and other estates on the Continent were ceded to Hughs sister Joan. Hugh V was betrothed to Joan, later Countess of Burgundy, Philip ceded the Principality of Achaea to Matilda of Hainaut, who married Hughs brother Louis of Burgundy on 29 July 1313. This donation was rather restricted, should the couple die without heirs, nor could Matilda marry again without her suzerains permission. To complete the separation of Eastern and Western claims, Hugh ceded his rights to Thessalonica to Louis, in 1315, Philip was sent by his brother Robert of Naples to lead an army relieving the Florentines, who were threatened by the Pisans under Uguccione della Faggiuola. The Florentine-Neapolitan army was beaten at the Battle of Montecatini on 29 August 1315, Philips younger brother Peter, Count of Gravina