Category:Princesses of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Pages in category "Princesses of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt"
The following 24 pages are in this category, out of 24 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 24 pages are in this category, out of 24 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Ahmose-Sitamun – Ahmose-Sitamun or Sitamun was a princess of the early Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. Name of this princess means Child of the Moon, Daughter of Amun, Sitamun was the daughter of Pharaoh Ahmose I and sister of Amenhotep I. A colossal statue of hers stood before the pylon at Karnak. Her mummy was found in the Deir el-Bahari cache and is today in the Egyptian Museum and her titles were, Gods Wife, Kings Daughter, Kings Sister. Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson,2004, ISBN 0-500-05128-3, p.129
2. Ankhesenamun – Ankhesenamun was a queen of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Born as Ankhesenpaaten, she was the third of six daughters of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten and his Great Royal Wife Nefertiti. The change in her name reflects the changes in Ancient Egyptian religion during her lifetime after her fathers death and her youth is well documented in the ancient reliefs and paintings of the reign of her parents. Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun shared the same father but Tutankhamuns mother has recently established by genetic evidence as one of Akhenatens sisters. She was most likely born in year 4 of Akhenatens reign and he possibly made his wife his co-regent and had his family portrayed in a realistic style in all official artwork. Ankhesenamun was definitely married to one king, she was the Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Tutankhamun and it is also possible that she was briefly married to Tutankhamuns successor, Ay, believed by some to be her maternal grandfather. It has also been posited that she may have been the Great Royal Wife of her father, Akhenaten, after the death of her mother. Recent DNA tests released in February 2010 have also speculated that one of two late 18th dynasty queens buried in KV21 could be her mummy, both mummies are thought, because of DNA, to be members of the ruling house. Ankhesenpaaten was born in a time when Egypt was in the midst of a religious revolution. Her father had abandoned the old deities of Egypt in favor of the Aten, hitherto a minor aspect of the sun-god and she is believed to have been born in Waset, but probably grew up in her fathers new capital city of Akhetaten. The three eldest daughters – Meritaten, Meketaten, and Ankhesenpaaten – became the Senior Princesses and participated in many functions of the government and she is believed to have been married first to her own father. This was not unusual for Egyptian royal families and she is thought to have been the mother of the princess Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit when she was twelve, although the parentage is unclear. After her fathers death and the reigns of Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten. Following their marriage, the couple honored the deities of the religion by changing their names to Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun. The couple appear to have had two stillborn daughters, as Tutankhamuns only known wife was Ankhesenamun, it is highly likely the fetuses found in Tutankhamuns tomb are her daughters. Some time in the year of his reign, at about the age of eighteen, Tutankhamun died suddenly. A ring discovered is thought to show that Ankhesenamun married Ay shortly before she disappeared from history, on the walls of Ays tomb it is Tey, not Ankhesenamun, who appears as queen. She probably died during or shortly after his reign and no burial has been found for her yet, a document was found in the ancient Hittite capital of Hattusa which dates to the Amarna period, the so-called Deeds of Suppiluliuma I
3. Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit – Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit was an ancient Egyptian princess of the 18th dynasty. Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit and another princess, Meritaten Tasherit are two princesses who appear in scenes dating to the later part of the reign of Akhenaten. The titles of at least one of the princess is of the form sherit, born of, the inscription is damaged and the name of the mother and grandmother of the princesses has not been preserved. Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit has been known to archaeologists since 1938, when a talatat with her picture, several different sets of parents have been proposed for Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit. She is most commonly held to have been the daughter of Ankhesenpaaten and Akhenaten himself, the title of the princess is thought to have been Ankhesenpaaten-tasherit, born of Ankehenpaaten, born of the Kings Great Wife Nefertiti. If we assume that Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit was the daughter of Ankhesenpaaten and Akhenaten, since Ankhesenpaaten was born around the 5th year of her fathers reign, the earliest year she could have had a child was around Year 16 of his reign. Dodson proposed Ankhesenpaaten-tasherit was a daughter of the royal couple Meritaten. The young princess would have named after Meritatens sister
4. Beketaten – Beketaten was an Ancient Egyptian princess of the 18th dynasty. Beketaten is considered to be the youngest daughter of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and his Great Royal Wife Tiye and her name means Handmaid of Aten. Beketaten is mainly known from the tomb of Huya, the steward of Queen Tiye in Amarna, Beketaten is shown with Queen Tiye in two separate banquet scenes. Queen Tiye is shown seated opposite Pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti, in one scene Beketaten is shown seated on a small chair next to her mother Tiye, and in the other banquet scene Beketaten is shown standing next to Tiye. On the east wall of Huyas tomb Akhenaten is shown leading his mother Tiye to a temple and they are accompanied by the Beketaten as they enter the temple. The lintel on the North Wall shows a depiction of the two royal families, on the right side Amenhotep III is shown seated opposite Queen Tiye who is accompanied by the princess Beketaten. Three female attendants are shown behind Tiye, Beketatens only known title is Kings Daughter of his Body. It is likely that she died young since she is not mentioned in the records after Queen Tiyes death. Some scholars have speculated that Nebetah, Amenhotep IIIs youngest daughter, was identical with Beketaten, however, no evidence proves that they are the same person. According to one theory Beketaten was in fact a daughter of Akhenaten and she may be identical with the princess who is shown with Kiya, whose name ends in -aten but whose full name was lost. After Kiyas demise her depictions were re-carved to show Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten with their daughters Meritaten Tasherit and this theory is partially based on the fact that Beketaten was never named kings sister in the scenes from Amarna, but only kings bodily daughter. She never appears alongside the daughters of Nefertiti, leading to the conjecture that she must be the daughter of Akhenaten by another wife who may be Kiya, after the death of her mother, Beketaten may have been raised by her grandmother Tiye. A wine docket mentioning Beketaten dates to year 13 and it has proposed that she inherited Kiyas estates after her death. Beketaten is the character in a series of five historical novels written by Max Overton. The novels follow the life of Beketaten from early childhood through to the end of her life in the reign of Ramses the Great, the five books cover her life during the reigns of Akhenaten, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamen, Ay, and Horemheb. A sixth novel in the series is set in 1960s Egypt, Beketaten is featured as a secondary character in Mika Waltaris novel The Egyptian, going under the name Baketaton. In the novel, she is wed to Horemheb, Egypts warlord though of common blood, that has desired her since youth
5. Henuttaneb – Henuttaneb was one of the daughters of Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep III of the 18th dynasty and his Great Royal Wife, Queen Tiye. She was a sister of Pharaoh Akhenaten and she also had several more siblings - one other brother and several sisters. Henuttanebs name means Lady of All Lands and was frequently used as a title for queens. She was the daughter of her parents. Henuttaneb is shown on a statue from Medinet Habu. She also appears in the temple at Soleb and on a carnelian plaque and her name appears on three faience fragments. It is unclear whether Henuttaneb was elevated to the rank of queen like Sitamun and she is nowhere mentioned as Kings Wife, but on the aforementioned carnelian plaque her name is enclosed in a cartouche, a privilege which only kings and their wives were entitled to. After the death of her father she is not mentioned again
6. Meketaten – Meketaten was the second daughter of six born to the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten and his Great Royal Wife Nefertiti. She was probably born in year 4 of Akhenatens reign, although little is known about her, she is frequently depicted with her sisters accompanying her royal parents in the first two thirds of Akhenatens reign. Meketaten was the daughter born to Akhenaten and Nefertiti. She had a sister named Meritaten and four younger sisters named Ankhesenpaaten, Neferneferuaten Tasherit. Meketaten’s approximate year of birth is in or before year 4 of Akhenaten, Meketaten is first depicted on the walls of the Hut-benben temple dedicated to her mother Nefertiti in Thebes. Meketaten appears behind her older sister Meritaten in some of the later inscriptions, further arguments to suggest Meketaten was born in or before year 4 come from the fact that her figure was added to one of the boundary stela recording events in year 4 and carved in year 5. Meketaten moved to the new capital city Akhetaten with her family when she was still a small child and she is depicted in several of the tombs of the nobles in Amarna. Meketaten is depicted in the tomb of Ay holding a tray of gifts while wrapping one arm around her mother’s neck, other monuments mentioning Meketaten include a stela from Heliopolis, a statue base from the Fayoum, and the tombs of Panehesy and Parennefer. Meketaten died in approximately year 14 of Akhenaten, meketatens death could have resulted either from a plague, or from childbirth. The presence of a baby causes many to believe the young princess died in childbirth. Chambers α and γ depict very similar scenes, Akhenaten and Nefertiti bend over the body of a woman. Nearby a nurse stands with a baby in her arms, accompanied by a fan-bearer, the names in the scene in chamber α have been hacked out. In the chamber γ however the hieroglyphs identify the young woman as Meketaten. In the same chamber another scene shows Meketaten standing under a canopy which is associated with childbirth. In front of her, amongst courtiers, stand Akhenaten, Nefertiti and it is possible that chamber α was the burial place of someone other than Meketaten. There may even have been two burials which may have been those of Neferneferure and Setepenre, but this is not certain, another theory is that one of the scenes depicts Kiya and that the baby is Tutankhamun. John Harris also agrees with Van Dijks conclusions according to the author, fragments of Meketaten’s sarcophagus were found in the royal tomb. Inscriptions mention her parents Akhenaten and Nefertiti, her sister Ankhesenpaaten as well as her grandparents Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye
7. Meritaten – Her name means She who is beloved of Aten, Aten being the sun-god her father worshipped, Meritaten also may have served as pharaoh in her own right under the name, Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten. Meritaten was the first of six born to Pharaoh Akhenaten and his Great Royal Wife. Her sisters are Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten, Neferneferuaten Tasherit, Neferneferure and she was married to Pharaoh Smenkhare. Inscriptions mention a princess named Meritaten Tasherit, who may be the daughter of Meritaten. Inscriptions from Ashmunein suggest that Meritaten-tasherit is the daughter of Meritaten, the scene dates to the reign of Akhenaten, and this means the father of the young princess could be Akhenaten himself. If so, this means Akhenaten took his own daughters as a wife, another princess named Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit had been suggested as an additional daughter of Meritaten, but it is more likely that she is a daughter of Ankhesenpaaten. She was born early in her fathers reign most likely in Thebes, the royal family lived in Thebes, and the royal palace may have been part of the Temple Complex of Akhenaten at Karnak. The exact use of the buildings in Karnak is not known, Meritaten is depicted beside her mother Nefertiti in reliefs carved into the Hut-Benben. The Hut-Benben was an associated with Nefertiti, who is the main officiant in the scenes. Meritaten appears behind her mother shaking a sistrum and her younger sisters Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten also appear in some of the scenes but not as often as Meritaten. In year 5 of her father Akhenatens reign, Meritaten appears on the boundary stelae designating the boundaries of the new capital, during Akhenatens reign, she was the most frequently depicted and mentioned of the six daughters. Her figure appears on paintings in temples, tombs, and private chapels and she is shown not only on the pictures showing the family life of the pharaoh, which were typical of the Amarna Period, but on official ceremonies too. The two structures most associated with Meritaten at Amarna are the North Palace and the Maru-Aten, the Maru-Aten was located to the south of the city limits of Amarna. The structure consisted of two enclosures containing pools or lakes and pavilions set in an area planted with trees, an artificial island contained a pillared construction which held a painted pavement showing scenes from nature. Meritatens name seems to replace that of another lady in several places, among them in the Northern Palace. Meritaten is mentioned in letters, by the name Mayati. She is mentioned in a letter from Abimilki of Tyre, the reference is usually thought to date to the period when Meritatens position at court became more important during the latter part of the reign of Akhenaten. It is possible, however, that the letter refers to the birth of Meritaten, Meritaten appears as a Great Royal Wife in the tomb of Meryre II in Amarna
8. Meritaten Tasherit – Meritaten Tasherit, which means Meritaten the Younger was an ancient Egyptian princess of the 18th dynasty. She is likely to have been the daughter of Meritaten, eldest daughter of Pharaoh Akhenaten, the father of this child remains under debate. Many assume it to be other than Meritatens father, Akhenaten. The fate of this child is uncertain, meanwhile, the name Aten was dropped from popular use during this time. A Delta-Man in Yebu, Occasional Volume of the Egyptologists Electronic Forum No
9. Neferneferuaten Tasherit – Neferneferuaten Tasherit or Neferneferuaten junior was an Ancient Egyptian princess of the 18th dynasty and the fourth daughter of Pharaoh Akhenaten and his Great Royal Wife Nefertiti. Year 8 and 9 of her fathers reign and she was the fourth of six known daughters of the royal couple. It is likely that she was born in Akhetaten, the capital founded by her father and her name Neferneferuaten is the exact copy of the name Nefertiti took in the 5th regnal year. She had three sisters named Meritaten, Meketaten, and Ankhesenpaaten and two younger sisters named Neferneferure and Setepenre. One of the earliest depictions of Neferneferuaten Tasherit is in a fresco from the King’s House in Amarna and she is depicted sitting on a pillow with her sister Neferneferure. The fresco is dated to ca, year 9 of Akhenaten, and the entire family is depicted, including the baby Setepenre. Neferneferuaten Tasherit is depicted in tombs in Amarna and appears on monuments. In the tomb of Huya, the chief Steward of Neferneferuatens grandmother Queen Tiye, the extended scene shows Akhenaten and Nefertiti on the left with their four eldest daughters, while on the right hand side Amenhotep III, Queen Tiye and princess Baketaten are shown. In the reward scene in the tomb of Meryre II, Neferneferuaten Tasherit is shown with four of her sisters and she is depicted at the Durbar in year 12 in the tomb of the Overseer of the royal quarters Meryre II in Amarna. Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown seated in a kiosk, receiving tribute from foreign lands, the daughters of the royal couple are shown standing behind their parents. Neferneferuaten is the first daughter in the lower register and she is holding an object which is too damaged to identify. Her sisters Neferneferure and Setepenre are standing behind her, Neferneferure is shown holding a pet gazelle and Setepenre is shown reaching over to pet the animal. Neferneferuaten also appears in the scene of Panehesy. She is shown standing in the building near the window of appearance as her parents, Akhenaten and Nefertiti, in another scene in this tomb Neferneferuaten and her three older sisters all accompany their parents who are shown offering flowers to the Aten. The four royal daughters are all shown holding bouquets of flowers, Neferneferuaten Tasherit is shown with her sisters Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten mourning the death of Meketaten in ca. Year 14 in the Royal Tomb in Amarna and her younger sisters Neferneferure and Setepenre are not present in this scene. It is unknown what became of Neferneferuaten Tasherit, but it has suggested she died before Tutankhamun. It is possible she was one of the buried in chamber α in the Royal Tomb in Amarna
10. Neferneferure – Neferneferure was an Ancient Egyptian princess of the 18th dynasty. She was the fifth of six daughters of Pharaoh Akhenaten. Neferneferure was born in or before the 8th regnal year of her father Akhenaten in the city of Akhetaten and she had four older sisters named Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten and Neferneferuaten Tasherit, as well as a younger sister named Setepenre. One of the earliest depictions of Neferneferure is in a fresco from the King’s House in Amarna and she is depicted sitting on a pillow with her sister Neferneferuaten Tasherit. The fresco is dated to ca, year 9 of Akhenaten, and the entire family is depicted, including the baby Setepenre. Neferneferure is depicted at the Durbar in year 12 in the tomb of the Overseer of the royal quarters Meryre II in Amarna, Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown seated in a kiosk, receiving tribute from foreign lands. The daughters of the couple are shown standing behind their parents. Neferure is the daughter in the lower register. She is holding a gazelle in her arm and a lotus flower in her left. She is standing right behind her sister Neferneferuaten Tasherit and her sister Setepenre is standing behind her and is shown reaching over to pet the gazelle. Neferneferure probably died in the 13th or 14th regnal year, possibly in the plague swept across Egypt during this time. She is absent from one scene and her name was plastered over in another scene in the Royal Tomb in Amarna. To be specific, on Wall C of the chamber α of the Royal Tomb her name was mentioned among the five princesses and this suggests that she is likely to have died shortly before the decoration of these chambers was finished. It is possible that Neferneferure was actually buried in chamber α of the royal tomb, alternatively she may have been buried in Tomb 29 in Amarna. This theory is based on an amphora handle bearing an inscription mentioning the inner chamber of Neferneferure. If Neferneferure was buried in tomb 29, then this may mean the Royal Tomb was already sealed at the time of her burial, a small box bearing her picture on its lid was found among the treasures of Tutankhamun. It shows the princess crouching, with a finger pressed to her mouth, interestingly, on this box lid Res name in her name was written phonetically instead of the usual circled dot. Christiane Desroches-Noblecourt, Tutankhamen – Life and Death of a Pharaoh
11. Neferure – Neferure was an Egyptian princess of the eighteenth dynasty. She was the daughter of two pharaohs, Hatshepsut and Thutmose II and she served in high offices in the government and the religious administration of Ancient Egypt. Neferure was the known child of Thutmose II and his great royal wife Hatshepsut. She was the granddaughter of Thutmose I and the half-sister of Thutmose III and it has been suggested that Neferure married her half-brother, but there is no conclusive evidence of such a marriage. A king’s son named Amenemhat was installed as Overseer of the Cattle in year 24 of the reign of Thutmose III, and this prince may have been a son of Neferure. It has been pointed out however, that if Neferure had become a royal wife of Thutmose III, she would have been attested with that title. Neferure was born during the reign of Thutmose II, in Karnak Neferure is depicted with Thutmose II and Hatshepsut. Some records indicate that Thutmose II died after a thirteen-year-long rule, Neferure was tutored by some of Hatshepsuts most trusted advisers, at first Ahmose Pen-Nekhebet, who served under several of the preceding pharaohs and was held in great esteem. In his tomb he claims, For me the god’s wife repeated favors, the great wife Maatkare justified, I brought up her eldest. Senenmut is known from many statues depicting him with his young charge, in all these statues Senenmut is shown wearing a long cloak. Seven statues are statues in which the head of Princess Neferure pokes out of the block. One statue shows Neferura seated on his lap, while in another statue Senenmut is shown seated with one leg pulled up, after Hatshepsut became regent, Senenmut became her advisor and the role of tutor for Neferure was handed over to the administrator Senimen. Following her mothers accession to the Egyptian throne, Neferure had a prominent role in the court. As Hatshepsut took on the role of pharaoh, so Neferure took on a role in public life. Many depictions of her in these roles exist and she was given the titles Lady of Upper and Lower Egypt, Mistress of the Lands, and Gods Wife of Amun. The latter title being one that Hatshepsut had to abandon upon becoming pharaoh and these offices had to be filled by a royal woman in order to fulfill the religious and ceremonial duties, normally of the queen, in the government and the temples. The interpretation of one scene depicted on Hatshepsuts Chapelle Rouge in the Karnak temple depicts her fulfilling the rituals required of Gods Wife of Amun. Perhaps significantly, this title had been held by several queens of her dynasty including her mother
12. Setepenre (princess) – Setepenre or Sotepenre) was an ancient Egyptian princess of the 18th dynasty, sixth and last daughter of Pharaoh Akhenaten and his chief queen Nefertiti. Setepenre was born around the 9th to 11th year of her father Akhenaten in the city of Akhetaten and she had five older sisters named Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten, Neferneferuaten Tasherit, and Neferneferure. One of the earliest depictions of Setepenre is in a fresco from the King’s House in Amarna and she is depicted sitting on her mother Nefertitis lap. The fresco is much damaged and only a hand of Setepenre remains The fresco is dated to ca. Year 9 of Akhenaten, and the family is depicted. The next time the six princesses appeared together was in Year 12, on the day of the second month of winter. This event was depicted in the Amarna tombs of Meryre II, in the tomb of Meryre II, Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown seated in a kiosk, receiving tribute from foreign lands. The daughters of the couple are shown standing behind their parents. Setepenre is the last daughter in the lower register and she is standing right behind her sister Neferneferure, who is holding a gazelle. Setepenre is shown reaching over to pet the gazelle, on Wall C in Room α of the Royal Tomb of Akhenaten the names of five princesses are listed, that of Neferneferure is plastered over and only four of the princesses are depicted. This probably means that Setepenre predeceased Neferneferure, and it is likely that Setepenre died around Year 13 or 14 and she was possibly the first of the princesses to die. It is possible that her body was moved to Room α of the Royal Tomb
13. The Younger Lady – The Younger Lady is the informal name given to a mummy discovered in the Egyptian Valley of the Kings, in tomb KV35 by archeologist Victor Loret in 1898. Through recent DNA tests this mummy has been identified as the mother of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun, the mummy also has been given the designation KV35YL and 61072, and currently resides in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Early speculation was that this mummy was the remains of Queen Nefertiti, which remains plausible, all were found together, lying naked side-by-side and unidentified in a small antechamber of the tomb. All three mummies had been damaged by ancient tomb robbers. There has been speculation as to the identity of the Younger Lady mummy. Upon finding the mummy, Victor Loret initially had believed it be that of a man as the mummys head had been shaved. A closer inspection later made by Dr. Grafton Elliot Smith confirmed that the mummy was that of a female, recently, autosomal and mitochondrial DNA testing have shown conclusively that the mummy is that of a female and, that she was the mother of Tutankhamun. The results also show that she was a full-sister to her husband, the mummy from KV55, and that they were both the children of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye. There is also a theory that the lady is Meritaten, daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. The theory goes that Meritaten married Smenkhare, believed to be her uncle, the theory holds weight as inbreeding makes it harder to distinguish the generations, but there is one problem with this theory. Meritaten must be a descendant of Queen Tiye, or her mother Thuya. Nefertitis lineage is nowhere specified, and if Meritaten is the younger lady and it has been suggested that, indeed, the Younger Lady is Nefertiti, as incest was not uncommon. This would mean that Akhenaten did marry his own sister and that he, furthermore, Nefertiti, who may have survived her husband, may be identical with Smenkhare and may have adopted this name if she took over the reign after Akhenatens death. All this is not proven, but should be mentioned as a plausible scenario. Grafton Elliot Smith provided a description of the mummy in his survey of the ancient royal mummies at the beginning of the twentieth century. He found the mummy to be 1.58 m in height and he also noted the major damage done by ancient tomb robbers, who smashed the anterior wall of the mummys chest, and had torn the right arm off just below the shoulder. Smith presumed that she was a member of the royal family