Category:Principals of the University of St Andrews
Pages in category "Principals of the University of St Andrews"
The following 25 pages are in this category, out of 25 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 25 pages are in this category, out of 25 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. David Brewster – Sir David Brewster KH PRSE FRS FSA FSSA MICE was a Scottish physicist, mathematician, astronomer, inventor, writer, historian of science and university principal. Most noted for his contributions to the field of optics, he studied the double refraction by compression and discovered the photoelastic effect, for his work, William Whewell dubbed him the Father of modern experimental optics and the Johannes Kepler of Optics. He is well-recognized for being the inventor of the kaleidoscope and a version of the stereoscope applied to photography. He called it the lenticular stereoscope, which was the first portable and he also invented the binocular camera, two types of polarimeters, the polyzonal lens and the lighthouse illuminator. A prominent figure in the popularization of science, he is considered one of the founders of the British Association, in addition, he became the public face of higher education in Scotland, acting as Principal of the University of St Andrews and then Edinburgh between 1837 and 1868. Brewster also edited the 18-volume Edinburgh Encyclopædia, David Brewster was born at the Canongate in Jedburgh, Roxburghshire, to Margaret Key and James Brewster, the rector of Jedburgh Grammar School and a teacher of high reputation. David was the third of six children, two daughters and four sons, James, minister at Craig, Ferryden, David, George, minister at Scoonie, Fife, and Patrick, minister at the abbey church, Paisley. At the age of 12, David was sent to the University of Edinburgh and he was licensed a minister of the Church of Scotland, but only preached from the pulpit on one occasion. Though Brewster duly finished his studies and was licensed to preach. In 1799 fellow-student Henry Brougham persuaded him to study the diffraction of light, the results of his investigations were communicated from time to time in papers to the Philosophical Transactions of London and other scientific journals. A lesser-known classmate of his, Thomas Dick, also went on to become a popular astronomical writer, as early as 1807 the degree of LL. D. In 1821, he was made a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. As a reflection of this fame, Brewster portrait was printed in some cigar boxes. Brewster chose renowned achromatic lens developer Philip Carpenter as the manufacturer of the kaleidoscope in 1817. Although Brewster patented the kaleidoscope in 1817, a copy of the prototype was shown to London opticians, as a consequence, the kaleidoscope became produced in large numbers, but yielded no direct financial benefits to Brewster. It proved to be a success with two hundred thousand kaleidoscopes sold in London and Paris in just three months. A much more valuable and practical result of Brewsters optical researches was the improvement of the British lighthouse system, although Brewsters own discoveries were important, they were not his only service to science. He began writing in 1799 as a contributor to the Edinburgh Magazine
2. James Donaldson (classical scholar) – Sir James Donaldson FRSE LLD, was a Scottish classical scholar, and educational and theological writer. He was born in Aberdeen on 26 April 1831 and he was educated at Aberdeen Grammar School, Marischal College, Aberdeen, New College, London, and Berlin University. In 1854 he was appointed Rector of the Stirling High School where he remained for two years, before leaving for the Royal High School of Edinburgh, of which he was appointed Rector in 1866. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1867 and he became in 1881 Professor of Humanity in the University of Aberdeen, and in 1890 Principal of the University of St Andrews by the Universities Act. He died on 9 March 1915. and is buried with his wife in the churchyard of St Andrews Cathedral and he also has a memorial in the Church of St John the Evangelist, Edinburgh. Thurston, H. T. Colby, F. M. eds
3. James David Forbes – James David Forbes FRS FRSE FGS was a Scottish physicist and glaciologist who worked extensively on the conduction of heat and seismology. Forbes was a resident of Edinburgh for most of his life, educated at the University and he invented the seismometer in 1842. Forbes was born at 86 George Street in Edinburgh, the son of Sir William Forbes, 7th Baronet, of Monymusk and Pitsligo. His brothers were the advocate and agriculturalist Sir John Stuart Hepburn Forbes of Fettercairn and Pitsligo and he entered the University of Edinburgh in 1825, and soon afterwards began to contribute papers to the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal anonymously under the signature Δ. At the age of nineteen he became a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, at this time he maintained correspondence with Sir David Brewster, who encouraged him to pursue an original research in science. In 1859 he was appointed successor to Brewster in the principalship of the United College of St. Andrews, as a scientific investigator he is best known for his researches on heat and on glaciers. Between 1836 and 1844 he published in the Trans, a notable defender of Forbes in this controversy was John Ruskin, the two having first met by coincidence in 1844 during a study tour of the Alps. During these expeditions, he made measurements of the boiling point of water at various altitudes. It emphasises the importance of residuals analysis in linear regression as the residuals manifest an outlier that is not apparent in an inspection of the raw data. Forbes was also interested in geology, and published memoirs on the springs of the Pyrenees, on the extinct volcanoes of the Vivarais, on the geology of the Cuchullin and Eildon hills. He was also the author of the Dissertation on the Progress of Mathematical and Physical Science, the Forbes River and Forbes Glaciers in New Zealand are named after him as is Aiguille Forbes between the Glacier de Saleina and the Glacier du Tour in the Mont Blanc massif. He is buried in Dean Cemetery in Edinburgh, the grave is marked by a simple but large grey granite Celtic cross and lies on the south side of the main path just west of the roundel. His wife, Alicia Wauchope, is buried with him and his cousins were Scottish Episcopal Church leaders Alexander Penrose Forbes and George Hay Forbes. His son was the scientist Prof George Forbes, travels through the Alps of Savoy and Other Parts of the Pennine Chain, with Observations on the Phenomena of Glaciers. A Tour of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa, occasional Papers on the Theory of Glaciers. Shairp, John Campbell, Tait, Peter Guthrie, Adams-Reilly, life and Letters of James David Forbes. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh
4. Robert Haldane (mathematician) – The Very Rev Robert Haldane DD FRSE was a British mathematician and minister of the Church of Scotland. He was the son of a farmer at Overtown, Lecropt, on the borders of Perthshire and Stirlingshire and he was educated at the school in Dunblane, and then at Glasgow University. Haldane became a tutor, first in the family at Leddriegreen, Strathblane. On 5 December 1797, he was licensed as a preacher by the presbytery of Auchterarder, in August 1806, he was presented to the church of Drummelzier, in the presbytery of Peebles, and was ordained on 19 March 1807. When the chair of mathematics became vacant in the University of St. Andrews in 1807, Haldane was appointed to the professorship, and resigned his charge at Drummelzier on 2 October 1809. He remained in the post till 1820, when he was promoted by the crown to the charge of St. Andrews parish, vacant by the death of Principal George Hill. As principal he was ex officio primarius professor of divinity, on 17 May 1827 Haldane was elected moderator of the general assembly of the church of Scotland. At the time of the disruption of 1843 Haldane was called to the ad interim. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1820, his proposers being George Dunbar, Robert Jameson, Alexander Brunton and Patrick Neill. He died at St. Marys College, St. Andrews, on 9 March 1854, in his eighty-third year, the grave lies on the north wall just left of the distinctive white military memorial to Lt Col Sir Hugh Lyon Playfair. Haldanes marble inscription is badly eroded and his portrait was in the hall of the university library at St. Andrews. He was succeeded by John Tulloch, haldanes only publication was a small work relating to the condition of the poor in St. Andrews. OConnor, John J. Robertson, Edmund F. Robert Haldane, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Stephen, Leslie, Lee, Sidney, eds
5. John Herkless – Sir John Herkless was a Principal and Vice Chancellor of the University of St. Andrews and Principal of United College of St Salvator and St Leonard from 1915 to 1920. He was knighted in 1917 and was the author of books mainly of an ecclesiastical nature. He was born in Glasgow on 9 August 1855, the son of William Herkless and he was educated in the High School of Glasgow before entering Glasgow University. He did not distinguish himself as a student and he left without a degree, however, he studied the arts and attended medical classes. Though he disliked mathematics, he was fond of philosophy and he then studied for the ministry and was duly licensed as a minister. He lectured on English Literature at Queen Margaret College, Glasgow and this lasted till 1883 when he was appointed as minister to the parish of Tannadice in Angus. Herkless also held the post of Professor of Ecclesiastical History at the University of St Andrews, during his career he wrote several books including, The Archbishops of St Andrews which he co-wrote with Robert Hannay and Francis and Dominic and the Mendicant Orders. His chief recreation was golf and he was a member of the Royal and he died in Dundee on 11 June 1920. Andrews Cardinal Beaton, Priest and Politician, London, William Blackwood & Sons,1891, richard Cameron, Edinburgh, Oliphant, Anderson and Ferrier, May 1896. Francis and Dominic and the Mendicant Orders, Edinburgh, T. & T. Clark,1901, the Early Christian Martyrs and their Persecutions, London, J. M. Dent,1904. The Archbishops of St. Andrews, Edinburgh & London, William Blackwood & Sons,1907
6. George Hill (minister) – Rev Prof George Hill DD FRSE was a Minister of St Andrews. He was Principal of St Marys College, St Andrews as well as Dean of the Chapel Royal, George Hill was born on 27 May 1750 in St Andrews. His father, Rev John Hill, was one of the ministers of that town and he was the eldest son of his second wife, Jean MCormick, but had older siblings from the first marriage, including John Hill. His sister, Janet Hill, was the mother of Rev George Cook and his family was intermarried with the other academic and clerical families in the town. George was educated with and mixed socially with the aristocracy, including Thomas Erskine, 1st Baron Erskine, later Lord Chancellor. Both of these were very influential in the Crown patronage networks operated by Henry Dundas and he was educated at St Andrews Grammar School, then entered St Andrews University when he was eleven years old. There he displayed a memory and an aptitude for mathematics. He had intended to go on to study Divinity but his father died when he was in his second year, however, he went on to graduate M. A. when he was fourteen. While there, he was absorbed by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland when it met there in the spring. He told his mother spend most of my time there and have been highly entertained and he mixed with all the stars of the Scottish Enlightenment while in Edinburgh, being particularly repelled by what he thought were the vulgar manners and conversation of the philosopher David Hume. He returned to St Andrews and became, on 21 May 1772, just short of his 22nd birthday and he lectured once a fortnight, going over homework assignments in the intervening week. He also organised dancing assemblies to keep them entertained, as well as entertaining supper parties to which the professors were invited. He was a success in the pulpit, committing whole written sermons to his memory as he was too short sighted to read them out. In 1775, he was offered the living of Coldstream by the Earl of Haddington, a pupil of his fathers, in 1778, he was ordained by the Presbytery of Haddington. He received the degree of Doctor of Divinity on 7 May 1787, on 2 January 1788, he became Professor of Divinity at St Marys College. He was made Dean of the Chapel Royal instead, with an additional stipend, three years later, on 27 July 1791 he was appointed Principal of St Marys College, while retaining his second charge Ministers post. In 1808, upon the death of the incumbent, Hill was moved to the more lucrative first charge of St Andrews. When he became a minister and progressed as an academic, his influence in the assembly grew and his speaking skills were considerable and had always been an excellent networker, noted for his conciliatory approach
7. James Irvine (chemist) – Sir James Colquhoun Irvine KBE FRS FRSE FEIS was a Scottish organic chemist and Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of St Andrews from 1921 until his death. As a research chemist, Irvine worked on the application of techniques to carbohydrates. Irvine was born in Glasgow to factory-owner John Irvine and Mary Paton Colquhoun and he was educated at Allan Glens School. He then studied at the Royal Technical College, Glasgow, before taking a Bachelor of Science in Chemistry at the University of St Andrews, from there, he went to the University of Leipzig, where he studied for a Ph. D. under Ostwald and Wislicenus. Returning to St Andrews, he was awarded a Doctor of Science degree and he was appointed Professor of Chemistry in 1909 and Dean of Science in 1912. In 1921, he was appointed Principal and his tenure saw the renovation and restoration of both buildings and traditions, and his works are still talked of today. His commitments spanned further than the University, into higher education in Britain and he also served as acting Principal of University College Dundee. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1917 and his proposers were Sir James Walker, John Edwin Mackenzie, Cargill Gilston Knott, and Sir DArcy Wentworth Thompson. He was elected a Fellow of The Royal Society of London in 1918 and he served as Vice President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh from 1922 to 1925. He won the societys Gunning Victoria Jubilee Prize for 1936-1940 and he was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1920 and knighted in 1925. He received honorary doctorates from the Universities of Aberdeen, Cambridge, Columbia, Durham, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Liverpool, McGill, Oxford, Princeton, Toronto, Wales and Yale. He died at home in St Andrews on 12 June 1952 and was buried in the cemetery close to the main lower entrance gate. Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry Irvine married Mabel Violet Williams in 1905
8. George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh – Sir George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh was a Scottish lawyer, Lord Advocate, essayist and legal writer. He was a grandson of Kenneth, Lord Mackenzie of Kintail and he was educated at the Kings College, University of Aberdeen, the University of St Andrews, and the University of Bourges in France. Mackenzie was elected to the Faculty of Advocates in 1659, and spoke in defence at the trial of Archibald Campbell and he acted as justice-depute from 1661 to 1663, a post that involved him in extensive witch trials. Mackenzie was knighted, and was a member of the Scottish Parliament for the County of Ross from 1669, in 1677 he became Lord Advocate, and a member of the Privy Council of Scotland. As Lord Advocate he was the responsible for the persecuting policy of Charles II in Scotland against the Presbyterian Covenanters. After the Battle of Bothwell Bridge in 1679 Mackenzie imprisoned 1,200 Covenanters in a next to Greyfriars Kirkyard. Some were executed, and hundreds died of maltreatment and his treatment of Covenanters gained him the nickname of Bluidy Mackenzie. It has been argued that both he and Claverhouse kept to the letter of the law and it is unclear whether or not the epithet Bluidy is contemporary, it appears in The Heart of Midlothian, given to Davie Deans. Mackenzie resigned for a time in 1686, taking up office again in 1688. He opposed the dethronement of James II, and to escape the consequences he retired from public life, Mackenzie retired at the Glorious Revolution to Oxford. In London on 9 March 1690 he dined with William Lloyd and John Evelyn and he died at Westminster on 8 May 1691 and is buried in Greyfriars Kirkyard in Edinburgh, his mausoleum being designed by James Smith. In private life Mackenzie was a cultivated and learned gentleman with literary tendencies and he published in 1660 Aretina, which has been called the first Scottish novel. He is remembered as the author of various graceful essays, a contemporary antiquarian, Alexander Nisbet, calls him learned and renowned. A major royalist tract, A Vindication of the Government in Scotland, Antiquity of the Royal Line of Scotland, Mackenzie took part in the Midlothian trials for witchcraft in 1661, and defended the alleged witch Maevia. He later wrote at length of his experience with witchcraft trials and he did not endorse the sceptical position, but stated that witches were fewer than common belief made out. He attributed confessions to the use of torture and his Laws and Customs of Scotland in Matters Criminal was the first textbook of Scottish criminal law. In it Mackenzie defended the use of torture in Scotland as legal. He said it was seldom used, in the aftermath of the Rye House Plot Charles II authorised the use of torture against William Spence, secretary to Archibald, Earl of Agyll, who was moved to Scotland
9. Andrew Melville – Andrew Melville was a Scottish scholar, theologian and religious reformer. His fame encouraged scholars from the European Continent to study at Glasgow and he was born at Baldovie near Montrose, Angus, the youngest son of Richard Melville, his father died at the Battle of Pinkie in 1547, fighting in the van of the Scottish army. Andrews mother died soon after, and the orphan was cared for by his eldest brother Richard, at an early age Melville began to show a taste for learning, and his brother did everything in his power to give him the best education. On completing his course, Melville left St Andrews with the reputation of the best poet, philosopher, in 1564, at nineteen years of age, he set out for France to complete his education at the University of Paris. From Paris he went to Poitiers to study law. In addition to teaching, Melville continued to study Oriental literature, and in particular acquired from Cornelius Bertram, one of his brother professors, a knowledge of Syriac. Among these were several men learned in law, and political science. In 1574 Melville returned to Scotland, and almost immediately received the appointment of Principal of the University of Glasgow, Melville set himself to establish a good educational system. He enlarged the curriculum, and established chairs in languages, science, philosophy and divinity and his fame spread, and students flocked from all parts of Scotland and beyond. He assisted in the reconstruction of the University of Aberdeen in 1575 and his duties there comprised the teaching of theology, Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac and Rabbinical languages. Melville created a fashion for the study of Greek literature and he was Moderator of the General Assembly in 1578, and took part in the organisation of the Church and the Presbyterian method. Troubles arose from the attempts of the court to force a system of episcopacy upon the Church of Scotland, for this he was summoned before the Privy Council in February 1584, and had to flee into England to escape a charge of treason. During the whole time he protected the liberties of the Scottish Church against all encroachments of the government and that in the main he was fighting for the constitutionally guaranteed rights of the Church is generally accepted. The chief charge against Melville is that his fervour often led him to forget the reverence due to an anointed monarch, when the king acted in an arbitrary and illegal manner he needed the reminder that though he was king over men he was only Gods silly vassal. Melvilles rudeness was the outburst of just indignation from a man zealous for the purity of religion and regardless of consequences to himself. His nephew James Melville, who was present, records the famous statement he made in Falkland in private to King James VI of Scotland, later to become King James I of England. And thairfor Sir, as divers tymes befor, sa now again, I mon tell yow, thair is twa Kings and twa Kingdomes in Scotland. Thair is Chryst Jesus the King, and his Kingdome the Kirk, whase subject King James the Saxt is, in 1599 he was deprived of the rectorship, but was made dean of the faculty of theology
10. James Playfair (minister) – Rev James Playfair DD FRSE was an eminent figure in 18th-century Scotland. He was born at West Bendochy in Perthshire where his father and he studied at St Andrews University and then became minister of Newtyle and Meigle. He was then appointed Principal of St Andrews University in 1800, during this period he was also minister of St Leonards Church in St Andrews. He was the official histiographer of the then Prince of Wales and he died at Dalmarnock near Glasgow. He is buried in Glasgow but is also memorialised on the grave of his wife in the churchyard of St Andrews Cathedral and he married Margaret Lyon in 1773, and was the father of Sir Hugh Lyon Playfair. ac. uk
11. Louise Richardson – Louise Mary Richardson FRSE is an Irish political scientist whose specialist field is the study of terrorism. Richardson grew up in Tramore, one of seven children of Arthur, in 1977, she received a Rotary Scholarship to study at the University of California, Los Angeles. From 1989 to 2001 Richardson served as an assistant professor and then a professor in the Harvard Government Department. During this period she served for eight years as Head Tutor. In July 2001, she was appointed dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. Richardsons academic focus has been on international security with an emphasis on terrorist movements and this class, along with a number of graduate courses on terrorist movements and European terrorism, were for many years the only courses offered on the subject at Harvard. After her 2001 Radcliffe appointment, she continued to teach, both at Harvard College and Harvard Law School, in 2009, Richardson was appointed Principal of the University of St Andrews, succeeding Brian Lang. Her installation took place on 25 March 2009 and she is the first woman, as well as the first Roman Catholic in modern times, to occupy the position. She was appointed Professor of International Relations at St Andrews in November 2010, on 28 May 2015, the University of Oxford announced that Professor Richardson had been nominated as the next Vice-Chancellor, subject to approval, to take up the post on 1 January 2016. The nomination was approved on 25 June 2015, and Richardson became Vice-Chancellor in January 2016, Richardson is the author of What Terrorists Want, an account of terrorism written after the September 11 attacks. Other publications include When Allies Differ, Anglo-American Relations in the Suez and Falkland Crises, The Roots of Terrorism and Democracy and Counterterrorism and she has also published many journal articles, book chapters, and reviews on the subject of terrorism. She has testified before the United States Senate and has appeared on CNN, the BBC, PBS, NPR, Fox and her work has been featured in numerous international periodicals. In 2010 she was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, in 2012, ahead of the centenary in 2014 of the outbreak of World War One, she was appointed to the Scottish Commemorations Panel. In 2015 Professor Richardson received honorary doctorates from the University of Aberdeen and she serves on the boards of a number of non-profit groups including the Carnegie Corporation and the EastWest Institute. She has lectured on the subject of terrorism and counter-terrorism to public, professional, media, Richardson married Thomas Jevon in 1988 and has three children
12. Samuel Rutherford – Rev Prof Samuel Rutherford was a Scottish Presbyterian pastor, theologian and author, and one of the Scottish Commissioners to the Westminster Assembly. Samuel Rutherford was born in the village of Nisbet, Roxburghshire, Rutherford was educated at Jedburgh Grammar School and Edinburgh University, where he became Regent of Humanity in 1623. His patron in Galloway was John Gordon, 1st Viscount of Kenmure, on the re-establishment of Presbyterianism in 1638, he was made Professor of Divinity at St. Andrews. Marys College at St. Andrews in 1651 and he is buried in the churchyard of St Andrews Cathedral just west of the bell tower. The stone is well preserved. The epitaph on his tombstone includes Acquainted with Emmanuels Love, there is also a monument to Rutherford, an obelisk on the hilltop overlooking his former parish at Anwoth, in the village of Gatehouse of Fleet, southwest Scotland. Rutherford was also known for other spiritual and devotional works, such as Christ Dying and drawing Sinners to Himself, The Trial, after the Restoration, the authorities burned Lex, Rex and cited Rutherford for high treason, but his death intervened before the charge could be tried. Rutherford also was a supporter of the divine right of Presbyterianism. Rutherford was involved in controversies over church government with the New England Independents. Pp. 82–99 Initially sourced from Andrew Bonars Letters of Samuel Rutherford, with updates, Rutherford, Samuel, Bonar, Andrew, ed. Letters, London, Religious Tract Society. ———, Verse, in Cook, Faith, Grace in Winter, spurgeon, Charles Haddon, The Sword and the Trowel, ISBN 0-85151388-3. Thomson, Andrew, Samuel Rutherford, London, Hodder & Stoughton, ———, The Life of Samuel Rutherford, Edinburgh, Free Presbyterian Church, ISBN 978-0-902506-23-7. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Cousin. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature, London, J. M. Dent & Sons
13. John Campbell Shairp – John Campbell Shairp was a Scottish critic and man of letters. He was born at Houstoun House, Linlithgowshire, the son of Major Norman Shairp of Houstoun, and was educated at Edinburgh Academy. He gained a Shell exhibition to Balliol College, Oxford in 1840, in 1842 he won the Newdigate prize for a poem on Charles XII of Sweden, and took his degree in 1844. During these years the Oxford Movement was at its height, after leaving Oxford he took a mastership at Rugby School under Archibald Campbell Tait. In 1857 he became assistant to the professor of humanity in the University of St Andrews, in 1864 he published Kilmahoe, a Highland Pastoral, and in 1868 he republished some articles under the name of Studies in Poetry and Philosophy. In 1868 he was presented to the principalship of the United College, St Andrews, a course of the lectures was published in 1870 as Culture and Religion. In 1873 Principal Shairp helped to edit the life of his predecessor JD Forbes, in 1877 he was elected Professor of Poetry at Oxford in succession to Sir F. H. Doyle. Of his lectures from this chair the best were published in 1881 as Aspects of Poetry, in 1879 he contributed a life of Robert Burns to the English Men of Letters series. He was re-elected to the chair of poetry in 1882, and discharged his duties there, in 1888 appeared Glen Desseray, and other Poems, edited by Francis Turner Palgrave. See WA Knights Principal Shairp and his Friends and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. article name needed. Works by John Campbell Shairp at Project Gutenberg Works by or about John Campbell Shairp at Internet Archive
14. John Tulloch – John Tulloch was a Scottish theologian. He was born at Bridge of Earn, Perthshire, and educated at the University of St Andrews, in 1845 he became minister of St Pauls, Dundee, and in 1849 of Kettins, in Strathmore, where he remained for six years. In 1854 he was appointed Principal of St Marys College, St Andrews, the appointment was immediately followed by the appearance of his Burnet prize essay on Theism. At St Andrews, where he was professor of systematic theology and apologetics. He lectured on religion and treated doctrine historically, as being not a fixed product. Furthermore, Tulloch was appointed as one of Her Majestys Chaplains for Scotland and he quickly won the attachment and admiration of his students. In 1862 he was appointed a clerk of the General Assembly, in 1878 he was chosen to be Moderator of the General Assembly, and did much to widen the national church. For three years before his death he was convener of the church committee of the Church of Scotland. In 1884, he was a guest at Haddo House for a dinner hosted by John Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and he died at Torquay, in 1886. His body was returned to Scotland for burial and he is buried beneath a large memorial at the centre of the Eastern Cemetery in St Andrews. His wife, Jane Anne Sophia is buried with him, tullochs best-known works are collections of biographical sketches of the leaders of great movements in church history, such as the Reformation and Puritanism. His most important book, Rational Theology and Christian Philosophy, is one in which the Cambridge Platonists and he delivered the second series of the Croall lectures, on the Doctrine of Sin, which were afterwards published. A biography of Tulloch was written by Mrs Oliphant, beginning Life a Book for Young Men. London, Alexander Strahan & Co.1863, modern Theories in Philosophy and Religion. Edinburgh and London, William Blackwood and Sons,1884, ISBN Unavailable This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Tulloch