Category:Protected areas established in 1928
Pages in category "Protected areas established in 1928"
The following 29 pages are in this category, out of 29 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 29 pages are in this category, out of 29 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Bryce Canyon National Park – Bryce Canyon National Park /ˈbraɪs/ is a National Park located in southwestern Utah in the United States. The major feature of the park is Bryce Canyon, which despite its name, is not a canyon, Bryce is distinctive due to geological structures called hoodoos, formed by frost weathering and stream erosion of the river and lake bed sedimentary rocks. The red, orange, and white colors of the rocks provide spectacular views for park visitors, Bryce sits at a much higher elevation than nearby Zion National Park. The rim at Bryce varies from 8,000 to 9,000 feet, the Bryce Canyon area was settled by Mormon pioneers in the 1850s and was named after Ebenezer Bryce, who homesteaded in the area in 1874. The area around Bryce Canyon became a National Monument in 1923 and was designated as a National Park in 1928, the park covers 35,835 acres and receives substantially fewer visitors than Zion National Park or Grand Canyon National Park, largely due to Bryces more remote location. In 2016, Bryce Canyon received 2,365,110 recreational visitors, Bryce Canyon National Park is located in southwestern Utah about 50 miles northeast of and 1,000 feet higher than Zion National Park. The weather in Bryce Canyon is therefore cooler, and the park receives more precipitation, yearly temperatures vary from an average minimum of 9 °F in January to an average maximum of 83 °F in July, but extreme temperatures can range from −30 to 97 °F. The record high temperature in the park was 98 °F on July 14,2002, the record low temperature was −28 °F on December 10,1972. The national park lies within the Colorado Plateau geographic province of North America, Park visitors arrive from the plateau part of the park and look over the plateaus edge toward a valley containing the fault and the Paria River just beyond it. The edge of the Kaiparowits Plateau bounds the opposite side of the valley, Bryce Canyon was not formed from erosion initiated from a central stream, meaning it technically is not a canyon. Instead headward erosion has excavated large amphitheater-shaped features in the Cenozoic-aged rocks of the Paunsaugunt Plateau and this erosion exposed delicate and colorful pinnacles called hoodoos that are up to 200 feet high. A series of amphitheaters extends more than 20 miles north-to-south within the park, the largest is Bryce Amphitheater, which is 12 miles long,3 miles wide and 800 feet deep. A nearby example of amphitheaters with hoodoos in the formation but at a higher elevation, is in Cedar Breaks National Monument. Rainbow Point, the highest part of the park at 9,105 feet, is at the end of the 18-mile scenic drive, from there, Aquarius Plateau, Bryce Amphitheater, the Henry Mountains, the Vermilion Cliffs and the White Cliffs can be seen. Yellow Creek, where it exits the park in the north-east section, is the lowest part of the park at 6,620 feet, little is known about early human habitation in the Bryce Canyon area. Archaeological surveys of Bryce Canyon National Park and the Paunsaugunt Plateau show that people have been in the area for at least 10,000 years, basketmaker Anasazi artifacts several thousand years old have been found south of the park. Other artifacts from the Pueblo-period Anasazi and the Fremont culture have also been found, the Paiute Indians moved into the surrounding valleys and plateaus in the area around the same time that the other cultures left. These Native Americans hunted and gathered for most of their food, the Paiute in the area developed a mythology surrounding the hoodoos in Bryce Canyon
2. Droop Mountain Battlefield State Park – Droop Mountain Battlefield State Park is a state park located on Droop Mountain in Pocahontas County, West Virginia. Droop Mountain was the site of the last major conflict of the American Civil War in West Virginia. A private in the U. S. Army at the Battle of Droop Mountain, John D. Sutton, dedicated on July 4,1928, Droop Mountain Battlefield became the first state park in West Virginia. The battlefield was transformed into a historical, outdoor recreation area by the Civilian Conservation Corps during the Great Depression, public reenactments of the battle are conducted in October of even-numbered years by the West Virginia Reenactors Association. The park was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1970, Droop Mountain Battlefield State Park is located about 25 miles north of the Lewisburg exit of I-64 on U. S. Highway 219 and about 15 miles south of Marlinton on US219. The park is also near Beartown State Park and Watoga State Park
3. Green Lakes State Park – Green Lakes State Park is a New York State Park located east of Syracuse in the Town of Manlius. The park is strikingly scenic, and has a golf course designed by Robert Trent Jones very early in his career. Green Lake itself is perhaps the most studied meromictic lake—one in which layers of water do not mix—in the world. The park preserves the largest stand of old growth forest in Central New York, the park is centered on two small lakes, Green Lake and Round Lake, which have an unusual blue-green color. These lakes lie at the base of a gorge that is longer than a mile in length. The lakes and the gorge are remnants of the ice ages, Green Lake has a surface area of 65 acres and a maximum depth of 195 feet. Round Lake has an area of 34 acres and a maximum depth of 170 feet. The parks area is 1,955 acres, and it logs about 800,000 visitors each year, nearly half the parks area is old-growth forest, which includes many very large specimens of tuliptrees, sugar maples, beech, basswood, hemlocks, and white cedars. One particularly impressive grove of trees, lying immediately to the southwest of Round Lake, has called the Tuliptree Cathedral. Adjacent to the beach, there is a boathouse with rowboat and paddleboat rentals in the summer season, currently, Green Lakes is offering stand up paddle board classes, excursions, and yoga taught by Method 360, privately owned boats and paddle boards are not permitted. The park has an 18-hole golf course designed by Robert Trent Jones, above the western cliffs along Green Lake there are a Frisbee golf course,137 campsites, and eight cabins for those who prefer a less rustic experience. There are several picnic areas throughout the park, including some with picnic shelters that can be reserved for groups. There is a network of hiking trails throughout the park. Some of the trails are available for mountain biking. The development of the area is mostly contained at its northern end. The western shoreline of Green Lake is undeveloped, and Round Lake itself is essentially in wilderness, together, North Lake Trail and Round Lake Trail make a level loop of 3.25 miles. The park includes many bike trails, most of which are at the edge of the park. These connect with the Old Erie Canal State Historic Park, which runs by the entrance to Green Lakes State Park
4. Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle – Its name is attributed to the root word kamin, from the Slavic word for stone. Historical accounts date Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle to the early 14th century, although recent archaeological evidence has proved human existence in the back to the 12th or 13th century. Along with the Old Town neighborhood, the castle is listed as part of the National Historical-Architectural Sanctuary Kamianets, the complex is a candidate UNESCO World Heritage Site, nominated in 1989 by the Ukrainian representatives, and also one of the Seven Wonders of Ukraine. Today, Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle is the most recognized landmark of the city, a written document by Prince Yuriy Koriatovych in 1374, for example, mentions that the Magdeburg rights would be presented to Kamianets inside the castle. During the reconstruction, the old towers were renovated and ten new towers were added, during the mid-14th to mid-15th centuries, Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle was located on one of the main frontiers of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Tatar invasions of 1448,1451,1509 and 1528, as well as the Ottoman siege of 1533, during the uprising, the castle was unsuccessfully besieged by local Cossacks and insurgents led by Commander Maksym Kryvonis. A60,000 force army led by Khmelnytsky himself reasserted Cossack control over the castle in 1652, just one year later, the castle was attacked yet again, this time by a 40,000 strong Crimean Tatar horde. In the beginning of August 1672, a 300,000 Ottoman force led by Sultan Mehmed IV, after conducting negotiations with their attackers, the citys leaders surrendered control of the fortress to the Ottomans on August 18. In a sign of protest, the fortresss Commandant Michał Wołodyjowski and Major Hejking blew up the remaining gunpowder. For 27 years after the attack, the served as the base of Ottoman rule in Podolia. The 1699 Karlov Peace Treaty saw the return of Polish control over the area after the Ottoman Empire ceded its control in the area. From the beginning of the 18th century, Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle had lost its defensive role, numerous people were executed or held captive in the prison, including Cossack starshynas, haidamakas, and even the three-year-old pretender to the Polish throne, Stanisław August Poniatowski. Even though it had lost its role, it was one of the strongest fortresses in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland up until the Second Partition of Poland of April 21,1793. When both Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle and the city were transferred to the sovereignty of the Russian Empire, on the same day, the castles commandant gave up the key to the castle and swore allegiance to the empire in the citys cathedral. One hundred and one artillery cannons later saluted the commandants decision inside the castle, during the French invasion of Russia of 1812, the Russian Imperial Army was stationed in the castle. In 1815, Konstantin Batyushkov, who became a well-known poet. In 1846, poet Vladimir Raevsky was stationed in the castle, from 1816 until 1914, the fortress was converted from a military prison into a jail for debtors, criminals and political prisoners. In 1831, Russian lexicologist Vladimir Dal worked in the castle, after a series of political changes following the 1905 revolution, political parties and organizations were allowed by the law throughout the Russian Empire
5. Manas National Park – Manas National Park or Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is a national park, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger reserve, an elephant reserve and a biosphere reserve in Assam, India. Located in the Himalayan foothills, it is contiguous with the Royal Manas National Park in Bhutan, the park is known for its rare and endangered endemic wildlife such as the Assam roofed turtle, hispid hare, golden langur and pygmy hog. Manas is famous for its population of the water buffalo. The name of the park is originated from the Manas River, the Manas river is a major tributary of Brahmaputra River, which passes through the heart of the national park. The Manas National Park was declared a sanctuary on 1 October 1928 with an area of 360 km2, Manas bioreserve was created in 1973. Prior to the declaration of the sanctuary it was a reserved forest called Manas R. F. and it was used by the Cooch Behar royal family and Raja of Gauripur as a hunting reserve. In 1951 and 1955 the area was increased to 391 km2 and it was declared a World Heritage site in December 1985 by UNESCO. Kahitama R. F. the Kokilabari R. F. in 1992, UNESCO declared it as a world heritage site in danger due to heavy poaching and terrorist activities. On 25 February 2008 the area was increased to 950 km2, on 21 June 2011, it was removed from the List of World Heritage in Danger and was commended for its efforts in preservation. There is only one forest village, Agrang, in the core of the national park, apart from this village 56 more villages surround the park. Many more fringe villages are directly or indirectly dependent on the park, political Geography, The park area falls in five districts, Kokrajhar, Chirang, Baksa, Udalguri, and Darrang in the state of Assam in India. The park is divided into three ranges, the western range is based at Panbari, the central at Bansbari near Barpeta Road, and the eastern at Bhuiyapara near Pathsala. The ranges are not well connected, while two major rivers need to be forded in going from the centre to the Panbari, there is a trail connecting the central to the eastern range. Most visitors come to Bansbari and then some time inside the forest at Mathanguri on the Manas river at the Bhutan border. Physical Geography, Manas is located in the foothills of the Eastern Himalaya and is densely forested, the Manas river flows thorough the west of the park and is the main river within it. It is a tributary of Brahmaputra river and splits into two separate rivers, the Beki and Bholkaduba as it reaches the plains. Five other smaller rivers flow through the national park which lies on a wide. The Manas river also serves as an international border dividing India, the bedrock of the savanna area in the north of the park is made up of limestone and sandstone, whereas the grasslands in the south of the park stand on deep deposits of fine alluvium
6. Red Rocks Park – Red Rocks Park is a mountain park in Jefferson County, Colorado, owned and maintained by the city of Denver as part of the Denver Mountain Parks system. The park is known for its large red sandstone outcrops. Many of these formations within the park have names, from the mushroom-shaped Seat of Pluto to the inclined Cave of the Seven Ladders. The most visited rocks, around the amphitheater, are Creation Rock to the north, Ship Rock to the south, the red sandstone found throughout Red Rocks Park is geologically identified as belonging to the Fountain Formation. Other Colorado examples of Fountain Formation geology include nearby Roxborough State Park, Garden of the Gods near Colorado Springs, the rocks were formed about 290-296 million years ago when the Ancestral Rocky Mountains were eroded during the Pennsylvanian epoch. Later, uplift during the Laramide orogeny tilted the rocks to the angle at which they sit today, an Army expedition led by Stephen Long discovered present day Red Rocks in 1820. The park was in times far past a favored campsite of the Ute tribe for it provided natural cover from the elements. Its earliest known name was the Garden of the Angels, reputedly given to it on July 4,1870, by Martin Van Buren Luther, a pioneer Colorado judge. Known however by the name of Red Rocks since the area was settled. Within the park boundaries is the Red Rocks Amphitheater, a venue used since 1941. The amphitheater is an award winning venue for concerts, Denver Mayor Ben Stapleton resisted developing the already beautiful Red Rocks but city Park Planner George Cranmer used a program developed by Franklin D Roosevelt to build an amphitheater. Ultimately, the Amphitheater was designed by Burnam Hoyt within the area between two slabs of Red stone. After being awarded Pollstar magazines Best Small Outdoor Venue for the 11th time, Red Rocks Park was also the site of the Start and Finish line of The Amazing Race 9 which aired in the spring of 2006. The park along with Mount Morrison Civilian Conservation Corps Camp were added to the National Historic Landmarks program in 2015, Historic Homes of Denver, Entertainment Series-Red Rocks. Red Rocks Park and Amphitheatre Denver Mountain Parks - Red Rocks at Denvergov. org Historic Red Rocks
7. Whipple Dam State Park – Whipple Dam State Park is a Pennsylvania state park on 256 acres in Jackson Township, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania in the United States. Whipple Dam State Park is 12 miles south of State College, the land on which Whipple Dam State Park is located was purchased from the Iroquois Confederation in 1754 by the Proprietary Government of Pennsylvania. Eventually the Monroe Iron Works was built on the land and the production of charcoal took place, remnants of the iron mines can be seen today at the park. The demand for lumber reached northern Huntingdon County in the 1860s, the old-growth forests of white pine and hemlock were harvested from the mountains. Osgood M. Whipple purchased a tract of land on which he built a sawmill that was powered by the waters of the lake formed by the dam he also constructed. Mr. Whipple left the business in 1897, but the lake remained and has been used for recreation ever since. The state of Pennsylvania purchased the land on January 15,1904 from the Linden Hall Lumber Company, the dam was rebuilt in 1928 by the Pennsylvania Bureau of Forestry, a forerunner of the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. The land was used recreationally by the 1920s, a camp for Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and Campfire Girls was built on the north side of the lake in 1928 and was used until 1941. The Great Depression of the 1930s was a time for the construction of state park facilities all over Pennsylvania. The CCC also built the facilities that are still in use today at Whipple Dam State Park, in 1935, they dismantled the 1928 dam and built a new one. They also built pavilions, restrooms, roads and the beach and their work was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1987. Whipple Lake is open to fishing, ice fishing, boating, the lake is stocked by the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission with trout. Gas powered boats are prohibited on Whipple Lake, electric powered boats and non powered boats must have current registration with any state. The sand beach open Memorial Day weekend and closes Labor Day weekend, there is no lifeguard stationed at the beach. There is a volleyball court, bathhouse and snack bar at the beach. The lake provides a habitat for a variety of waterfowl as well as great blue heron, osprey, beavers. There are three pavilions that were built by Civilian Conservation Corps. These pavilions can be reserved up to 11 months in advance, pavilions that are not reserved are available on a first come, first served basis
8. Potawatomi State Park – Potawatomi State Park is a 1, 225-acre Wisconsin state park northwest of the city of Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin. It is located on Sturgeon Bay, a bay of the Bay of Green Bay in Door County, potawatomi State Park was established in 1928. Trails, The park has hiking trails and is the eastern terminus of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail. Park trails are used for hiking, bicycling, cross-country, Green Bay, The park has two miles of water frontage on Green Bay which provides opportunities for boating, canoeing, and fishing. Potawatomi State Park Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
9. Saddle Mountain State Natural Area – Saddle Mountain State Natural Area is a state park in northwest Oregon. It is located in the Northern Oregon Coast Range in central Clatsop County, a 2. 5-mile long hiking trail climbs to the top of Saddle Mountain, which is located in the park. On clear days, the Pacific Ocean, Columbia River mouth, Oregons State Land Board was given 1,402 acres by the federal government on August 11,1916, to be set aside for use as a park around Saddle Mountain. On November 21,1928, the highway commission, who at that time operated Oregons state parks, received 1,280 acres as a gift from Nellie. This was the first land incorporated into what was known as Saddle Mountain State Park. During the Great Depression, of the 1930s, the park was the site of a Civilian Conservation Corps camp, the state leased the land to the federal government for two years starting in June 1935. This new land, which already been logged, was incorporated into the park, forest fires burned through many of the trees near the base of the mountain in 1936 and again in 1939. The state built an overnight camping area, a Quonset hut, the Oregon State Board of Forestry built a fire lookout tower on the summit of Saddle Mountain in 1953. By 1964, the state had bought five tracts of land totaling 372 acres and added them to the park, by 1997 the park had been renamed Saddle Mountain State Natural Area. Saddle Mountain Road intercepts U. S. Route 26 eight miles east of Necanicum Junction where Oregon Route 53 meets Route 26, a primary feature of the park is 3, 283-foot tall Saddle Mountain. From the top of the peak, mountains in the Cascade Range to the east can be seen on clear days, as well as the Pacific Ocean to the west, amenities at the park include primitive campsites, restrooms, trails, and picnic facilities. The campground is closed from October 31 to March 1, Natural features in the park include forests and a year-round spring near summit of the mountain. Tree species include cedar, hemlock, and spruce, other flora include the rare Cardamine pattersonii. A herd of elk have been seen in the park, media related to Saddle Mountain State Natural Area at Wikimedia Commons Saddle Mountain State Natural Area
10. Black Rock Forest – Black Rock Forest is a 3, 870-acre forest and biological field station maintained by Black Rock Forest Consortium. First established by a resident in 1928, the forest was the property of Harvard University until 1989. Its educational facilities are used by groups at every level, from the elementary grades to college undergraduates. Over 400 papers have been published from research done in the forest, the current forest began to grow about 14,000 years ago, with the retreat of the glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age. Like much of the Highlands, the land now part of Black Rock had been impacted by human usage. Native communities hunted the forest extensively, built large settlements and started forest fires to clear sections of the woods, after colonization of the Hudson Valley in 1690, the impact becomes more evident to the contemporary eye. During the last years of the Revolutionary War the Continental Army used the Continental Road that runs through the center of the property to get between West Point and its encampment at New Windsor. Spy Rock got its name from its use by Continental soldiers as a point where they could monitor Newburgh Bay for any signs of British activity on the strategically important Hudson River. Throughout the 19th century it saw extensive logging and mining, with some homesteads, only one building, the 1834 Chatsfield stone house, remains today. As the forest land began to decline in value with the depletion of its resources, various tracts were bought by the Stillman family in the late 19th. In 1928, enough land had been acquired for Dr. Ernest Stillman to officially create Black Rock Forest for research and demonstration purposes. He hoped to restore it to use again through newly developed practical forestry techniques. To this end he hired a forester, Hal Tryon, the forest improved considerably, and upon his death in 1949 Stillman left the forest to his alma mater, Harvard University, for the continuation of its purposes. During Harvards ownership of the forest,75 scientific papers were published based on research in it, hiking trails were also developed in the forest under the auspices of the New York - New Jersey Trail Conference. That plan was abandoned in 1982 after a landmark environmental lawsuit. Since Harvard also owns the eponymous forest closer to campus in Petersham, Massachusetts, in 1981 it asked another alumnus, William Golden, many were enthusiastic about the idea but lacked enough funds to contribute even a share of the purchase price. Golden decided to purchase the land himself in 1989 and give it to a newly created Black Rock Forest Preserve, Harvard donated the purchase price to the forest as the beginning of an endowment, and Golden added to that with more of his own money. The forest is nestled in an area bounded by US 9W to the east
11. Paghman – Paghman is a town in the hills near Afghanistans capital of Kabul. It is the seat of the Paghman District which has a population of about 120,000, of which 50% are Pashtun, the Paghman District is situated in the western part of Kabul Province. The Paghman Gardens is an attraction in Paghman, and is why the city is sometimes known as the capital garden of Afghanistan. After King Amanullah Khan and Queen Soraya Tarzis return from Europe, at that time, at the entrance of Paghman, they created a European style monumental gate similar to the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France. Paghman district borders Wardak and Parwan provinces to the west, Shakardara District to the north, Kabul to the east and its headquarters is the town of Paghman, which is situated in the northeastern part of the district. The district suffered from wars in the region, 50% of the buildings were destroyed, agriculture, labour work, animal husbandry and employment in Kabul are the major sources of income. There are several villages in the district, including Adam Khel Kala, Hatam Kala, Seeno Kala, Mullah Khel Kala, Muhabbat Khan Kala, Lachi Khel Kala, in 2012,1,000 families in the Paghman district received electricity. The power was distributed to families in the Pracha village of Pashaee valley after the installation of three 1,000 kilovolt transformers, the electricity was supplied to people from the Mahipar Dam in the Sarobi district at the cost of 35 million AFN. The Paghman area is compared to many other parts of the region. Located at the foot of the Hindu Kush mountain range, Paghman became a retreat with villas and chalets. It was a place for the wealthy and the aristocracy to visit. It is known today as a place people can relax and spend the weekends. The Kabul River, the large river in the Kabul province, is fed by springs. There is also a system, in need of repair. Prominent Paghman natives include some leaders of Loya Jirgas, tribal chiefs, a president, King Amanullah Khan - Known as a reformist, Amanullah Khan ruled Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929. President Hafizullah Amin - Hafizullah Amin was the second President of Afghanistan during the period of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, abdullah Wardak, the late governor of Logar Province, was assassinated in an attack by the Taliban on his motorcade near Paghman in September,2008. Alice Springs, Australia, since January 2005 after joining Sister Cities International
12. Buffalo Rock State Park – Buffalo Rock State Park & Effigy Tumuli is an Illinois state park on 298 acres in LaSalle County, Illinois, United States. The park is located in LaSalle County next to Starved Rock State Park, Effigy Tumuli consists of five earth art animal sculptures native to the Illinois River was constructed as a tribute to Native American tradition. The park is located 5 miles east of Utica, Illinois, now, this sandstone bluff carved by the Illinois River during the Pleistocene epoch, serves as a State Park for local residents and tourists. Later, the Illinois Tribe was virtually annihilated in protracted warfare with the aggressive Iroquois, Buffalo Rock State Park served as an early military, trading, and missionary post for the French. During the winter of 1682-1683, LaSalle and Tonty built Fort St. Louis on Starved Rock, the Miami, one of the tribes in the confederation, built their own fort on Buffalo Rock. During the State Parks later years, it was used as a sect as a place for holding camp meetings. In 1912, the Crane Company of Chicago purchased Buffalo Rock and maintained a sanatorium for employees, the company moved to a recreational park and donated the land in 1927 for Buffalo Rock to become a state park. On November 15,1928, the deed of the property was turned over to the State of Illinois with provisions that it would become a permanent state park. As a reward for his services, Robert Barnett, the 72-year-old caretaker. Many animals can be seen and heard within the park, and they have a pen and grazing field which is located across from the baseball diamond and can be seen daily. The state park currently has two trails, the River Bluff Trail, and the Woodland Trail, the River Bluff Trail runs above the Illinois River and has two observation decks that provide view of the river. The Woodland Trail runs deeper in the park and provides an opportunity for close-up of trees, plants, there are three primitive camping sites between Buffalo Rock and Utica, Illinois. Each campsite provides a fire rings, but no water or restroom facilities, the sites are on accessible through the use of bikes or walking, and no vehicles are allowed. One of the three camping sites is dedicated to youth campers, where a shelter with a fireplace can be found, prior to camping, permits must be obtained from Buffalo Rock State Park at the information center. The Effigy Tumuli earthwork consists of five animal sculptures as tribute to ancient Native American tradition, mound building. The water strider, catfish, and frog are built from mounds of dirt, grass, shrubbery, the turtles shell is formed as a mound with rock that dips into the river. The snake curves and dips down into the river 90 feet down, Effigy Tumuli is one of the largest artworks in the country and must be seen from an aerial view in order to view the massive artworks. Visitors can walk a trail through the site, and are invited to climb upon the artworks and read interpretive signs, Buffalo Rock State Park has two shelters dedicated for picnickers, or family and friends outings