Kalamata is the second most populous city of the Peloponnese peninsula, after Patras, in southern Greece and the largest city of the homonymous administrative region. The capital and chief port of the Messenia regional unit, it lies along the Nedon River at the head of the Messenian Gulf, the 2011 census recorded 69,849 inhabitants for the wider Kalamata Municipality, of which 62,409 in the municipal unit of Kalamata proper. Kalamata is renowned as the land of the Kalamatianos dance and Kalamata olives, the modern name Kalamáta is a corruption of the older name Καλάμαι, Kalámai, reeds. The phonetic similarity of Kalamáta with the phrase kalá mátia has led to folk etymologies.313 km2. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipalities Kalamata and West Mani, the history of Kalamata begins with Homer, who mentions Pharai, an ancient city built more or less where the Kalamata Castle stands today. Pharai was rather unimportant in antiquity, and the site continued in obscurity until middle Byzantine times, Kalamata is first mentioned in the 10th-century Life of St.
Prince William II of Villehardouin was born and died there, in the event, the town was recovered by the Franks through the intercession of a local Greek, a certain Sgouromalles. In 1298, the formed the dowry of Princess Matilda of Hainaut upon her marriage to Guy II de la Roche. Matilda retained Kalamata as her fief until 1322, when she was dispossessed, in 1358, Prince Robert gifted the châtellenie of Kalamata to his wife, Marie de Bourbon, who kept it until her death in 1377. Kalamata remained in Frankish hands until near the end of the Principality of Achaea, Kalamata was occupied by the Ottomans from 1481 to 1685, like the rest of Greece. He was soon forced to return to Crete, but the Venetians returned in the Morean War. The Venetian Republic ruled Kalamata from 1685 as part of the Kingdom of the Morea, during the Venetian occupation the city was fortified and thrived economically. However, the Ottomans reoccupied Kalamata in the war of 1715, Kalamata was the first city to be liberated as the Greeks rose in the Greek War of Independence.
On 23 March 1821, it was taken over by the Greek revolutionary forces under the command of generals Theodoros Kolokotronis, Petros Mavromichalis, however, in 1825, the invading Ibrahim Pasha destroyed the city. In independent Greece, Kalamata was rebuilt and became one of the most important ports in the Mediterranean sea and it is not surprising that the second-oldest Chamber of Commerce in the Mediterranean, after that of Marseille, exists in Kalamata. After World War II, and due to issues, Kalamata. That was a brake on the local economy, resulting in the decline of the port. During the 1970s and 1980s, development and growth in Kalamata were unknown, Kalamata was again in the news on 13 September 1986, with an earthquake that measured 6.2 on the surface wave magnitude scale
Kissamos is a town and municipality, multiple bishopric and Latin titular see in the west of the island of Crete, Greece. It is part of the Chania regional unit and of the former Kissamos Province which covers the northwest corner of the island, the city of Kissamos is known as Kastelli Kissamou and often known simply as Kastelli after the Venetian castle that was there. It is now a port and fishing harbour, with a ferry from the Peloponnese via Kythira. A town museum is located in the old Venetian governors palace and there have been important archaeological finds in the town, including fine mosaics, the head town of the municipality is Kastelli-Kissamos itself. Strabo said that ancient Cisamus was dependent on Aptera and was its naval arsenal, the Peutinger Table distinguishes two port towns in Crete called Cisamus, Modern Kissamos is much further west than where Aptera is now placed. It was excluded already by Pashley in 1837 as being, of the two ancient maritime Cretan cities named Kisamos, the one associated with Aptera.
In the past, when the port of Aptera was thought to be present-day Kissamos, some supposed Aptera to be identical with Polyrrhenia, however and other ancient sources say that Polyrrhenias port was at Phalasarna on the west coast. Ancient Cisamus became a Christian bishopric, a suffragan of the see of Gortyna. Only two of its bishops are named in extant contemporary documents, Nicetas at the Trullan Council in 692. The bishopric is still a residential see of the Eastern Orthodox Church of Crete, after the Venetian conquest of Crete in 1212, Cisamus became a Latin Church diocese. The names of more than 20 residential Latin bishops from until the end of the 16th century are known, angelo Barbarigo, Bishop of Verona, Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, Cardinal-Priest of S. Prassede in commendum (1415.07.04 –1418.08.16 and it forms the extreme western part of the region, and of Crete. It is bordered by Platanias to the East, and by Kantanos-Selino to the south, the province of Kissamos was one of the provinces of the Chania Prefecture.
Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality Kissamos, and the municipal units Kolymvari and Voukolies
Farsala, known in Antiquity as Pharsalos, is a city in southern Thessaly, in Greece. Farsala is located in the part of Larissa regional unit. Farsala is an economic and agricultural centre of the region and livestock are the main agricultural products, and many inhabitants are employed in the production of textile. Farsala is famous for its distinctive halva, but even more so for its significance in ancient history, Farsala lies at the southern edge of the Thessalian Plain,4 km south of the river Enipeas. The Greek National Road 3 and the Greek National Road 30 pass through the town, the Palaiofarsalos railway station, on the line from Athens to Thessaloniki and head of the branch line to Kalambaka, is located in the village of Stavros,12 km to the west. Farsala is located 38 km south of Larissa,41 km east of Karditsa,44 km north of Lamia and 49 km west of Volos. The municipality Farsala has an area of 739.74 km2, the municipal unit Farsala has an area of 121.433 km2, and the community Farsala has an area of 57.928 km2.
The Homeric Phthia of the Mycenaean period, capital of the Kingdom of the Myrmidons and of Peleus, father of Achilles, has sometimes identified with the city of Pharsalos. A Cyclopean Wall which protected a city still exists today near modern Farsala, the Pharsalos of the historic era was built over a hillside of the Narthacius mountains at an elevation of some 160 m, where modern Farsala stands. It was one of the cities in Thessaly and was the capital of the Phthian tetrarch. In the Persian Wars it sided with the Athenians, a distinctive tribe of the city was that of Echecratidon. In the early 4th century BC, the city was a part of the Thessalian Commons, later, it joined the Macedonian Kingdom under Philip II. The area became a theatre of war where the Aetolians and the Thessalians clashed with the Macedonians, especially during the Second, after the defeat of the Macedonian Kingdom and the whole area became a part of the Roman Republic. The whole area suffered great destruction during the Roman Civil War, the Battle of Pharsalus, where Julius Caesar defeated Pompey and changed the course of the Roman Republic forever, took place in 48 BC in the fields of the Pharsalian Plain.
The geographer Strabo speaks of two towns, Old Pharsalos, Παλαιοφάρσαλος and Pharsalos, existing in historical times. His statement that the Thetideion, the temple to Thetis south of Skotoussa, was both the Pharsaloi, the Old and the New”, seems to imply that Palaeopharsalos was not itself close by Pharsalos. Although the battle of 48 BC is called after Pharsalos, four ancient writers – the author of the Bellum Alexandrinum, Eutropius, if that town had been close to Pharsalos he would have sacked both, and Livy would have written “Pharsalus” instead of “Palaeopharsalus”. The British scholar F. L. Lucas demonstrated that the battle of 48 BC must have been north of the Enipeus
Hydra is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece, located in the Aegean Sea between the Saronic Gulf and the Argolic Gulf. It is separated from the Peloponnese by a strip of water. In ancient times, the island was known as Hydrea, a reference to the springs on the island. The municipality of Hydra consists of the islands Hydra, the province of Hydra was one of the provinces of the Piraeus Prefecture. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality, there is one main town, known simply as Hydra port. It consists of a harbor, around which is centered a strand of restaurants, markets. Steep stone streets lead up and outward from the harbor area, most of the local residences, as well as the hostelries on the island, are located on these streets. Other small villages or hamlets on the island include Mandraki, Vlychos, Episkopi, Hydra depends on tourism, and Athenians account for a sizable segment of its visitors. High-speed hydrofoils and catamarans from Piraeus, some 37 nautical miles away, serve Hydra, there is a passenger ferry service providing an alternative to Hydrofoils that runs from Hydra Harbor to Metochi on the Peloponnese coast.
Many Athenians drive to Metochi, leave their car in the car park. Rubbish trucks are the motor vehicles on the island, since by law, cars. Horses and donkeys, and water taxis provide public transportation, the inhabited area, however, is so compact that most people walk everywhere. Hydra benefits from numerous bays and natural harbors, and has a maritime culture. The island is a popular yachting destination and is the home of the Kamini Yacht Club, in 2007, a National Geographic Traveler panel of 522 experts rated Hydra the highest of any Greek island as a unique destination preserving its integrity of place. The Tsamadou mansion on the side of the harbor as one enters is now a Maritime Academy. The Tombazi mansion is now part of the School of Fine Arts, the mansions of Lazarus and George Kountouriotis, Kriezi, Voulgari and Miaouli all contain collections of 18th-century island furniture. The descendants of Lazarus Kountouriotis donated his mansion to the Historic-Ethnologic Institute of Greece, today, it operates as an extension branch of the National Museum of History.
There are numerous churches and six Orthodox monasteries on the island, two particularly noteworthy monasteries are Profitis Ilias, founded in the 10th century, and Ayia Efpraxia
Larissa is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly region, the fifth most populous in Greece and capital of the Larissa regional unit. It is an agricultural centre and a national transportation hub, linked by road and rail with the port of Volos. Larissa, within its municipality, has 162,591 inhabitants, legend has it that Achilles was born here, and that Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine, died here. Today, Larissa is a commercial and industrial centre in Greece. The region is linked to the rest of Europe through the International Airport of Central Greece located in Nea Anchialos a short distance from Larissa. Larissa lies on the river Pineios, the municipality Larissa has an area of 335.98 km2, the municipal unit Larissa has an area of 122.586 km2, and the community Larissa has an area of 88.167 km2. The Larissa Chasma, a gash in the surface of Dione. The climate of Larissa is transitional, the winter is cold and wet, and some snowstorms may occur. The summer is hot, and temperatures of 40 °C may occur, thunderstorms or heavy rain may cause agricultural damage.
Larissa receives 450 mm of rain per year, according to Greek mythology it is said that the city was founded by Acrisius, who was killed accidentally by his grandson, Perseus. There lived Peleus, the hero beloved by the gods, in mythology, the nymph Larissa was a daughter of the primordial man Pelasgus. In this paragraph, Homer shows that the Pelasgians, Trojan allies and it is likely that this city of Larissa was different to the city that was the birthplace of Achilles. The Larissa that features as a Trojan ally in the Iliad was likely to be located in the Troad, traces of Paleolithic human settlement have been recovered from the area, but it was peripheral to areas of advanced culture. The area around Larissa was extremely fruitful, it was agriculturally important, the name Larissa is in origin a Pelasgian word for fortress. There were many ancient Greek cities with this name, the name of Thessalian Larissa is first recorded in connection with the aristocratic Aleuadai family. Larissa is thought to be where the famous Greek physician Hippocrates, when Larissa ceased minting the federal coins it shared with other Thessalian towns and adopted its own coinage in the late 5th century BC, it chose local types for its coins.
The obverse depicted the nymph of the spring, for whom the town was named. The reverse depicted a horse in various poses, the horse was an appropriate symbol of Thessaly, a land of plains, which was well known for its horses
Almyros or Halmyros is a town and a municipality of the regional unit of Magnesia, region of Thessaly, Greece. It lies in the center of prosperous fertile plain known as Krokio Pedio, Almyros is an important agricultural and commercial center of Magnesia, and is developing as a tourist center for the area. The main agricultural products are tomatoes, wheat, peanuts, the history of Almyros begins with the ancient city of Alos, the ruins of which can still be visited. Alos was an important and populous town, famous for its port. After the Byzantine Empire, because of raids, they built the town in the place that it is today. Halmyros was the site of the decisive Battle of Halmyros on 15 March 1311 and it is chiefly inhabited by Turks, with only a few Christian settlers, who cultivate the lands of the Turks residing there. The Ottoman Empire ceded most of Thessaly in 1881, followed by development, in 1980 a catastrophic magnitude 6.5 earthquake destroyed most of the town.364 km2, the municipal unit 473.940 km2.
The municipal unit of Almyros is divided into the communities, Efxeinoupoli, Kokkotoi, Kofoi, Platanos. The province of Almyros was one of the provinces of Magnesia and it had the same territory as the present municipality. The Archaeological Museum of Almyros includes local artifacts and exhibits from the Neolithic period, through Mycenean, Classical, Hellenistic periods, and Roman years. Opposite the museum is the old High School, the Gymnasium of Almyros, the Museum and Gymnasium are the oldest buildings in the area. The Kouri forest, about 2 km from the town of Almyros, at an elevation of 75m, oaks belong to the species, Quercus pubescens, Quercus aegilops, Quercus pedunculiflora. There are footpaths, as well as a train for a brief tour through the woods. The area is important to migratory birds, such as the swan, glossy ibis. South of the town are the moderately wooded Othrys mountains,17 km from the town of Almyros but still in Almyros province, high in the Othrys mountains, is the 12th century Monastery of Panagia Xenia, with wall paintings, and a library.
There are several beaches in the municipality of Almyros. Almyros is situated near the end of the Pagasetic Gulf,25 km southwest of Volos. Motorway 1 passes east of the town Almyros, Almyros Newspaper Agios Dimitrios Church in Almyros TrekEarth
Kalabaka is a town and a municipality in the Trikala regional unit, part of Thessaly in Greece. The population was 21,991 at the 2011 census, of which 8,330 in the town proper, the Meteora monasteries are located in the town. Kalabaka is the terminal of the old Thessaly Railways, now part of OSE. Kalabaka was voted as one of the most beautiful places in Greece by the Skai TV show I LOVE GR, in 1995 an ancient tomb was found in Kalabaka dating from the 20th century BC. A Greek inscription on the wall of one of the town’s oldest churches testifies to the existence of an ancient Greek settlement under the name Aiginion. The town was built on the location of the ancient city of Aiginion, founded during the Hellenistic period which, according to Strabo, belonged to the people of Tinfei. It is mentioned several times by Livy during the Macedonian War, during the civil war between Caesar and Pompey the city was occupied by Domitius Calvin. In the 10th century AD, it was known as Stagoi, of its medieval monuments, only the cathedral, the Church of the Dormition, survives.
It was a late 11th- or early 12th-century building, built on the remains of an earlier, relics of an ancient Greek temple – probably of god Apollo – have been incorporated in the wall of the town’s oldest and most renowned church, dedicated to Virgin Mary. Stagoi is first mentioned in Diatyposis written by the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise, in 1163 there was a reference to the castle of Stagoi. In 1204 Stagoi fell under the Despotate of Epirus, at the end of the 13th century they fell under the Duchy of Neopatria. In 1334, they were taken once more by the Despot of Epirus, John II Orsini. In 1348, they were conquered by the Serbs of Stephen Dushan and they reached their peak under the rule of his brother, King Simeon Uroš. When the Turks conquered Thessaly, Kalabaka was placed under the rule of the Pasha of Larisa. It was named Kalabaka six or seven centuries ago and it is of Turkish origin and means powerful fortress. It has been Anglicized variously as Kalampaka, Kalabaki, from the beginning of the 10th century, Stagoi was referred to as an episcopal see, thereby enjoying privileges and donations from the Byzantine emperors throughout the Middle Ages.
It owned significant stretches of land and had dependent farmers in neighboring settlements, besides the fields of northwest Thessaly, its territory included an extensive mountainous zone in Asia and central Pindos. It was reestablished in 1991 and has been operating ever since as the Metropolis of “Stagoi, the province of Kalabaka was one of the provinces of the Trikala Prefecture
Amari is a village and a municipality in Rethymno regional unit, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the village Agia Foteini, the municipal unit has an area of 277.285 km2. One of the geographic features of Amari is the Amari Valley. It is thought that Monastiraki was developed by Phaistos inhabitants founding a center as they pushed out into the Amari Valley. It had the territory as the present municipality
Ithaca or Ithaka is a Greek island located in the Ionian Sea, off the northeast coast of Kefalonia and to the west of continental Greece. Ithacas main island has an area of 96 square kilometres and had a population in 2011 of 3,231 and it is the second-smallest of seven main Ionian Islands, after Paxi. Ithaca is a regional unit of the Ionian Islands region. Modern Ithaca is generally identified with Homers Ithaca, the home of Odysseus, the fact that classical Greek authors often used eponymous explanations to explain away names through folk etymology makes it more likely that Ithakos derives from Ithaca rather than vice versa. It may have been the capital of Cephalonia during the Mycenaean period, the Romans occupied the island in the 2nd century BC, and it became part of the Byzantine Empire. The Normans ruled Ithaca in the 13th century, and after a short Turkish rule it fell into Venetian hands, Ithaca was subsequently occupied by France under the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio. It became a French possession again in 1807, until it was taken over by the United Kingdom in 1809, under the 1815 Treaty of Paris, Ithaca became a state of the United States of the Ionian Islands, a protectorate of the British Empire.
In 1830 the local community requested to join with the rest of the newly restored nation-state of Greece. Under the 1864 Treaty of London, along with the remaining six Ionian islands, were ceded to Greece as a gesture of friendship to Greeces new Anglophile king. The United Kingdom kept its use of the harbour at Corfu. The origins of the first people to inhabit the island, which occurred during the last years of the Neolithic period, are not clear. The traces of buildings, walls and a road from time period prove that life existed and continued to do so during the Early Hellenic era. In the years some of the migrated to part of the island. The buildings and walls that were excavated showed the lifestyle of this period had remained primitive, during the Mycenaean period, Ithaca rose to the highest level of its ancient history. The Ithacans were characterized as great navigators and explorers with daring expeditions reaching further than the Mediterranean Sea, the epic poems of Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey, shed some light on Bronze-Age Ithaca.
Recent studies concluded that Homer recorded oral history from elders, after the end of the Mycenaean period Ithacas influence diminished, and it came under the jurisdiction of the nearest large island. During the ancient Hellenic prime, independent organized life continued in the northern and southern part of the island, in the southern part, in the area of Aetos, the town Alalcomenae was founded. From this period, many objects of important historical value have been found during excavations, among these objects are coins imprinted with the name Ithaca and the image of Odysseus which suggest that the island was self-governed
Komotini is a city in the region of East Macedonia and Thrace, northeastern Greece. It is the capital of the Rhodope regional unit and it was the administrative centre of the Rhodope-Evros super-prefecture until its abolition in 2010, by the Kallikratis Plan. The city is home to the Democritus University of Thrace, founded in 1973, Komotini is home to a sizeable Turkish-speaking Muslim minority. It is a significant transport interchange, located 795 km NE of Athens and 281 km NE of Thessaloniki, the city stands at an altitude of 32-38m on the Thracian plain near the foothills of the Rhodope Mountains. There is little urban planning in the parts of city. According to the 2011 census, the population amounts to 66,919. There are two airports near Komotini, the nearest is in Alexandroupoli, and the other is in Kavala. It has rail and bus links to all continental Greek cities as well as Istanbul, Komotini has existed as a settlement since the 2nd century AD. That is confirmed by finds of that era up until the 4th century.
It is confirmed by an inscription on the ruins of the 4th-century Byzantine wall, that are visible at sites in the city. The inscription was discovered by the Komotini-born Prof. Stilponas Kyriakidis and it is said that the settlement originates from the 5th century and is linked to the daughter of the painter Parrasios from Maroneia. During the Roman age it was one of several fortresses along the Via Egnatia highway which existed in the Thrace area, probably it is to be identified with the Roman station Breierophara (a Thracian toponym from bre + iero + phara=para. The most important city of that period was neighbouring Maximianopolis, former Thracian Porsulis or Paesoulae, Komotini was a Via Egnatia hub on its northern route through the Nymphaea Pass which led to the Ardas Valley and Byzantine Berroe. The citys history is connected with that of Via Egnatia. The Roman emperor Theodosius I built a small fortress on the road at a junction with a route leading north across the Rhodope Mountains toward Philippopolis.
During the Byzantine period, the city belonged to the Theme of Macedonia, for most of its early existence the settlement was overshadowed by the larger town of Mosynopolis to the west, and by the end of the 12th century, the place had been completely abandoned. Since the population had been increasing continuously until it became an important town within the area, in 1331 John Kantakouzenos referred to her as Koumoutzina in his account of the Byzantine civil war of 1321–1328. In 1332 Andronikos III Palaiologos set camp in Komotini to face Umur Bey of Smyrna at the Panagia village close to the Panagia Vathirryakos monastery, Umur departed without a battle
Agia is a village and a municipality in the Larissa regional unit, Greece. Agia is located east of Larissa and south of Melivoia. The Mavrovouni mountains dominate the south and the Aegean Sea lies to the east.79 km2, the municipal unit Agia has an area of 189.487 km2, and it had the same territory as the present municipality. Agia became part of Greece, along with most of Thessaly, forests near Agia were affected by the 2007 Greek forest fires, leaving tens homeless. The fire consumed approximately 100 km² on Mavrovouni, list of settlements in the Larissa regional unit Agia on GTP Travel Pages Agia on GTP Travel Pages
Aegina is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf,27 kilometres from Athens. Tradition derives the name from Aegina the mother of the hero Aeacus, during ancient times Aegina was a rival of Athens, the great sea power of the era. The municipality of Aegina consists of the island of Aegina and a few offshore islets and it is part of the Islands regional unit, Attica region. The municipality is subdivided into the five communities, Aegina Kypseli Mesagros Perdika Vathy The capital is the town of Aegina. Due to its proximity to Athens, it is a vacation place during the summer months. The province of Aegina was one of the provinces of the Piraeus Prefecture and its territory corresponded with that of the current municipalities Aegina and Agkistri. Aegina is roughly triangular in shape, approximately 15 km from east to west and 10 km from north to south, with an area of 87.41 km2, an extinct volcano constitutes two thirds of Aegina. Economically, the fisheries are of notable importance.
The southern volcanic part of the island is rugged and mountainous and its highest rise is the conical Mount Oros in the south, and the Panhellenian ridge stretches northward with narrow fertile valleys on either side. The beaches are a popular tourist attraction, hydrofoil ferries from Piraeus take only forty minutes to reach Aegina, the regular ferry takes about an hour, with ticket prices for adults within the 4–15 euro range. There are regular bus services from Aegina town to destinations throughout the island such as Agia Marina, portes is a fishing village on the east coast. Aegina, according to Herodotus, was a colony of Epidaurus and its placement between Attica and the Peloponnesus made it a site of trade even earlier, and its earliest inhabitants allegedly came from Asia Minor. Minoan ceramics have been found in contexts of ca.2000 BC, the famous Aegina Treasure, now in the British Museum is estimated to date between 1700 and 1500 BC. It is probable that the island was not doricised before the 9th century BC. e. not than the half of the 7th century BC.
Its early history reveals that the importance of the island dates back to pre-Dorian times. It is usually stated on the authority of Ephorus, that Pheidon of Argos established a mint in Aegina, the first city-state to issue coins in Europe, one stamped stater can be seen in the Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris. It is an electrum stater of a turtle, a sacred to Aphrodite. The fact that the Aeginetic standard of weights and measures was one of the two standards in use in the Greek world is sufficient evidence of the early commercial importance of the island