Category:Psychologists of religion
Pages in category "Psychologists of religion"
The following 29 pages are in this category, out of 29 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 29 pages are in this category, out of 29 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Psychology of religion – Psychology of religion consists of the application of psychological methods and interpretive frameworks to religious traditions, as well as to both religious and irreligious individuals. It attempts to describe the details, origins, and uses of religious beliefs. Although the psychology of religion first arose as a discipline as recently as the late 19th century. In contrast to neurotheology, the psychology of religion studies only psychological rather than neural states, many areas of religion remain unexplored by psychology. While religion and spirituality play a role in many lives, it is uncertain how they lead to outcomes that are at times positive. The first, descriptive task naturally requires a clarification of ones terms, above all, the early psychologists of religion were fully aware of these difficulties, typically acknowledging that the definitions they were choosing to use were to some degree arbitrary. Factor analysis was brought into play by both psychologists and sociologists of religion, in an effort to establish a fixed core of dimensions. The justification and adequacy of these efforts, especially in the light of constructivist and other postmodern viewpoints, in fact, spirituality has likewise undergone an evolution in the West, from a time when it was essentially a synonym for religion in its original, subjective meaning. He proposes that religion can be considered the process of searching for meaning in relationship with the sacred, schnitker and Emmons theorized that the understanding of religion as a search for meaning makes implications in the three psychological areas of motivation, cognition and social relationships. The cognitive aspects relate to God and a sense of purpose, the ones to the need to control. American psychologist and philosopher William James is regarded by most psychologists of religion as the founder of the field and he served as president of the American Psychological Association, and wrote one of the first psychology textbooks. In the psychology of religion, James influence endures and his Varieties of Religious Experience is considered to be the classic work in the field, and references to James ideas are common at professional conferences. James distinguished between institutional religion and personal religion, institutional religion refers to the religious group or organization, and plays an important part in a societys culture. Personal religion, in which the individual has mystical experience, can be experienced regardless of the culture, James was most interested in understanding personal religious experience. In studying personal religious experiences, James made a distinction between healthy-minded and sick-souled religiousness, individuals predisposed to healthy-mindedness tend to ignore the evil in the world and focus on the positive and the good. James used examples of Walt Whitman and the religious movement to illustrate healthy-mindedness in The Varieties of Religious Experience. In contrast, individuals predisposed to having a religion are unable to ignore evil and suffering. James included quotations from Leo Tolstoy and John Bunyan to illustrate the sick soul, William James hypothesis of pragmatism stems from the efficacy of religion
2. Allen Bergin – Allen Eric Bergin is a clinical psychologist known for his research on psychotherapy outcome and on integrating psychotherapy and religion. Bergin is also noted for his interchanges with probabilistic atheist Albert Ellis, Bergin was raised in a family that did not actively attend any religious services. He went to school in Spokane, Washington, and began college at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He then transferred to Reed College, the school had four Latter-day Saints in its student body that year, one of whom was Bergins roommate and another of whom, Marian Shafer, he began dating. The following year Shafer decided to transfer to Brigham Young University, after this, Bergin married Marian Shafer. Bergin eventually earned a degree from BYU and then a Ph. D. from Stanford University under Albert Bandura followed by post-doctoral research at the University of Wisconsin under Carl Rogers. He then became a professor in the psychology program at Teachers College. While on the Columbia faculty Bergin lived in New Jersey and served as a bishop for the LDS church and it was also while at Columbia that Bergin co-edited the Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change with Sol Garfield, the book was named a social science citation classic. In 1972 Bergin joined the faculty of BYU in part as a result of the encouragement of Thomas, Bergin served as president of the Society for Psychotherapy Research in 1974–75. He also served as president of the Association of Mormon Counselors and he has acknowledged the significant influence of colleagues who have collaborated with him, particularly, Sol Garfield, Hans Strupp, Michael Lambert, and Scott Richards. Dr. Allen and Marian Bergin are the parents of nine children, have seventeen grandchildren, Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change, An empirical analysis. Changing frontiers in the science of psychotherapy, & Bergin, A. E. Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change, An empirical analysis 2nd edition. Bergin, A. E. Psychotherapy and religious values, journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,48, 95-105 Garfield, S. L. & Bergin, A. E. Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change 3rd edition, Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change 4th edition. A spiritual strategy for counseling and psychotherapy, & Bergin, A. E. Handbook of psychotherapy and religious diversity. Eternal values and personal growth, A guide on your journey to spiritual, emotional, casebook for a spiritual strategy in counseling and psychotherapy. A spiritual strategy for counseling and psychotherapy 2nd, bringing psychotherapy research to life Wash, DC, American Psychological Assn. Lambert, M. J. Bergin and Garfields Handbook of Psychotherapy, & Bergin, A. E. Handbook of Psychotherapy and Religious Diversity 2nd
3. Erik Erikson – Erik Homburger Erikson was a German-born American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychosocial development of human beings. He may be most famous for coining the phrase identity crisis and his son, Kai T. Erikson, is a noted American sociologist. Although Erikson lacked even a bachelors degree, he served as a professor at prominent institutions such as Harvard, a Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Erikson as the 12th most cited psychologist of the 20th century. Eriksons mother, Karla Abrahamsen, came from a prominent Jewish family in Copenhagen and she was married to Jewish stockbroker Valdemar Isidor Salomonsen, but had been estranged from him for several months at the time Erik was conceived. Little is known about Eriks biological father except that he was a Danish gentile, on discovering her pregnancy, Karla fled to Frankfurt, Germany, where Erik was born on June 15,1902 and was given the surname Salomonsen. Following Eriks birth, Karla trained to be a nurse and moved to Karlsruhe, in 1905 she married Eriks Jewish pediatrician, Theodor Homberger. In 1908, Erik Salomonsens name was changed to Erik Homberger, the development of identity seems to have been one of Eriksons greatest concerns in his own life as well as in his theory. As an older adult, he wrote about his adolescent “identity confusion” in his European days. “My identity confusion, ” he wrote was at times on “the borderline between neurosis and adolescent psychosis. ”Erikson’s daughter writes that her father’s “real psychoanalytic identity” was not established until he “replaced his stepfather’s surname with a name of his own invention. ”During his childhood and early adulthood he was known as Erik Homberger, and his parents kept the details of his birth a secret. He was a tall, blond, blue-eyed boy who was raised in the Jewish religion, at temple school, the kids teased him for being a Nordic, at grammar school, they teased him for being Jewish. At Das Humanistische Gymnasium his main interests were art, history and languages, after graduation, instead of attending medical school, as his stepfather had desired, he attended art school in Munich, but soon dropped out. Uncertain about his vocation and his fit in society, Erikson began a period of roaming about Germany and Italy as a wandering artist with his childhood friend Peter Blos. During this period he continued to contend with questions about his father and competing ideas of ethnic, religious and he specialized in child analysis and underwent a training analysis with Anna Freud. Helene Deutsch and Edward Bibring supervised his initial treatment of an adult, simultaneously he studied the Montessori method of education, which focused on child development and sexual stages. In 1933 he received his diploma from the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute and this and his Montessori diploma were to be Eriksons only earned academic credentials for his lifes work. In 1931 Erikson married Joan Mowat Serson, a Canadian dancer, during their marriage Erikson converted to Christianity. Unable to regain Danish citizenship because of requirements, the family left for the United States. In 1936, Erikson left Harvard and joined the staff at Yale University, while at Yale he became a naturalized citizen of the United States and changed his familys surname from his adoptive fathers name of Homberger to Erikson
4. G. Stanley Hall – Granville Stanley Hall was a pioneering American psychologist and educator. His interests focused on development and evolutionary theory. Hall was the first president of the American Psychological Association and the first president of Clark University, a Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Hall as the 72nd most cited psychologist of the 20th century, in a tie with Lewis Terman. Born in Ashfield, Massachusetts, Hall attended Williston Seminary and graduated from Williams College in 1867, in 1878, Hall earned the first psychology doctorate awarded in America. He began his career by teaching English and philosophy at Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio, following successful lecture series at Harvard and Johns Hopkins University, Hall secured a position in the philosophy department at Johns Hopkins, teaching psychology and pedagogy. He remained at Johns Hopkins from 1882 to 1888 and, in 1883, Hall was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1888. In 1887, Hall founded the American Journal of Psychology, in 1889 he was named the first president of Clark University, a post he filled until 1920. During his 31 years as president, Hall remained intellectually active and he was instrumental in the development of educational psychology, and attempted to determine the effect adolescence has on education. He was also responsible for inviting Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung to visit, Hall and Freud shared the same beliefs on sex and adolescence. Hall promised Freud an Honorary Degree from Clark University and this was Freuds first and only visit to America. It was the biggest conference held at Clark University and it was the most controversial conference because Freuds research was based on theories that Halls colleagues criticized as non-scientific. His establishment of laboratories at Johns Hopkins, the first in the discipline. Over his 32 years as a president at Clark, he had an astonishing influence over the future shape of the field of psychology. What attracted some to Hall and his ideas, and alienated others, were his music man propensities and he was the promoter, the impresario par excellence. Hall could put on a party, as he did with the celebrations in 1899 and 1909. He did so with a sense of daring—inviting major figures with unconventional, unpopular, or even scandalous ideas. He seemed always to be founding new journals or scholarly associations to disseminate his ideas, among his creations were the widely respectedAmerican Journal of Psychology and the American Psychological Association. He also helped found the Association of American Universities, ross described this side of Hall as journalist, entrepreneur, and preacher
5. William James – William James was an American philosopher and psychologist who was also trained as a physician. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked James as the 14th most cited psychologist of the 20th century and he also developed the philosophical perspective known as radical empiricism. James work has influenced intellectuals such as Émile Durkheim, W. E. B, du Bois, Edmund Husserl, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Hilary Putnam, and Richard Rorty, and has even influenced Presidents, such as Jimmy Carter. Born into a family, James was the son of the Swedenborgian theologian Henry James Sr. James wrote widely on topics, including epistemology, education, metaphysics, psychology, religion. William James was born at the Astor House in New York City and he was the son of Henry James Sr. a noted and independently wealthy Swedenborgian theologian well acquainted with the literary and intellectual elites of his day. William James received an eclectic trans-Atlantic education, developing fluency in both German and French, education in the James household encouraged cosmopolitanism. The family made two trips to Europe while William James was still a child, setting a pattern that resulted in thirteen more European journeys during his life. In his early adulthood, James suffered from a variety of ailments, including those of the eyes, back, stomach. Two younger brothers, Garth Wilkinson and Robertson, fought in the Civil War, the other three siblings all suffered from periods of invalidism. He took up studies at Harvard Medical School in 1864. His studies were interrupted once again due to illness in April 1867 and he traveled to Germany in search of a cure and remained there until November 1868, at that time he was 26 years old. During this period, he began to publish, reviews of his works appeared in periodicals such as the North American Review. James finally earned his M. D. degree in June 1869, what he called his soul-sickness would only be resolved in 1872, after an extended period of philosophical searching. He married Alice Gibbens in 1878, in 1882 he joined the Theosophical Society. Jamess time in Germany proved intellectually fertile, helping him find that his interests lay not in medicine but in philosophy. Later, in 1902 he would write, I originally studied medicine in order to be a physiologist, I never had any philosophic instruction, the first lecture on psychology I ever heard being the first I ever gave. In 1875–1876, James, Henry Pickering Bowditch, Charles Pickering Putnam, G. Stanley Hall, Henri Bergson and Sigmund Freud
6. Carl Jung – Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology. His work has been not only in psychiatry but also in anthropology, archaeology, literature, philosophy. As a notable research scientist based at the famous Burghölzli hospital, under Eugen Bleuler, he came to the attention of the Viennese founder of psychoanalysis, the two men conducted a lengthy correspondence and collaborated on an initially joint vision of human psychology. Freud saw in the man the potential heir he had been seeking to carry on his new science of psychoanalysis. Jungs researches and personal vision, however, made it impossible for him to bend to his older colleagues dogma and this break was to have historic as well as painful personal repercussions that have lasted to this day. Jung was also an artist, craftsman and builder as well as a prolific writer, many of his works were not published until after his death and some are still awaiting publication. Among the central concepts of analytical psychology is individuation—the lifelong psychological process of differentiation of the out of each individuals conscious and unconscious elements. Jung considered it to be the task of human development. He created some of the best known psychological concepts, including synchronicity, archetypal phenomena, the unconscious, the psychological complex. Carl Gustav Jung was born in Kesswil, in the Swiss canton of Thurgau, on 26 July 1875 as the second and first surviving son of Paul Achilles Jung and their first child, born in 1873 was a boy named Paul who survived only a few days. Emilie was the youngest child of a distinguished Basel churchman and academic, Samuel Preiswerk, and his second wife. Preiswerk was antistes, the given to the head of the Reformed clergy in the city, as well as a Hebraist, author and editor. When Jung was six months old, his father was appointed to a prosperous parish in Laufen. Emilie Jung was an eccentric and depressed woman, she spent considerable time in her bedroom where she said that spirits visited her at night, although she was normal during the day, Jung recalled that at night his mother became strange and mysterious. He reported that one night he saw a luminous and indefinite figure coming from her room with a head detached from the neck. Jung had a relationship with his father. Jungs mother left Laufen for several months of hospitalization near Basel for a physical ailment. His father took the boy to be cared for by Emilie Jungs unmarried sister in Basel, Emilie Jungs continuing bouts of absence and often depressed mood influenced her sons attitude towards women — one of innate unreliability
7. George M. Stratton – George Malcolm Stratton was a psychologist who pioneered the study of perception in vision by wearing special glasses which inverted images up and down and left and right. He studied under one of the founders of modern psychology, Wilhelm Wundt, Strattons studies on binocular vision inspired many later studies on the subject. He was one of the members of the philosophy department at Berkeley. He also worked on sociology, focusing on relations and peace. Stratton presided over the American Psychological Association in 1908, and was a member of the National Academy of Sciences, Stratton was born and brought up in the Oakland area of California, in a family with deep roots in America, and spent much of his career at Berkeley. He received his degree from the University of California, an M. A. from Yale University. He returned to the department at Berkeley, teaching psychology. Stratton left for Johns Hopkins University in the early 1900s and spent a few years as faculty at the department before returning to Berkeley. During this period, he focused on studies on sensation and perception and he was involved in establishing some of the early regional associations devoted to the field of psychology. Stratton served in the Army during World War I, developing psychological tests to select airmen for Army aviation, exposure to the war effort prompted his interest in international relations and causes of wars. He was a believer who held psychology should aim to assist humanitys quest to avert future wars. He was optimistic that people and ethnicities, making up nations, could be taught to live in peace, though the races were not equal in inborn mental capacity, a belief he held as scientific. In the later part of his career he wrote books looking at international relations, war, and he was also a scholar of the classics and translated Greek philosophers. Of Strattons many contributions, his studies on perception and visual illusions would continue to influence the field of psychology well after his death, of the nine books he wrote, the first was a scholarly look at the methodology and scope of experimental psychology. George Stratton was born on September 26,1865 to James Thompson Stratton, originally from Ossining, New York and his parents had met and married in New York in 1854, and settled back in Clinton, now East Oakland, California. James Stratton had been to California once before during the rush of 1850, sailing around North America and crossing by land the Panama stretch. The senior Stratton traced his ancestry to the settlers of the British settlements of America. An expert on the big Mexican land grants, he split up several of the Spanish deeds, another, Robert Thomas, became a doctor in Oakland and died after a long illness on May 6,1924
8. Colin Wilson – Colin Henry Wilson was an English writer, philosopher and novelist. He also wrote widely on true crime, mysticism and the paranormal, Wilson called his philosophy new existentialism or phenomenological existentialism, and maintained his life work was that of a philosopher, and purpose to create a new and optimistic existentialism. Wilson was born on 26 June 1931 in Leicester, England and his father worked in a shoe factory. At the age of eleven he attended Gateway Secondary Technical School, by the age of 14 he had compiled a multi-volume work of essays covering many aspects of science entitled A Manual of General Science. But by the time he left school at sixteen, his interests were already switching to literature and his discovery of George Bernard Shaws work, particularly Man and Superman, was an important landmark. He started to write stories, plays, and essays in earnest – a long sequel to Man and Superman made him consider himself to be Shaws natural successor. After two unfulfilling jobs – one as an assistant at his old school – he drifted into the Civil Service. In the Autumn of 1949, he was drafted into the Royal Air Force but soon found himself clashing with authority, upon leaving he took up a succession of menial jobs, spent some time wandering around Europe, and finally returned to Leicester in 1951. There he married his first wife, Betty Troop, and moved to London, but the marriage rapidly disintegrated as he drifted in and out of several jobs. During this traumatic period, Wilson was continually working and reworking the novel that was published as Ritual in the Dark. He also met three young writers who became close friends – Bill Hopkins, Stuart Holroyd and Laura Del Rivo, another trip to Europe followed, and he spent some time in Paris attempting to sell magazine subscriptions. Returning to Leicester again, he met Joy Stewart – later to become his second wife, on Christmas Day,1954, alone in his room, he sat down on his bed and began to write in his journal. It was not a position I relished, yet an inner compulsion had forced me into this position of isolation. I began writing about it in my journal, trying to pin it down, and then, quite suddenly, I saw that I had the makings of a book. I turned to the back of my journal and wrote at the head of the page, gollancz published the then 24-year-old Wilsons The Outsider in 1956. E. Lawrence, Vaslav Nijinsky and Vincent van Gogh –, the book became a best-seller and helped popularise existentialism in Britain. It has never been out of print and has been published more than thirty languages. Through the works of various artists, Wilson explored the psyche of the Outsider, his effect on society and societys on him