Category:Quranic exegesis scholars
Pages in category "Quranic exegesis scholars"
The following 55 pages are in this category, out of 55 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 55 pages are in this category, out of 55 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Abu Hanifa – Zūṭā al-Fārisī, known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims, was the founder of the Sunni Hanafi school of fiqh. He is also considered a renowned Islamic scholar and personality by Zaydi Shia Muslims and he is often called The Great Imam. Abū Ḥanīfah was born in the city of Kufa in Iraq and his father, Thabit bin Zuta, a trader from Kabul, Afghanistan, was 40 years old at the time of Abū Ḥanīfahs birth. His ancestry is generally accepted as being of Persian origin as suggested by the etymology of the names of his grandfather and great-grandfather and those stories maintain for his ancestors having been slaves purchased by some Arab benefactor are, therefore, untenable and seemingly fabricated. There is a discussion on being of Turkic or Persian origin, but the widely accepted opinion, however, is that most probably he was of Persian ancestry from Kabul. In 763, al-Mansur, the Abbasid monarch offered Abu Hanifa the post of Chief Judge of the State and his student Abu Yusuf was later appointed Qadi Al-Qudat by the next Caliph Harun al-Rashid. In his reply to al-Mansur, Abū Ḥanīfah said that he was not fit for the post, Al-Mansur, who had his own ideas and reasons for offering the post, lost his temper and accused Abū Ḥanīfah of lying. If I am lying, Abū Ḥanīfah said, then my statement is doubly correct, how can you appoint a liar to the exalted post of a Chief Qadi. Incensed by this reply, the ruler had Abū Ḥanīfah arrested, locked in prison and he was never fed nor cared for. Even there, the jurist continued to teach those who were permitted to come to him, in 767, Abū Ḥanīfah died in prison. The cause of his death is not clear, as some say that Abū Ḥanīfah issued an opinion for bearing arms against Al-Mansur. It was said that so many people attended his funeral that the service was repeated six times for more than 50,000 people who had amassed before he was actually buried. On the authority of the historian al-Khatib, it can be said that for twenty days people went on performing funeral prayer for him. Later, after years, the Abū Ḥanīfah Mosque was built in the Adhamiyah neighbourhood of Baghdad. The tomb of Abū Ḥanīfah and the tomb of Abdul Qadir Gilani were destroyed by Shah Ismail of Safavi empire in 1508, in 1533, Ottomans reconquered Iraq and rebuilt the tomb of Abū Ḥanīfah and other Sunni sites. While it was used by some of his teachers, Abu Hanifa is regarded by modern scholarship as the first to formally adopt. Thus, the Hanafi school came to be known as the Kufan or Iraqi school in earlier times. Ali and Abdullah, son of Masud formed much of the base of the school, many jurists and historians had reportedly lived in Kufa, including one of Abu Hanifas main teachers, Hammad ibn Sulayman
2. Abu Hayyan al-Gharnati – Abū Ḥayyān al-Gharnāṭī was a commentator on the Quran. He has earned near universal recognition as the foremost Arabic grammarian of his era and he was born in Spain in November of 1256 to a family of Berber origins. Gharnatis place of birth has been a matter of dispute, with historians having placed it both as Jaén and Granada, from which his appellation Gharnati was taken. Because Jaén was a dependency of Granada at the time, it is possible there is no conflict between the two appellations. Gharnati was considered tall and he had long hair, in his old age, his beard and hair turned grey, but he was generally described with handsome features. At a young age, Gharnati left Spain and traveled extensively for the sake of his studies, within Spain, he traveled to Málaga, Almería before moving on through Ceuta, Tunis, Alexandria, Cairo, Damietta, Minya, Kush and ‘Aydhab in Africa. Eventually, he reached Mecca for the sake of the Muslim pilgrimage, Gharnati was a student of Ibn al-Nafis, viewed as a redeeming quality in favor of Ibn al-Nafis by traditionalists such as Al-Dhahabi, who held positive views of Gharnati. After traveling to Mamluk Egypt, Gharnati was appointed as a lecturer of the science of Quranic exegesis at the named after the sultan of Egypt, Al-Mansur Qalawun. Later, he spent a period teaching the same subject in the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo. Gharnati was also favored in the court of an-Nasir Muhammad, he, when Gharnatis daughter Nudhar died, he received special permission for her body to be interred at his familys property rather than a formal cemetery. Permission for such burials were not typically granted, though Gharnatis standing with the court allowed the bereaved father his request. Gharnati composed an elegy praising his daughters standing among the intellectual circles. Gharnati died on a Saturday in July in the year 1344 in his home in Cairo and he was buried the next day in the cemetery of Bab al-Nasr in Islamic Cairo. When news of his death reached Damascus, the general public mourned his death due to his renown, Gharnati was known for his preference for the Ẓāhirī madhhab of Sunni Islam, though it has also been claimed that he later switched over to the Shafii madhhab. Gharnati himself denied switching to the Shafii or any other view when asked toward the end of his life in Egypt, claiming that anyone who had known the Ẓāhirī school could never leave it. Gharnati saw his criticism of Sufism as a defense of laymen Muslims who might follow it. In regard to the Arabic language, Gharnati was fond of the views of fellow Ẓāhirī and Andalusi, like Ibn Mada, Gharnati denied the existence of linguistic causality, instead holding the view that language, like all other things, is caused by God. His suspicion of Arabic grammarians was from a standpoint, just as those eastern grammarians supported linguistic causality from their own opposing, yet still Muslim
3. Muhammad Abu Zahra – Muhammad Abu Zahra was an Egyptian public intellectual, scholar of Islamic law, and author. He also served as a member of al-Azhars Academy of Islamic Research, Abu Zahra was born on March 29,1898 in El-Mahalla El-Kubra, the second largest city in the Nile Delta. In 1913, he completed school and enrolled in the Ahmadi Madrasa in Tanta. In 1916, he scored highest on the examination for the judiciary institute in the Gharbia Governorate despite being several years younger. He taught at al-Azhars faculty of theology and later, as Professor of Islamic law at Cairo University, regarding Wahhabism, Abu Zahra said, The Wahhabis exaggerated Ibn Taymiyyas positions. Whenever they were able to seize a town or city they would come to the tombs and turn them into ruins, and they would destroy whatever mosques were with the tombs also. Their brutality did not stop there but they came to whatever graves were visible. And when the ruler of the Hijaz regions caved in to them they destroyed all the graves of the Companions and razed them to the ground. In fact, it has noticed that the Ulema of the Wahhabis consider their own opinions correct and not possibly wrong, while they consider the opinions of others wrong. More than that, they consider what others than themselves do in the way of erecting tombs and circumambulating them, in this respect they are near the Khawarij who used to declare those who dissented with them apostate and fight them as we already mentioned. According to Muhammad Abu Zahra, Ghulam Ahmad deviated from the mainstream aqidah of Islam due to his views which is not shared by any other Schools of Islamic theology. First of all, Ghulam claimed that he found the grave of Jesus which is not accepted by any other Islamic school of divinity, in addition, Ghulam Ahmad conceded that the soul and the power of Messiah incarnated to his body due to his discovery of Jesuss grave. Because of this reason, his words are indisputable and absolute, moreover, Ahmad declared that he was authorized by Allah to make any revisions and modernization of Dīn, since he is the Mahdi. Furthermore, Ghulam does not give permission to Ahmadi-Women to get married with the other Muslim-Men of non-Ahmadi Muslim sects and this is clearly admission of the Muslims of the other madhhabs as Non-Muslims. Therefore, it is a justification that non-Ahmadis are being considered as Non-Muslims by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Abu Zahra wrote over a dozen books, amongst them, Tarikh al-Madhahib al-Islamiyya al-Alaqat al-Dawliyah fi al-Islam Zahrat al-Tafasir. Al-Jarīmah wa al-‛Uqūbah fī al-Fiqh al-Islāmī, Muhammad Abu Zahrah International Institute of Advanced Islamic Studies Malaysia Scholar of renown, Muhammad Abu Zahrah Arab News Bibliography at GoodReads
4. Ibn al-Jawzi – As scholars have noted, Ibn al-Jawzis prodigious corpus, varying in length as it does, touches upon virtually all the great disciplines of classical Islamic study. Ibn al-Jawzi was also a noted polemicist, and often attacked with great zeal the works of all those whom he deemed to be heretical innovators in the religion, Ibn al-Jawzi was born in 1126 to a fairly wealthy family in Baghdad. Al-Nāṣir, Abū Ḥakīm al-Nahrawānī and Abū Yaʿlā the Younger, during the reign of the succeeding Abbasid caliph, al-Mustadi, Ibn al-Jawzi began to be recognized as one of the most influential persons in Baghdad. As this particular ruler was especially partial to Hanbalism, Ibn al-Jawzi was given free reign to promote Hanbalism by way of his preaching throughout Baghdad, Ibn al-Jawzis stature as a scholar only continued to grow in the following years. By 1179, Ibn al-Jawzi had written over one hundred and fifty works and was directing five colleges in Baghdad simultaneously, however, after the latters dismissal and arrest – for unknown reasons – the caliph appointed as his successor the Shia Ibn al-Ḳaṣṣāb. Although the reasons for the matter remain unclear in the historical record, one of the possible reasons for this may be that Ibn al-Jawzis relationship with the caliph had soured after the scholar had written a direct refutation of the rulers policy in a particular matter. Soon after his return to Baghdad, however, Ibn al-Jawzi died, Ibn al-Jawzi was an avid supporter of using the relics of Muhammad in personal devotion, and supported the seeking of blessing through them in religious veneration. I may have seen him place it over his eyes, and dip it in water, in the same way, Ibn al-Jawzi also commended Ibn Hanbal for having drunk from the Prophets bowl in order to seek blessings from it. While Ibn al-Jawzi did criticize charlatans who masquerade as holy men, he states that true saints do not violate orthodox belief, practice. Regarding saints, Ibn al-Jawzi said, “The saints and the righteous are the purpose of all that exists. Ibn al-Jawzi is famous for the stance that he took against other Hanbalites of the time, in particular Ibn al-Zaghuni. Ibn al-Jawzi stated that, They believed that He has a form, and he continued his attack on Abu Yala by stating that, Whoever confirms that God has molars as a divine attribute, has absolutely no knowledge of Islam. Ibn al-Jawzis most famous work in this regard is his Bāz al‐ašhab al‐munqadd alà muhālifī al‐madhab, Ibn Jawzi states, in As-Sifat, that God neither exists inside the world nor outside of it. To him, being inside or outside are concomitant of things located in space i. e. what is outside or inside must be in a place, and, according to him, this is not applicable to God. He writes, Both along with movement, rest, and other accidents are constitutive of bodies, the divine essence does not admit of any created entity within it or inhering in it. Ibn al-Jawzi is perhaps the most prolific author in Islamic history, Al-Dhahabi states, “I have not known anyone amongst the ‘ulama to have written as much as he did. Some have suggested that he is the author of more than 700 works, in addition to the topic of religion, Ibn al-Jawzi wrote about medicine as well. Like the medicinal works of Al-Suyuti, Ibn al-Jawzis book was almost exclusively based on Prophetic medicine rather than a synthesis of both Islamic and Greek medicine like the works of Al-Dhahabi