Category:Quranic exegesis scholars
Pages in category "Quranic exegesis scholars"
The following 55 pages are in this category, out of 55 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 55 pages are in this category, out of 55 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Abu Hayyan al-Gharnati – Abū Ḥayyān al-Gharnāṭī was a commentator on the Quran. He has earned near universal recognition as the foremost Arabic grammarian of his era and he was born in Spain in November of 1256 to a family of Berber origins. Gharnatis place of birth has been a matter of dispute, with historians having placed it both as Jaén and Granada, from which his appellation Gharnati was taken. Because Jaén was a dependency of Granada at the time, it is possible there is no conflict between the two appellations. Gharnati was considered tall and he had long hair, in his old age, his beard and hair turned grey, but he was generally described with handsome features. At a young age, Gharnati left Spain and traveled extensively for the sake of his studies, within Spain, he traveled to Málaga, Almería before moving on through Ceuta, Tunis, Alexandria, Cairo, Damietta, Minya, Kush and ‘Aydhab in Africa. Eventually, he reached Mecca for the sake of the Muslim pilgrimage, Gharnati was a student of Ibn al-Nafis, viewed as a redeeming quality in favor of Ibn al-Nafis by traditionalists such as Al-Dhahabi, who held positive views of Gharnati. After traveling to Mamluk Egypt, Gharnati was appointed as a lecturer of the science of Quranic exegesis at the named after the sultan of Egypt, Al-Mansur Qalawun. Later, he spent a period teaching the same subject in the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo. Gharnati was also favored in the court of an-Nasir Muhammad, he, when Gharnatis daughter Nudhar died, he received special permission for her body to be interred at his familys property rather than a formal cemetery. Permission for such burials were not typically granted, though Gharnatis standing with the court allowed the bereaved father his request. Gharnati composed an elegy praising his daughters standing among the intellectual circles. Gharnati died on a Saturday in July in the year 1344 in his home in Cairo and he was buried the next day in the cemetery of Bab al-Nasr in Islamic Cairo. When news of his death reached Damascus, the general public mourned his death due to his renown, Gharnati was known for his preference for the Ẓāhirī madhhab of Sunni Islam, though it has also been claimed that he later switched over to the Shafii madhhab. Gharnati himself denied switching to the Shafii or any other view when asked toward the end of his life in Egypt, claiming that anyone who had known the Ẓāhirī school could never leave it. Gharnati saw his criticism of Sufism as a defense of laymen Muslims who might follow it. In regard to the Arabic language, Gharnati was fond of the views of fellow Ẓāhirī and Andalusi, like Ibn Mada, Gharnati denied the existence of linguistic causality, instead holding the view that language, like all other things, is caused by God. His suspicion of Arabic grammarians was from a standpoint, just as those eastern grammarians supported linguistic causality from their own opposing, yet still Muslim
2. Muhammad Abu Zahra – Muhammad Abu Zahra was an Egyptian public intellectual, scholar of Islamic law, and author. He also served as a member of al-Azhars Academy of Islamic Research, Abu Zahra was born on March 29,1898 in El-Mahalla El-Kubra, the second largest city in the Nile Delta. In 1913, he completed school and enrolled in the Ahmadi Madrasa in Tanta. In 1916, he scored highest on the examination for the judiciary institute in the Gharbia Governorate despite being several years younger. He taught at al-Azhars faculty of theology and later, as Professor of Islamic law at Cairo University, regarding Wahhabism, Abu Zahra said, The Wahhabis exaggerated Ibn Taymiyyas positions. Whenever they were able to seize a town or city they would come to the tombs and turn them into ruins, and they would destroy whatever mosques were with the tombs also. Their brutality did not stop there but they came to whatever graves were visible. And when the ruler of the Hijaz regions caved in to them they destroyed all the graves of the Companions and razed them to the ground. In fact, it has noticed that the Ulema of the Wahhabis consider their own opinions correct and not possibly wrong, while they consider the opinions of others wrong. More than that, they consider what others than themselves do in the way of erecting tombs and circumambulating them, in this respect they are near the Khawarij who used to declare those who dissented with them apostate and fight them as we already mentioned. According to Muhammad Abu Zahra, Ghulam Ahmad deviated from the mainstream aqidah of Islam due to his views which is not shared by any other Schools of Islamic theology. First of all, Ghulam claimed that he found the grave of Jesus which is not accepted by any other Islamic school of divinity, in addition, Ghulam Ahmad conceded that the soul and the power of Messiah incarnated to his body due to his discovery of Jesuss grave. Because of this reason, his words are indisputable and absolute, moreover, Ahmad declared that he was authorized by Allah to make any revisions and modernization of Dīn, since he is the Mahdi. Furthermore, Ghulam does not give permission to Ahmadi-Women to get married with the other Muslim-Men of non-Ahmadi Muslim sects and this is clearly admission of the Muslims of the other madhhabs as Non-Muslims. Therefore, it is a justification that non-Ahmadis are being considered as Non-Muslims by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Abu Zahra wrote over a dozen books, amongst them, Tarikh al-Madhahib al-Islamiyya al-Alaqat al-Dawliyah fi al-Islam Zahrat al-Tafasir. Al-Jarīmah wa al-‛Uqūbah fī al-Fiqh al-Islāmī, Muhammad Abu Zahrah International Institute of Advanced Islamic Studies Malaysia Scholar of renown, Muhammad Abu Zahrah Arab News Bibliography at GoodReads
3. Javed Ahmad Ghamidi – Javed Ahmad Ghamidi is a Pakistani Islamic modernist theologist who hosted a primetime religious-spiritual show on Dunya News. He has also taught at the Civil Services Academy from 1980 until 1991 and he is running an intellectual movement similar to Wastiyya in Egypt on the popular electronic media of Pakistan. Ghamidis discourse is primarily with the traditionalists on the one end and Jamaat-e-Islami, in Ghamidis arguments, there is no reference to the Western sources, human rights or current philosophies of crime and punishment. Nonetheless he reaches conclusions which are similar to those of Islamic modernists and progressives on the subject, Ghamidi was born on 18 April 1951 in a Muslim family from Jiwan Shah near Pakpattan, Sahiwal, Pakistan. His father belongs to a town called Daud some 80 kilometres from Lahore and his father follows qadri junaidi Sufi order. His early education included a modern path, as well as a traditional path and he later graduated from Government College, Lahore, with a BA Honours in English in 1972. Initially, he was interested in literature and philosophy. Later on, he worked with renowned Islamic scholars like Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi and Amin Ahsan Islahi on various Islamic disciplines particularly exegesis and Islamic law. In his book, Maqamat, Ghamidi starts with an essay My Name to describe the story behind his surname and this reputation also led to his reputation as a peacemaker. Subsequently, one of the visiting Sufi friends of his father narrated a story of the patriarch of the Arab tribe Banu Ghamid who earned the reputation of being a great peacemaker. He writes, that the closeness of these two events clicked in his mind and he decided to add the name Ghamidi to his given name. Ghamidis understanding of Islamic law has been presented concisely in his book Mizan, Ghamidi believes that there are certain directives of the Quran pertaining to war which were specific only to Muhammad and certain specified peoples of his times. Therefore, after Muhammad and his companions, there is no concept in Islam obliging Muslims to wage war for propagation or implementation of Islam, the only valid basis for jihad through arms is to end oppression when all other measures have failed. According to him Jihad can only be waged by an organised Islamic state, no person, party or group can take arms into their hands under any circumstances. The formation of an Islamic state is not a religious obligation per se upon the Muslims, in accordance with the law of the land which, as the government itself, must be based on the opinion of the majority. Ghamidi argues that the Quran states norms for male-female interaction in surah An-Nur, while in surah Al-Ahzab, there are special directives for Muhammads wives and directives given to Muslim women to distinguish themselves when they were being harassed in Medina. The Quran has created a distinction between men and women only to family relations and relationships. The Islamic punishments of hudud are maximum pronouncements that can be mitigated by a court of law on the basis of extenuating circumstances
4. Ibn Juzayy – Ibn Juzayy al-Kalbi al-Gharnati was a scholar, writer of poetry, history, and law from Al-Andalus. He is mainly known as the writer to whom Ibn Battuta dictated an account of his travels, Ibn Juzayy was the son of Abú-l-Qásim Muhammad Ibn Juzayy who died in the Battle of Rio Salado in 1340. Ibn Juzayy wrote the Rihla of Ibn Battuta in 1352-55 and it is clear that he copied passages from previous works such as the description of Medina from the Rihla of Ibn Jubayr and the description of Palestine by Mohammed al-Abdari al-Hihi. He died in Fez in 1357 two years after the completion of the Rihla of Ibn Battuta, Ibn Juzayy, Muhammad ibn Ahmad, Tasfiyat al-qulub fi al-wusul ila hadrat Allam al-Ghuyub / li-Ibn Juzayy al-Gharnati, dirasat wa-tahqiq Munir al-Qadiri Bu Dashish, taqdim Ahmad al-Tawfiq. 1998 ISBN 9981-1951-0-3 M. M. Inan,4 vols,8, pp. 40-54 F. Velazquez Basanta, Retrato jatibiano de Abu Bakr Yafar Ahmad ibn Yuzayy, otro poeta y qadi al-yamaa de Granada
5. Amin Ahsan Islahi – Imam Islahi was born in 1904 at Bamhur, a small village in Azamgarh, United Provinces, British India. After graduating from Madrasah al-Islah in Azamgarh in 1922, he entered the field of journalism and he was the son in law of Chaudhry Abdul Rehman Khan. First he worked as an editor in Khoonch a children magazine. Then he edited a newspaper Madinah at Bijnawr and also remained associated with Sach and it was sometime in 1925 when Farahi offered Imam Islahi to come and study the Qur’an with him. Imam Islahi abandoned his career to benefit from this opportunity. It was in this period of his life in which he learnt from Farahi the principles of direct deliberation on the Book of Allah. During this time, he taught the Qur’an and Arabic literature at the Madrasah. After Farahi’s death, Imam Islahi studied Hadith from a scholar of this discipline. In 1936, Imam Islahi founded the Daira-i-Hamidiyyah, an institute to disseminate the Qur’anic thought of Farahi. Under the auspices of this institute, he brought out a monthly journal Al-Islah in which he translated portions of Farahi’s treatises written in Arabic. The journal was published till 1939, after which it was discontinued, during his seventeen-year stay in the party, he represented the intellectual element and remained a member of the central governing body, Majlis-i-Shura. During this period, he did the groundwork needed to write a commentary of the Qur’an – an objective which he had set before him early in life. In 1958, he abandoned the party after serious differences arose between him and Mawdudi on the nature of the constitution of the party, after leaving the Jamaat-e-Islami, he finally got the chance to achieve his goal of writing a commentary of the Qur’an. He also launched a monthly journal Mithaq in which portions of this commentary, in 1961, he established a small study circle Halqa-i-Tadabbur-i- Qur’an for college students to whom he taught Arabic language and literature, the Qur’an and Sahih Muslim. In 1965, a tragic incident brought an end to the journal as well as to the study circle, however, work on the commentary continued. In 1970-71, Imam Islahi fell severely ill and had to all his intellectual pursuits. In 1972, he shifted to a village near Sheikhupura, where he continued to work on the commentary till 1979. It was on the 29th of Ramadan 1400/August 12,1980 that he finished his work on Tadabbur-i-Qur’an that took years to complete
6. Ibn Kathir – Ismail ibn Kathir was a highly influential Sunni scholar of the Shafii school during the Mamluk rule of Syria, an expert on tafsir and faqīh as well as a historian. Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani said about him, “Ibn Kathir worked on the subject of the Hadith in the texts and chains of narrators. He had a memory, his books became popular during his lifetime. He was born in Mijdal, a village on the outskirts of the city of Busra, to the east of Damascus, Syria and he was taught by Ibn Taymiyya and Al-Dhahabi. Upon completion of his studies he obtained his first official appointment in 1341 and he married the daughter of Al-Mizzi, one of the foremost Syrian scholars of the period, which gave him access to the scholarly elite. In 1345 he was preacher at a newly built mosque in Mizza. In 1366, he rose to a position at the Great Mosque of Damascus. In later life, he became blind and he attributes his blindness to working late at night on the Musnad of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in an attempt to rearrange it topically rather than by narrator. He died in February 1373 in Damascus and he was buried next to his teacher Ibn Taymiyya. Ibn Kathir did not interpret the mutashabihat, or unapparent in meaning verses and he states that, People have said a great deal on this topic and this is not the place to expound on what they have said. It is considered to be a summary of the earlier tafseer by at-Tabari and it is especially popular because it uses the hadith to explain each verse and chapter of the Quran. Egyptian scholar Ahmad Muhammad Shakir edited Ibn Kathirs Tafsir as ʿUmdat at-Tafsīr in five volumes published during 1956–1958, faḍāʾil al-Qurʾān was intended as an annex to the Tafsir. It is a brief history of the Quran, its collection and redaction after the death of Muhammad. Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani wrote about the Tafseer in his An Approach to the Quranic Sciences, This book may be regarded as a summary of Tafseer Ibn Jareer. But the earlier commentators viz. Ibn Jareer Al-Tabari, Ibn Mardawayh, Ibn Majah, etc who had followed this method only undertook the compiling of those narrations but they did not scrutinise them. For instance, see volume l, page 77,213, volume 3, pages 17 to 21,24 to 89, volume 4, page 508,519,520, the books on Exegesis by Narrations are mostly full of Israiliyyats. Ibn Kathir is extremely cautious in treating these citations and his approach is clean and based on the Quran and its detail has already been given under the heading Israiliyyats in his own words. Hence, his first approach is that he has not cited many Israili narrations, anyhow, from the narrative point of view Tafsir Ibn Kathir is the most cautious and reliable exegesis
7. Abul A'la Maududi – Syed Abul Ala Maududi was an Islamist philosopher, jurist, journalist and imam. His numerous works were written in Urdu, but then translated into English, Arabic, Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Burmese and many other languages. He strove not only to revive Islam as a renewer of the religion, but to propagate true Islam and he was the founder of the Jamaat-e-Islami, the largest Islamic organisation in Asia. He and his party are thought to have been the pioneer in politicizing islam and he was the first recipient of the Saudi Arabian King Faisal International Award for his service to Islam in 1979. After his death his Gayby Salat al-Janazah in Mecca, making him the person in history whose prayer was observed in the Kaaba. Maududi was born in Aurangabad India, then part of the princely state enclave of Hyderabad and he was the youngest of three sons of Maulana Ahmad Hasan, a lawyer by profession. His fathers mother was related to Islamic modernist thinker Sayyid Ahmad Khan, at an early age, until he was nine, Maududi was given home education, he received religious nurture at the hands of his father and from a variety of teachers employed by him. As his father wanted him to become a maulvi, this consisted of learning Arabic, Persian, Islamic law. He reportedly translated Qasim Amins The New Woman from Arabic into Urdu at the age of 14, and about 3,500 pages from Asfar and he then moved to a more traditionalist Darul Uloom in Hyderabad. In 1919, by the time he was 16, and still a modernist in mindset, he moved to Delhi and read books by his distant relative, comparing their contribution to that of Muslims, he concluded that the latters did not reach even 1 percent. From 1924 to 1927 Maududi was the editor of al-Jamiah, the newspaper of the Jamiyat-i Ulama, always interested in independence from the British, Maududi lost faith in the Congress Party and its Muslim allies in the 1920s as the party developed an increasingly Hindu identity. He began to turn more towards Islam, and believed that Democracy could be an option for Muslims only if the majority of Indians were Muslim. Maududi spent some time in Delhi as a man but went back to Hyderabad in 1928. It was from 1933 to 1941 that Maududis most important and influential works were published, Nasr describes his role at the time as a ideologue rather than a journalist he was earlier, or the political activist he became after founding his party. The government of Hyderabad helped support the journal buying 300 subscriptions which it donated to libraries around India, Maududi was alarmed by the decline of Muslim ruled Hyderabad, the increasing secularism and lack of Purdah among Muslim women in Delhi. By 1937 he became in conflict with Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and its support for a pluralistic Indian society where the Jamiat hoped Muslims could thrive, without sacrificing their identity or interests. In that year he also married Mahmudah Begum, a woman from an old Muslim family with financial resources. The family provide financial help and allowed him to himself to research and political action, but his wife had liberated, modern ways
8. Abdul Karim Mudarris – Mala Abdul Karim Mudarris or Shaykh Abdul Karim Mudarris also known as Nami was the contemporary Kurdish poet, writer, translator, Faqih and the Mufti of Iraq. Most of his works are in Kurdish and Arabic and a few of them are in Persian and he is known for his numerous literary, historic and religious works like the collection and expounding of the poems of Kurdish poets like Nalî, Mahwi and Mawlawi Tawagozi. He has influenced many Kurdish students and many recent imams and polymaths, many of his works have not been published. Sir Abdulkarim was very good at writing poems and had many books and dictionaries such as. He was the first person to translate Holy Quran into Kurdish, kurdistan governmental region has decided to open a place for his works. He was born in a village near Marivan. His father passed out when he was a small child and he started studying in Marivan and studying in arabic grammar and studied other sciences under the guidance of haji Mulla Aziz who was the imam of a mosque in Sulaimaniyah. When the First World War began in 1914 he moved to another village until he eventually, with some students, thereafter he moved to the mosque of Shaikh Husam al-Din, where he studied various books on Arabic grammar, logic, the art of debate, argumentation and Fiqh. He then continued his studies in Halabje, Suleimanieh and Baghdad, in 1951, he moved back to Sulaimani where he taught at the Mosque of Haji Han for about three years. In 1954 he moved to Kirkuk where he taught at the Haji Jamil al-Ialibani Centre, in 1960 Sheikh Mudarris moved to Baghdad where he became Imam and khatib and a teacher at the Sheikh ‘Abdul Qadiri Gaylani Mosque. Sheikh Mudarris retired from official duties in 1973, but continued teaching, after the death of Sheikh Najm al-Din al-Wa’iz, he was appointed as the head of the ‘Ulama’ League of Iraq. Many also regarded him as the Mufti of Baghdad, Sheikh Mudarris died on 30 August 2005 and was buried in the Gaylani tomb in Baghdad
9. Muhammad al-Tahir ibn Ashur – Muhammad al-Ṭāhir ibn ʿĀshūr was one of the most renowned modern-era graduates of University of Ez-Zitouna and one of the great Islamic scholars of the 20th century. He studied with reform-minded ulamā and mastered classical Islamic scholarship and he became a judge then Shaikh al-Islām in 1932. He was a writer and author on the subject of reforming Islamic education. He is best remembered for his Quranic exegesis, al-Tahrir wal-tanwir, Muhammad al-Tahir ibn Ashur was born in Tunis in 1879 to an affluent family and died in 1973 at age 94. The family had shown dedication to the pursuit of knowledge for generations, when he entered Zaytuna, care was made to provide him the best teachers. He was a teacher at Zaytuna all his life and his masterpiece is the Maqasid al-Shariah al-Islamiyyah, the Intents, or Higher Goals of Islamic Law, published in 1946. He is famous for rejecting Habib Bourguibas request for a fatwa to justify abandoning the fast of the month of Ramadan because it harmed productivity. He responded by stating Prescribed for you is fasting, and announced on the radio, God has spoken the truth and he was, as a result, dismissed from his post. Influenced by a visit to Tunisia by Muhammad Abduh, Ibn Ashur combined knowledge of the classics with a desire to revive Islamic civilization and he positioned himself as a bridge between the classical Islamic legal heritage and the needs of a modern world. His references to the works of law are respectful. Responding to modern challenges to Islamic traditions, Ibn Ashur called for reforms in Islamic education. His work on the purposes of Sharia represented an attempt to revive the maqasid theory of Shatibi. Ibn Ashur intended his work to be relevant for the modern world and he claimed that the discipline of usul al-fiqh had reached its limits and become over-burdened with methodological technicalities. Appropriate legal responses to situations in the world cannot be found by delving deeper and deeper into the meaning of a word. Ibn Ashur asserted the view that language is ambiguous and is not enough to determine the intent of a speaker. Further, while written words are subject to distortion, the spoken word is actually more likely to convey the speakers intent. The entire field surrounding the word must be considered, in contrast, the return of generations to Medina to assess the meaning of a statement shows the importance of understanding context. Ibn Ashur questioned the juridical weight of a hadith in determining legislation
10. Naeem-ud-Deen Muradabadi – Maulana Muhammad Naeem-ud-Din Muradabadi, also known as Sadr al-Afadil, was a twentieth-century jurist, scholar, mufti, Quranic exegetic, and educator. He was a scholar of philosophy, geometry, logic. He was also a poet of naat. He was born on 1 January 1887 in Moradabad, India and his family originally came from Mashhad, Iran. Sometime during the rule of King Aurangzeb, they travelled from Iran to India and they eventually reached Lahore and settled near Abul-Hasanat. Muradabadi became a Hafiz at age 8 and he studied Urdu and Persian literature with his father and studied Dars-i Nizami with Shah Fadl Ahmad. He subsequently earned a degree in law from Shah Muhammad Gul. He taught students and gave lectures and he visited Agra, Jaipur, Kishan Garh, Gobind Garh, Hawali of Ajmer, Mithar and Bharatpur to protest the Show Ali Movement which was viewed as a threat to Islam in the region. In 1924, he issued the Monthly As-Sawad-al-Azam and supported the Two nation theory, after the separation of Pakistan from British India on 18 September 1918, Muradabadi delivered a speech at the opening of the All India Sunni Conference. He contributed to the passing of the resolution for a separate Muslim state at Minto-Park and he was the Chief Organizer at the Banaras Conference held in 1942. Muradabadi fell ill while preparing an Islamic constitution and died on 13 October 1948 and his sanctuary stands to the left of the madrasa Jamia Naeemia in Moradabad. He also left a collection of poems called Riyaz-e-Naeem
11. Murtada Sharif 'Askari – Sayyid Murtada Sharif Askari, known as Allamah Askari, was a Shiite scholar and a neo-religious thinker. He took an approach to the history of Islam. 150 So-Called Companions, Recourse to the Prophet and Consecration to his Relict, Askari was born in Samarra, Iraq, on 14 May 1914. His ancestors were amongst the jurisprudence traditionalists of their era, in the 17th century, Allamah Majlisi invited his ancestors to Saveh and gave them the title of Shaykh al-Islam. A number of Sunni people converted to Shiism by his ancestors’ guidance in the city of Saveh and he lost his father when he was child and his maternal grandmother raised him. Askari entered the seminary in Samarra at age 10 and his education expenses were funded by his landed properties in Saveh. However, sending money from Iran to Iraq was banned by Reza Shah Pahlavi, therefore, Askari went to Iran and continued his education at the Qom Seminary under the guidance of Abdul-Karim Haeri Yazdi. He lived at the Fiyziyyih school, where his roommate was Ali Safi Golpaygani, Askari did not stay long at Qom. Most of the student body disagreed with such a class and closed it down, Askari believed that the educational system designed by the Orientalist for the eastern countries cannot respond to the increasing quandary and development of the Islamic society. Therefore, he and his colleagues decided to reform the educational system. He made innovations and conversions both in practical and theoretical field, in Baghdad, Allama Askari founded a new and modern university named Usul al-Din. Exegesis of Quran, the science of knowing Hadith, theology, the university was shut down by the Baath Party coup détat. Allama Askari primarily focused on historical studies and he wrote more than 50 books. Two of them, Abdullah Ibn Saba’ and 150 Companions, surprised the researchers, the latter book discussed 150 people who never existed, yet were believed by many to be the companions of Islamic prophet. As a result, multiple schools of thought which were built by Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Askari argued that these subject matters, which many had assumed were indisputable truths and fact, had no basis in fact. He continued his activities in fields, especially in social affairs. In addition, he was concerned with the unity of Islamic Ummah, on 16 September 2007, Askari died at Milad hospital in Tehran after a lengthy illness
12. Qazi Mian Muhammad Amjad – Qazi Mian Muhammad Amjad, was an eminent legal scholar of Quran, Hadith, and the Hanafi school of Islamic law. He was an authority on Muslim jurisprudence. He was against all the resulting in undue homage to the tombs and graves of Sufis. He believed that Islam was corrupted by Sufism, pantheism, theology, philosophy, belonging to a qadis family which had, since the 16th century, been prominent among the landed aristocracy of the Soon Valley, he adopted Faqr and Darwayshi. He was born in a famous family of Naushera, Soon Valley. On the maternal side, he was a grandson of Qazi Kalim Allah and he got his early religious education from his learned father Hazrat Qazi Ghulam Muhammad. He learned, Quran, Hadith, Fiqh from him and mastered the Arabic and he also received excellent education under his grandfather, who was a great scholar of Hanafi school of law. After completing his education, he went to Sial Sharif. Through the training received from Khwaja Shams-ud-din Sialvi, he learnt the fundamentals of Sufism and he was much impressed by the spiritual attainments of Khwaja Shams-ud-din Sialvi who introduced him to mystic way of life and granted to him the spiritual insights. Under his training he had undergone or experienced mystic trances and he now came to see through illumination what he had previously learnt theoretically from books. Having reached both formal and spiritual perfection, he returned to the practical world, with the advent of British and downfall of Mughal Empire, the Muslims were deprived of their political authority and their law was replaced by English law. Their language and laws were displaced through the system of English language, the Indian Rebellion of 1857 marked the end of Mughal rule. The Muslims in the words of W. W, the whole of Muslim Criminal law was superseded by the Indian Penal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure. The Indian Evidence Act and the Indian Contract Act replaced the Islamic law, the Indian Majority Act,1875, abrogated Muslim Law except in matters relating to marriage, dower and divorce. The Caste Disabilities Act,1850, abolished the civil disabilities which Muslim Law attached to apostasy, in this period of turmoil the Muslims of Soon Valley needed the guidance of Islam for their private and public life. They also needed to obtain fatwa to guide them in everyday life and this has given rise to new issues and problems related to the shariah law and their private and public life. In these circumstances Qazi mian Muhammad being as a son of Qazi family came forward for the preservation of Islamic law in the Soon Valley and it was at this critical juncture that he appeared as Mujtahid. He was a legal scholar of the Hanafi school of Islamic law
13. Al-Qurtubi – Imam Abu Abdullah Al-Qurtubi or Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abu Bakr al-Ansari al-Qurtubi was a famous mufassir, muhaddith and faqih scholar from Cordoba of Maliki origin. He is most famous for his commentary of the Quran, Tafsir al-Qurtubi and he was born in Córdoba, Spain in the 13th century. His father was a farmer, and died during a Spanish attack in 1230, during his youth, he contributed to his family by carrying clay for use in potteries. He finished his education in Cordoba, studying from renowned scholars ibn Ebu Hucce, after Cordoba’s capture in 1236 by King Fernando I, he left for Alexandria, where he studied hadith and tafsir. He then passed to Cairo, and settled in Munya Abil-Khusavb where he spent the rest of his life, known for his modesty and humble lifestyle, he was buried in Munya Abil-Khusavb, Egypt in 1273. His grave was carried to a mosque where a mausoleum was built under his name in 1971 and he was very skilled in commentary, narrative, recitation and law, clearly evident in his writings, and the depth of his scholarship has been recognized by many scholars. In his works, Qurtubi defended the Sunni point of view, Tafsir al-Qurtubi, the most important and famous of his works, this 20 volume commentary has raised great interest, and has had many editions. Contrary to what its name implies, the commentary is not limited to dealing with legal issues. Any claims made about a verse are stated and thoroughly investigated
14. Sayyid Qutb – Sayyid Qutb was an Egyptian author, educator, Islamic theorist, poet, and the leading member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 1960s. In 1966 he was convicted of plotting the assassination of Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser and was executed by hanging and his magnum opus, Fi Zilal al-Quran, is a 30-volume commentary on the Quran. During most of his life, Qutbs inner circle consisted of influential politicians, intellectuals, poets and literary figures. By the mid-1940s, many of his writings were officially among the curricula of schools and he has been described by followers as a great thinker and martyr for Islam, while many Western observers see him as a key originator of Islamist ideology. Others in the West believe Qutb is an inspiration for violent groups such as al-Qaeda, today, his supporters are identified by their opponents as Qutbists or Qutbi. Qutb was born on 9 October 1906 and he was raised in the Egyptian village of Musha, located in Upper Egypts Asyut Province. His father was a landowner and the family estates administrator, but he was well known for his political activism, holding weekly meetings to discuss the political events. At this young age, Sayyid Qutb first learned about melodic recitations of the Quran, in his teens, Qutb was critical of the religious institutions with which he came into contact, holding in contempt the way in which those institutions were used to form public opinion and thoughts. At this time, Qutb developed his bent against the imams and this confrontation would persist throughout his life. He moved to Cairo where between 1929 and 1933 he received a based on the British style of schooling before starting his career as a teacher in the Ministry of Public Instruction. During his early career, Qutb devoted himself to literature as an author and critic, writing novels as Ashwak. In 1939, he became a functionary in Egypts Ministry of Education, from 1948 to 1950, he went to the United States on a scholarship to study its educational system, spending several months at Colorado State College of Education in Greeley, Colorado. Qutbs first major work of religious social criticism, Al-adala al-Ijtimaiyya fi-l-Islam, was published in 1949. Though Islam gave him peace and contentment, he suffered from respiratory and other health problems throughout his life and was known for his introvertedness, isolation, depression. In appearance, he was pale with sleepy eyes, Qutb never married, in part because of his steadfast religious convictions. While the urban Egyptian society he lived in was becoming more Westernized, Qutb lamented to his readers that he was never able to find a woman of sufficient moral purity and discretion and had to reconcile himself to bachelorhood. He would have a big collection of books, and another small collection specifically for Syed Qutb. If Syed never had the money, he would tell him that I dont have the now, so let me borrow it
15. Fakhr al-Din al-Razi – Fakhr al-Din al-Razi or Fakhruddin Razi was an Iranian Sunni Muslim theologian and philosopher He was born in 1149 in Rey, and died in 1209 in Herat. He also wrote on medicine, physics, astronomy, literature, history and he left a very rich corpus of philosophical and theological works that reveals influence from the works of ibn Sina, Abul-Barakāt al-Baghdādī and al-Ghazali. Two of his works titled Mabahith al-mashriqiyya fi ilm al-ilahiyyat wa-l-tabiiyyat and he first studied with his father, and later at Merv and Maragheh, where he was one of the pupils of al-Majd al-Jili, who in turn had been a disciple of al-Ghazali. He was accused of rationalism, despite the fact that he restored many to the orthodox faith and he was a leading proponent of the Ashari school of theology. His commentary on the Quran was the most-varied and many-sided of all extant works of the kind and he devoted himself to a wide range of studies, and is said to have expended a large fortune on experiments in alchemy. He taught at Rey and Ghazni, and became head of the university founded by Mohammed ibn Tukush at Herat, in his later years, he also showed interest in mysticism, though this never formed a significant part of his thought. This work contains much of philosophical interest, one of his major concerns was the self-sufficiency of the intellect. He believed that based on tradition could never lead to certainty but only to presumption. However, his acknowledgement of the primacy of the Quran grew with his years, al-Razis rationalism undoubtedly holds an important place in the debate in the Islamic tradition on the harmonization of reason and revelation. Al-Razis development of Kalam led to the evolution and flourishing of theology among Muslims, Razi had experienced different periods in his thinking, affected by the Ashari school of thought and later by al-Ghazali. Al-Razi tried to use of elements of Muʿtazila and Falsafah. The most important instance showing the synthesis of Razis thought may be the problem of the eternity of the world and he tried to reorganize the arguments of theologians and philosophers on this subject, collected and critically examined the arguments of both sides. He considered, for the most part, the argument for the worlds eternity stronger than the theologians position of putting emphasis on the temporal nature of the world. According to Tony Street, we should not see in Razis theoretical life a journey from a young dialectician to a religious condition and it seems that he adapted different thoughts of diverse schools, such as those of Mutazilite and Asharite, in his exegesis, The Great Commentary. He raises the question of whether the term worlds in this verse refers to multiple worlds within this single universe or cosmos, the arguments of the philosophers for establishing that the world is one are weak, flimsy arguments founded upon feeble premises. Al-Razi rejected the Aristotelian and Avicennian notions of a single revolving around a single world. He describes their main arguments against the existence of multiple worlds or universes, pointing out their weaknesses and refuting them. This rejection arose from his affirmation of atomism, as advocated by the Ashari school of Islamic theology, which entails the existence of vacant space in which the atoms move, combine and separate
16. Rashid Rida – Muhammad Rashid Rida was an early Islamic reformer, whose ideas would later influence 20th-century Islamist thinkers in developing a political philosophy of an Islamic state. Rida was born near Tripoli in Al-Qalamoun and his early education consisted of training in traditional Islamic subjects. In 1884-5 he was first exposed to al-Urwa al-wuthqa, the journal of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, in 1897 he left Syria for Cairo to collaborate with Abduh. Rashid Rida, was an exponent of Salafism and was especially critical of what he termed blind following of traditional Islam. He encouraged both laymen and scholars to interpret the primary sources of Islam themselves, one of his controversial views was his support of Darwins theory of evolution. To justify Darwinism, Rida considered it permissible to interpret certain stories of the Quran in a manner, as, for example. He also believed that the origin of the race from Adam is a history derived from the Hebrews. He held that these flaws could be alleviated by a return to what he saw as the principles of Islam albeit interpreted to suit modern realities. This alone could, he believed, save Muslims from subordination to the colonial powers, Rida had a close relationship with Freemasonry, though his feelings toward the Baháí Faith were quite negative. Muhammad Rashid Rida was one of the earliest critics of Zionism, Rida died on his way back to Cairo from Suez, where he had gone to see off his patron, King of Saudi Arabia Abdulaziz Ibn Saud. The corruption and tyranny of Muslim rulers throughout history was a theme in Ridas criticisms. Rida, however, celebrated the rule of Mohammad and the Rightly Guided Caliphs and he also criticized the clergy for compromising their integrity - and the integrity of the Islamic law they were meant to uphold - by associating with worldly corrupt powers. Ridas ideas were foundational to the development of the modern Islamic state and he was an important link between classical theories of the caliphate, such as al-Mawardis, and 20th-century notions of the Islamic state. Rida promoted a restoration or rejuvenation of the Caliphate for Islamic unity, and democratic consultation on the part of the government, in theology, his reformist ideas, like those of Abduh, were based on the argument that, sharia consists of ibadat and muamalat. Human reason has little scope in the former and Muslims should adhere to the dictates of the Quran, the laws governing muamalat should conform to Islamic ethics but on specific points may be continually reassessed according to changing conditions of different generations and societies. They thus abolish supposed distasteful penalties such as cutting off the hands of thieves or stoning adulterers and they replace them with man-made laws and penalties. He who does that has become an infidel. List of Islamic scholars Short biography Rashid Rida Hometown Website Les clés du Moyen-Orient
17. Shah Ahmad Noorani – Shah Ahmad Noorani, was a Pakistani, Sunni-Barelvi Islamic scholar, mystic, philosopher, revivalist and an ultra–conservative politician. Ahmad Noorani was born in Meerut, British India, into an ultra-religious Urdu-speaking family on 1 October 1926 and his father, Abdul Aleem Siddiqi was also an Islamic scholar and had accompanied him on Islamic missionary tours to various parts of the world in his early youth. He received his BA degree in Arabic language from the Allahabad University and his family moved to Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan after the partition of India. He established World Islamic Mission in 1972 which is based in Mecca and he was elected as member of the National Assembly from Constituency NW-134 after participating in general elections held in 1970 on Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistans platform. The JUP is main Sunni Barelvi political party of Pakistan, second time he was elected as MNA from Constituency NA-167 in Pakistani general election,1977. Since then, his influence on national politics further grew and eventually becoming a Senator in 1980s, assuming the presidency of Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal, he was known to have use tough rhetoric against Musharraf and formed a public support against Musharrafs policies in the country. He is now buried in Abdullah Shah Ghazi Mausoleum in Karachi
18. Al-Tabari – Today, he is best known for his expertise in tafsir, fiqh, and history, but he has been described as an impressively prolific polymath. He wrote on subjects as poetry, lexicography, grammar, ethics, mathematics. His most influential and best known works are his Quranic commentary known as Tafsir al-Tabari and his historical chronicle Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, although it eventually became extinct, al-Tabaris madhhab flourished among Sunni ulama for two centuries after his death. It was usually designated by the name Jariri, Tabari was born in Amol, Tabaristan in the winter of 838–9. He memorized the Quran at seven, was a prayer leader at eight. He left home to study in 236AH when he was twelve and he retained close ties to his home town. He returned at least twice, the time in 290AH when his outspokenness caused some uneasiness. He first went to Rayy, where he remained for five years. A major teacher in Rayy was Abu Abdillah Muhammad ibn Humayd al-Razi, while in Ray, he also studied Muslim jurisprudence according to the Hanafi school. Among other material, ibn Humayd taught Jarir Tabari the historical works of ibn Ishaq, especially al-Sirah, Tabari was thus introduced in youth to pre-Islamic and early Islamic history. Tabari quotes ibn Humayd frequently, but little is known about Tabaris other teachers in Rayy, Tabari then travelled to study in Baghdad under ibn Hanbal, who, however, had recently died. Tabari possibly made a prior to his first arrival in Baghdad. He left Baghdad probably in 242 A. H. to travel through the cities of Basra, Kufah. There, he met a number of eminent and venerable scholars, in addition to his previous study of Hanafi law, Tabari also studied the Shafii, Maliki and Zahiri rites. Tabaris study of the school was with the founder, Dawud al-Zahiri. Tabari was, then, well-versed in four of the five remaining Sunni legal schools before founding his own independent, yet eventually extinct and his debates with his former teachers and classmates were known, and served as a demonstration of said independence. Notably missing from this list is the Hanbali school, the fourth largest legal school within Sunni Islam in the present era, Tabaris view of Ibn Hanbal, the schools founder, became decidedly negative later in life. On his return to Baghdad, he took a position from the vizier
19. Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i – Muhammad Husayn Tabatabai or Seyed Mohammad Hossein Tabatabai was one of the most prominent thinkers of philosophy and contemporary Shia Islam. He is famous for Tafsir al-Mizan, a work of Quranic exegesis. He is commonly known as Allameh Tabatabai and the Allameh Tabatabai University in Tehran is named after him and he received his earlier education in his native Tabriz city, mastering the elements of Arabic and the religious sciences. And at about the age of twenty set out for the great Shiite university of Najaf to continue more advanced studies, along with Sayyid Husayn Badkubai, he was a student of two of the most famous masters of the time, Sayyid Abul-Hasan Jilwah and Aqa Ali Mudarris Zunuzi. Tabatabai, was a philosopher, a writer, and an inspiring teacher to his students who devoted much of his life to Islamic studies. Many of his students were among the founders of the Islamic Republic of Iran, namely Murtaza Motahhari, Muhammad Beheshti. Others like Hossein Nasr and Hasanzadeh Amuli remained and continued their studies in the intellectual non-political sphere and it was in Najaf where Tabatabai developed his major contributions in the fields of Tafsir, philosophy, and history of the Shia faith. In philosophy the most important of his works is Usul-i falsafeh va ravesh-e-realism, which has published in five volumes with explanatory notes. His other major work is a voluminous commentary of Asfār al-arbaeh. Apart from these he wrote extensively on philosophical topics. His humanist approach is underlined by his three books on, the nature of man - before the world, in this world and his philosophy is focused upon the sociological treatment of human problems. His two other works, Bidāyat al-hikmah and Nihāyat al-hikmah, are considered works of high order in Islamic philosophy. Several treatises on the doctrines and history of the Shia remain from him as well, one of these comprises his clarifications and expositions about Shia faith in reply to the questions posed by the famous French orientalist Henry Corbin. Another of his books on this topic Shiah dar Islam was translated into English by Seyyed Hossein Nasr under the title Shia Islam and his written books number forty-four titles overall, three of which are collections of his articles on various aspects of Islam and the Quran. Shia Islam The Principles of Philosophy and the Method of Realism in five volumes, glosses upon the new edition of the Asfar of Sadr al-Din Shirizi Mulla Sadra appearing under the direction of Allameh Tabatabai of which seven volumes have appeared. Risalah dar insan qabl al-dunya Risalah dar insan fi al-dunya, Risalah dar nubuwwat wa manamat Manza’mah dar rasm-i- khatt-i-nasta’liq. Ali wa al-falsafat al-ilahiya Quran dar Islam, Allameh Tabatabai was also an accomplished poet. He composed his poetry mainly in Persian, but occasionally in Arabic as well and he was also the author of numerous articles and essays
20. Shabbir Ahmad Usmani – Shabbir Ahmad Usmani was an Islamic scholar who supported the Pakistan Movement in the 1940s. He was a theologian, writer, orator, politician, and expert in tafsir, born on October 11,1887 in Bijnor, a city in Uttar Pradesh, British India. His father, Fadhlur Rahman, was a deputy inspector of schools and had sent on assignment to Bareilly. He was educated at Darul Ulum Deoband, where he became a disciple of Mahmud ul Hasan, after his graduation, he was appointed as a teacher at Darul Uloom Deoband. In 1915, when Mahmud ul Hasan travelled to Hijaz, Usmani filled his position as the teacher of Sahih Muslim, in 1925, Sultan Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia scheduled a conference for prominent ulama from all over the world. A deputation of a number of ulama from India participated in this conference, in 1926, he moved to Dabhel, a small predominantly Deobandi town in the Indian state of Gujarat, and became a teacher at Jamia Islamiyyah Dabhel. In 1933, when Anwar Shah Kashmiri died, Usmani became the teacher of Sahih al-Bukhari, in order to counteract the propaganda and activities of the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind, he founded the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam in 1945. He served as JUIs president until his death in 1949 and he is also notable for having led the funeral prayer of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan. After the Partition of India, Usmani became a member of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, although he was not given a cabinet position, he chose to remain a member of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan until his death. He is best remembered for having spearheaded the Qarardad-i-Maqasid Objectives Resolution, Usmani died at Baghdadul Jadid in Bahawalpur State on December 13,1949, and was buried at Islamia College, Karachi the next day. Pakistan Postal Services issued a postage stamp in his honor in 1990 in its Pioneers of Freedom series. Pakistan and the emergence of Islamic militancy in Afghanistan, ashgate Publishing, Ltd.2005 ISBN 0-7546-4434-0, ISBN 978-0-7546-4434-7