Category:Railroad-related National Historic Landmarks
Pages in category "Railroad-related National Historic Landmarks"
The following 42 pages are in this category, out of 42 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 42 pages are in this category, out of 42 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Allegheny Portage Railroad – The Portage Railroad utilized cleverly designed wheeled barges to ride a narrow-gauge rail track with steam-powered stationary engines lifting the vehicles. Except for peak moments of a storm, it was an all-weather. Along with the rest of the Main Works, it cut transport time from Philadelphia to the Ohio River from weeks to just 3–5 days. Considered a technological marvel in its day, it played a role in opening the interior of the United States beyond the Appalachian Mountains to settlement. It included the first railroad tunnel in the United States, the Staple Bend Tunnel, today, the remains of the railroad are preserved within the Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site operated by the National Park Service. The site was established on 1,296 acres in 1964 and is about 12 miles west of Altoona, in Blair and Cambria counties. The Samuel Lemon House, a tavern located alongside the railroad near Cresson that was a stop for railroad passengers, has been converted into a historical museum by the National Park Service. The park service operates a visitor center with interpretive exhibits near the Lemon House. The Staple Bend Tunnel is preserved in a unit of the historic site 4 miles east of Johnstown. A skew arch bridge, a masterwork of cut stone construction, is another feature of the site, construction of the railroad began in 1831 and took three years to complete. The project was financed by the State of Pennsylvania as a means to compete with the Erie Canal in New York, the work was done largely through private contractors. The railroad used ten cable inclined planes, five on either side of the summit of the Allegheny Ridge, the vertical ascent from Johnstown was 1,172 feet. The vertical ascent from Hollidaysburg was 1,399 feet, the barges were drawn by horses along level sections, which included a tunnel 900 feet long as well as a viaduct over the Little Conemaugh River upstream from Johnstown. A typical voyage took six and seven hours. The entire Main Line system connecting Pittsburgh and Philadelphia was 400 miles long, charles Dickens wrote a contemporary account of travel on the railroad in Chapter 10 of his American Notes. In 1854 the portage railroad was rendered obsolete by the advance of progress, construction on the New Portage Railroad, a $2.14 million realignment to bypass the inclines, continued despite this, opening in 1856. On July 31,1857, the Pennsylvania Railroad bought the railroad from the state, abandoning most. Nearly half a century later, the graded roadbeds of the section east of the Gallitzin Tunnel was re-railed with standard gauge freight tracks
2. Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Martinsburg Shops – Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Martinsburg Shops is a historic industrial district in Martinsburg, West Virginia. It is significant both for its architecture by Albert Fink and John Rudolph Niernsee and for its role in the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. It consists of three contributing buildings, the presence of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company in Martinsburg dates back to the late 1840s when the first engine and machine shops were erected for the expanding company. February 28,1827, The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad is founded, may 21,1842, The first steam locomotive arrives in Martinsburg. November 10,1842, The first passenger train arrives in Martinsburg, 1848-1850, First roundhouse complex built at Martinsburg. When Virginia seceded from the Union in 1861, the regions social, the Civil War decimated both the region and Martinsburg, specifically because of the railroad yards. May 22,1861, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson’s troops stopped all trains going East at Martinsburg and Point of Rocks, in total,42 locomotives and 386 cars were stolen and destroyed. 36-½ miles of track,17 bridges,102 miles of wire, the “Colonnade” Bridge. October 19,1862, Roundhouse Complex burned by Confederate troops under Colonel Jackson, in 1866, the B&O began reconstruction of the roundhouse and associated shops that stand on the site today, which were completed in 1872. 1866-1872, Present roundhouse complex is re-built, major buildings consisted of the West Roundhouse, East Roundhouse, Bridge & Machine Shop, and the Frog & Switch Shop. July 16,1877, First nationwide strike, the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 and their work and traffic stoppage soon spread across the country. The facilities were used until the mid-1980s when all operations were transferred to other locations. March 14,1988, Facility closed down operations, may 14,1990, Young vandals set fire to wooden pallets in East Roundhouse nearly totally destroying the building. 1999-2000, Berkeley County Commission purchase roundhouse complex and transfers property to newly created Berkeley County Roundhouse Authority, restoration and renovation of complex begins. July 30,2003, B & O Roundhouse is designated a National Historic Landmark. WV-1, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Martinsburg Repair Shops, West Side of Tuscarora Creek Opposite East End of Race Street, Martinsburg, Berkeley, WV,11 photos,4 data pages,1 photo caption page
3. B&O Railroad Museum – The B&O Railroad Museum is a museum exhibiting historic railroad equipment in Baltimore, Maryland, originally named the Baltimore & Ohio Transportation Museum when it opened on July 4,1953. It was also to this site that the first telegraph message, What hath God wrought. was sent on May 24,1844, from Washington, the museum houses collections of 19th- and 20th-century artifacts related to Americas railroads. Train rides are offered on the mile of track on Wednesday through Sunday from April through December, in 2002, the museum had 160,000 visitors annually. The museum also features an outdoor G-scale layout, an indoor HO scale model, from Thanksgiving through the New Year, local model railroad groups set up large layouts on the roundhouse floor and in select locations on the grounds of the museum. A museum store offers toys, books, DVDs and other railroad-related items, the museum and station were designated as a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1961. Television and film actor Michael Gross is the celebrity spokesman. The inaugural horse-drawn B&O train travelled the 13 miles of the completed track from Mount Clare to Ellicott Mills, on May 22,1830. The existing Mount Clare station brick structure was constructed in 1851, the adjacent roundhouse designed by Ephraim Francis Baldwin was built in 1884 to service the B&Os passenger cars. For much of its history, the B&O had been collecting locomotives and this collection was stored in various places, until the railroad decided to centralize it in a permanent home. The car shop of the Mt. Clare Shops was chosen, the museum ended up outliving its parent B&O Railroad, and was kept intact by both the Chessie System and CSX Corporation. In 1990, CSX deeded the property and collection to the formed, not-for-profit museum organization governed by an independent board of directors. In 1999, the museum affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution. In the early morning of February 17,2003, heavy snow from the Presidents Day Storm collapsed half of the roof of the museums roundhouse. Although the structures central support columns remained standing, the supporting iron struts, the museum suffered heavy damage not only to the roundhouse itself but also to the collection within the roundhouse. Some of the items were damaged beyond repair, reporting on the devastation the following day, The Baltimore Sun said. hours after the collapse, columns of mangled steel stuck out from the roundhouse. Locomotives and passenger cars in the collection, some dating from the 1830s, could be seen covered with snow. The roundhouse, with a newly repaired roof, reopened to the public on November 13,2004, with the damaged locomotives, as of September 2015, all damaged exhibits have been restored to their original appearance. After the roof collapse, subsequent fund raising and restoration allowed the museum to upgrade many of its facilities, in 2005 the museum opened a new service facility west of the roundhouse for restoration of historical equipment and maintenance of active equipment
4. Big Four House – The Big Four House is a historic 19th-century building in Downtown Sacramento, California. It is now located within Old Sacramento State Historic Park and the Old Sacramento National Historic District, the Big Four House was originally three separate buildings constructed over 1851 to 1852, adjacent to the Sacramento River waterfront. The original three structures included the Stanford Building, the Huntington & Hopkins Building, and the Miller Building, the lower floors were occupied by merchants, three of whom later became The Big Four, hence the buildings name. On the second floor these buildings they organized and ran the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, to plan, build and they also founded the Southern Pacific Railroad here. Huntington, Hopkins & Co. which imported and sold hardware, iron, steel, the second floor of these structures served as the first offices of the Central Pacific Railroad from 1862 to 1873. By 1878 ownership was consolidated, and the structures were enlarged into one building, over time it has also housed shops, including the Huntington & Hopkins Hardware Store, a bar and cafe, and a hotel on the second floor. The Big Four House was declared a National Historic Landmark on July 4,1961 and it is included within the Old Sacramento Historic District, which also is a National Historic Landmark and on the National Register of Historic Places. It was also formerly a California Historical Landmark of its own, cA-1170, Big Four Building, 220–226 K Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA,11 photos,8 measured drawings,6 data pages
5. Bollman Truss Railroad Bridge – The Bollman Truss Railroad Bridge at Savage, Maryland is the sole surviving example of a revolutionary design in the history of American bridge engineering. It was the first successful all-metal bridge design to be adopted, the type was named for its inventor, Wendel Bollman, a self-educated Baltimore engineer. A smaller, narrower example was installed adjacent to the railbridge for road traffic and it was the first successful all-metal bridge design to be adopted and consistently used on a railroad. The design employs wrought iron tension members and cast iron compression members and it was an improvement over wooden structures, as the independent structural units lessened the possibility of structural failure. Patented on January 6,1852, the company built about a hundred of these bridges through 1873 and their durability and ease of assembly greatly facilitated expansion of American railroads in this period. Bollmans Wells Creek Bridge has also survived, but it employs a different type of truss system, the Bollman Bridge is a two-span through-truss, resting on granite abutments at each end and a granite pier in the middle of the river. The truss structure is a mixture of wrought and cast iron, the truss configuration is the design patented by Bollman as the Bollman suspension truss in 1852. Each span is 79.5 feet long,25.5 feet wide, the Bollman truss suspends the deck from a network of tension members, while the top chord resists compressive forces. The system is referred to as a suspension truss. The truss includes decorative elements, such as Doric styled vertical members, the cast iron end towers, which bear transfer the weight of the structure to the abutments and pier, are also detailed. A decorative and protective metal enclosure at the top of the towers was lost to vandalism, metal strips at each portal read W. BOLLMAN, PATENTEE, BALTIMORE, MD. BUILT BY B&O R. R. CO.1869 AND RENEWED1866, replicas of the original strips were installed during the restoration. The bridge was painted, using red oxide for the towers and the heavier compression members. The bridge was painted in a three color scheme, documented in black and white photography, with specific shades unknown. In 1966 the American Society of Civil Engineers introduced a new program, the bridge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 18,1972, and was designated a National Historic Landmark on February 16,2000. The bridge was surveyed for restoration in 1978 by Modjeski and Masters with deterioration of the floor trusses noted, a $214,200 restoration contract was let to Dewey-Jordan of Frederick in September 1982. Today it receives regular maintenance as part of Savage Park, nearby Bollman Bridge Elementary School takes its name from the historic bridge. MD-1, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Bollman Truss Bridge, Spanning Little Patuxent River, Savage, Howard County, MD,20 photos,7 measured drawings,8 data pages,4 photo caption pages
6. Brooklyn Bridge – The Brooklyn Bridge is a hybrid cable-stayed/suspension bridge in New York City and is one of the oldest bridges of either type in the United States. Completed in 1883, it connects the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn by spanning the East River and it has a main span of 1,595.5 feet and was the first steel-wire suspension bridge constructed. Since its opening, it has become an icon of New York City and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964, although the Brooklyn Bridge is technically a suspension bridge, it uses a hybrid cable-stayed/suspension bridge design. The towers are built of limestone, granite, and Rosendale cement, the limestone was quarried at the Clark Quarry in Essex County, New York. The granite blocks were quarried and shaped on Vinalhaven Island, Maine, under a contract with the Bodwell Granite Company, the bridge was built with numerous passageways and compartments in its anchorages. New York City rented out the large vaults under the bridges Manhattan anchorage in order to fund the bridge, opened in 1876, the vaults were used to store wine, as they were always at 60 °F. This was called the Blue Grotto because of a shrine to the Virgin Mary next to an opening at the entrance, construction of the bridge began in 1869. Roebling Suspension Bridge between Cincinnati, Ohio, and Covington, Kentucky, while conducting surveys for the bridge project, Roebling sustained a crush injury to his foot when a ferry pinned it against a piling. Compressed air was pumped into the caissons, and workers entered the space to dig the sediment, the whole weight of the bridge still sits upon a 15-foot thickness of southern yellow pine wood under the sediment. Many workers became sick with the bends in this work and this condition was unknown at the time, and was first called caisson disease by the project physician Andrew Smith. Washington Roebling also suffered an injury as a result of decompression sickness shortly after ground was broken for the Brooklyn tower foundation on January 3,1870. Roeblings debilitating condition left him unable to supervise the construction firsthand. As Chief Engineer, Roebling supervised the project from his apartment with a view of the work, designing and redesigning caissons. He was aided by his wife Emily Warren Roebling who provided the critical link between her husband and the engineers on site. Under her husbands guidance, Emily studied higher mathematics, the calculations of catenary curves, the strengths of materials, bridge specifications, and she spent the next 11 years assisting Washington Roebling, helping to supervise the bridges construction. When iron probes underneath the caisson for the Manhattan tower found the bedrock to be deeper than expected. He later deemed the aggregate overlying the bedrock 30 feet below it to be enough to support the tower base. The construction of the Brooklyn Bridge is detailed in the 1972 book The Great Bridge by David McCullough and Brooklyn Bridge, Burns drew heavily on McCulloughs book for the film and used him as narrator
7. Carrollton Viaduct – The Carrollton Viaduct, located over Gwynns Falls near Carroll Park in Baltimore, Maryland, is the first stone masonry bridge built for railroad use in the United States. The bridge is one of the worlds oldest railroad bridges still in use for rail traffic. As he laid the first stone he said, I consider this among the most important acts of my life, Builder Caspar Wever and designer James Lloyd completed the structure for the railroad in November 1829, at an officially listed cost of $58,106.73. The actual cost of the construction may have been as high as $100,000, the bridge,312 feet in length, rises from its foundations about 65 feet. It is 51 feet 9 inches above Gwynns Falls and it consists of a full-centered arch with a clear span length of 80 feet over the stream, and a space for two railroad tracks on its deck. To provide an underpass for a road, an arched passageway,16 feet in width, was built through one of the masonry-walled approaches. The heavy granite blocks which form the arches and exterior walls were procured from Ellicotts Mills, a temporary wooden framework supporting the central span held 1,500 tons of this stone during construction. A white cornerstone at one end of the bears the inscription James Lloyd of Maryland. Andrew Jackson, the first President of the United States to ride on a railroad train, the Carrollton Viaduct has provided continual service to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and its modern corporate successor, CSX Transportation. The viaduct was designated a National Historic Landmark on November 11,1971 and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places the same day. In 1982 the viaduct was designated a Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Beauty of Railroad Bridges in North America -- Then and Now. San Marino, California, Golden West Books, yearby, Jean P. Edwards, Llewellyn N. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Carrollton Viaduct. Archived from the original on 2014-05-02
8. Central of Georgia Depot and Trainshed – Central of Georgia Depot and Trainshed is a former passenger depot and trainshed constructed in 1860 by the Central of Georgia Railway before the outbreak of the American Civil War. This pair of buildings was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1976, the site complex includes several notable structures, including cotton yard, a blacksmith shop, a brick viaduct and the trainshed, as well as an office car and caboose. It is owned by the Coastal Heritage Society, an organization dedicated to preserving the cultural heritage of coastal Georgia. The Savannah History Museum is located at 303 Martin Luther King, the museum is housed inside the old passenger terminal. It contains artifacts and exhibits relating to the history of Savannah from its establishment to the current time, the shops and terminal facilities were listed separately on June 2,1978, and the Coastal Heritage Society opened the museum on the site in 1989
9. Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal – The Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal, originally Cincinnati Union Terminal, is a passenger railroad station in the Queensgate neighborhood of Cincinnati, Ohio, United States. After the decline of travel, most of the building was converted to other uses, and now houses museums, theaters. The Louisville and Nashville Railroad, which operated through sleepers with other railroads, was forced to split its operations between two stations, the seven railroads, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. The principal architects of the building were Alfred T. The Rotunda features the largest semi-dome in the hemisphere, measuring 180 feet wide and 106 feet high. Reiss spent roughly two years in the design and creation of the murals, with Terminal 1 and Terminal 2 being demolished, nine of the murals are being relocated to the Duke Energy Convention Center. Five murals remain in the terminal at the airport. All of his artwork, which was all recently restored is available for view by free tours. The Union Terminal Company was created to build the terminal, railroad lines in and out, and other related transportation improvements. Construction in 1928 with the regrading of the east flood plain of the Mill Creek to a point nearly level with the surrounding city, other improvements included the construction of grade separated viaducts over the Mill Creek and the railroad approaches to Union Terminal. Construction on the building itself began in 1931, with Cincinnati mayor Russell Wilson laying the mortar for the cornerstone. The official opening of the station was on March 31,1933, the total cost of the project was $41.5 million. During its heyday as a rail facility, Union Terminal had a capacity of 216 trains per day,108 in and 108 out. Three concentric lanes of traffic were included in the design of the building, underneath the main rotunda of the building, one for taxis, one for buses, however, the time period in which the terminal was built was one of decline for train travel. By 1939, local newspapers were already describing the station as a white elephant, while it had a brief revival in the 1940s, because of World War II, it declined in use through the 1950s and the 1960s. In 1971, after the creation of Amtrak, train service at Union Terminal was reduced to just two trains a day, the George Washington and the James Whitcomb Riley. Amtrak abandoned Union Terminal the next year, opening a smaller station elsewhere in Cincinnati on October 29,1972, the Cincinnati Science Center operated in Union Terminal from 1968 to 1970 on the south side of the main concourse. The Science Center closed after two years due to financial difficulties, after Amtrak abandoned the station, Southern Railway purchased some of the land to use for its own expanded freight operations in its Gest Street yard