Ernst Barlach was a German expressionist sculptor and writer. This created many conflicts during the rise of the Nazi Party, Barlach was born in Wedel, Holstein as the oldest of the four sons of Johanna Luise Barlach and Dr Georg Barlach. He attended primary school in Ratzeburg and it was during this period that his father died, early in 1884. He came from a Lutheran home, Barlach studied from 1888 to 1891 at the Gewerbeschule Hamburg. Due to his talent, he continued his studies at the Königliche Akademie der bildenden Künste zu Dresden as a student of Robert Diez between 1891 and 1895. He created his first major sculpture during this time, Die Krautpflückerin and he continued his studies for one more year in Paris at the Académie Julian, from 1895 to 1897 but remained critical of the German tendency to copy the style of French artists. Nevertheless, he returned to Paris again for a few months in 1897 to undertake further studies, after his studies, Barlach worked for some time as a sculptor in Hamburg and Altona, working mainly in an Art Nouveau style.
He produced illustrations for the Art Nouveau magazine Jugend 1897–1902, and made sculpture in a close to Art Nouveau. Afterwards, he worked as a teacher at a school for ceramics. His first solo exhibition took place at the Kunstsalon Richard Mutz, the lack of commercial success of his works depressed Barlach. To lighten up, he decided to travel for eight weeks together with his brother Nikolaus and this trip to Russia in 1906 was one of the greatest influences on him and his artistic style. Also during his travels in Russia his son Nikolaus was born on 20 August 1906, starting a fight with the mother, Rosa Schwab, for the custody of the child. After returning from Russia, Barlachs financial situation improved considerably, as he received a salary from the art dealer Paul Cassirer in exchange for his sculptures. He worked for the German journal Simplicissimus, and started to produce some literature and his works were shown on various exhibitions. He spent ten months in Florence, Italy in 1909 and afterwards settled in 1910 in Güstrow in Mecklenburg, in the years before World War I, Barlach was a patriotic and enthusiastic supporter of the war, awaiting a new artistic age from the war.
This support for the war can be seen in his works, as for example the statue Der Rächer and his awaited new artistic age came for him when he volunteered to join the war between 1915 and 1916 as an infantry soldier. After three months of service he was discharged due to an ailment, returning as a pacifist. The horror of the war influenced all of his subsequent works, Barlachs fame increased after the war, and he received many awards and became a member in the prestigious Preußische Akademie der Künste in 1919 and the Akademie der Bildenden Künste München in 1925
Philippina Pina Bausch was a German performer of modern dance, dance teacher and ballet director. She created the company Tanztheater Wuppertal Pina Bausch which performs internationally, Bausch was born in Solingen, the third and youngest child of August and Anita Bausch, who owned a restaurant with guest rooms. The restaurant provided Pina with a venue to start performing at a young age. She would perform for all of the guests in the hotel and it was that her parents saw her potential. At age 15, Pina was accepted into the Folkwangschule, the school was directed by Kurt Jooss, one of the pioneers of a new dance theater form called Tanztheater, that connected dance and dramatic work or theater. Bausch was soon performing with Tudor at the Metropolitan Opera Ballet Company, when in 1960 Taylor was invited to premiere a new work named Tablet in Spoleto, Italy, he took Bausch with him. In New York Bausch performed with the Paul Sanasardo and Donya Feuer Dance Company and it was in New York City that Pina stated, New York is like a jungle but at the same time it gives you a feeling of total freedom.
In these two years I have found myself In 1962, Bausch joined Jooss new Folkwang-Ballett as a soloist, in 1968, she choreographed her first piece, Fragmente, to music by Béla Bartók. In 1969, she succeeded Jooss as artistic director of the company, in 1973, Bausch started as artistic director of the Wuppertal Opera ballet, which was renamed as the Tanztheater Wuppertal Pina Bausch, run as an independent company. The company has a repertoire of original pieces, and regularly tours throughout the world from its home base of the Opernhaus Wuppertal. Her best-known dance-theatre works include the melancholic Café Müller, in which dancers stumble around the stage crashing into tables, Bausch had most of the dancers perform this piece with their eyes closed. The thrilling Frühlingsopfer required the stage to be covered with soil. She stated, It is almost unimportant whether a work finds an understanding audience, one has to do it because one believes that it is the right thing to do. We are not only here to please, we cannot help challenging the spectator, one of the themes in her work was relationships.
She had a specific process in which she went about creating emotions. Improvisation and the memory of own experiences and she asks questions-about parents, feelings in specific situations, the use of objects, injuries, aspirations. From the answers develop gestures, dialogues, little scenes, the dancer is free to choose any expressive mode, whether it is verbal or physical when answering these questions. It is with this freedom that the dancer feels secure in going deep within themselves, when talking about her process she stated, “There is no book
Johannes Brahms was a German composer and pianist of the Romantic period. Born in Hamburg into a Lutheran family, Brahms spent much of his life in Vienna. Brahms composed for orchestra, chamber ensembles, organ. A virtuoso pianist, he premiered many of his own works and he worked with some of the leading performers of his time, including the pianist Clara Schumann and the violinist Joseph Joachim. Many of his works have become staples of the concert repertoire. An uncompromising perfectionist, Brahms destroyed some of his works and left others unpublished, Brahms has been considered, by his contemporaries and by writers, as both a traditionalist and an innovator. His music is rooted in the structures and compositional techniques of the Classical masters. While many contemporaries found his music too academic, his contribution and craftsmanship have been admired by subsequent figures as diverse as Arnold Schoenberg, the diligent, highly constructed nature of Brahmss works was a starting point and an inspiration for a generation of composers.
Embedded within his meticulous structures, are deeply romantic motifs, Brahmss father, Johann Jakob Brahms, was from the town of Heide in Holstein. The family name was sometimes spelt Brahmst or Brams, and derives from Bram. Against the familys will, Johann Jakob pursued a career in music, arriving in Hamburg in 1826, where he work as a jobbing musician. In 1830, he married Johanna Henrika Christiane Nissen, a seamstress 17 years older than he was, in the same year he was appointed as a horn player in the Hamburg militia. Eventually he became a player in the Hamburg Stadttheater and the Hamburg Philharmonic Society. As Johann Jakob prospered, the family moved over the years to better accommodation in Hamburg. Johannes Brahms was born in 1833, his sister Elisabeth had been born in 1831, Fritz became a pianist, overshadowed by his brother he emigrated to Caracas in 1867, and returned to Hamburg as a teacher. Johann Jakob gave his son his first musical training, Johannes learnt to play the violin, from 1840 he studied piano with Otto Friedrich Willibald Cossel.
Cossel complained in 1842 that Brahms could be such a good player, at the age of 10, Brahms made his debut as a performer in a private concert including Beethovens quintet for piano and winds Op.16 and a piano quartet by Mozart. He played as a solo work an étude of Henri Herz, by 1845 he had written a piano sonata in G minor
Paul Bonatz was a German architect, member of the Stuttgart School and professor at the technical university in that city during part of World War II and from 1954 until his death. Bonatz was born in Solgne, Alsace-Lorraine, German Empire, in 1900, he finished his studies of architecture at the Technical University of Munich. He trained under Theodor Fischer, but unlike Fischer, did not join the Nazi party, the government tried to make good use of Bonatzs talents and name, but found him politically unreliable. He disliked Paul Troosts renovation of the Königsplatz in Munich and said so, because of his vocal opinions, Bonatz was investigated twice by the police, who accused him of aiding Jews and being openly critical of Hitler. Although he won the competition to execute the gigantic glass dome for the new station in Munich, he soon became disenchanted with Hitlers requiring the dome. This led him to leave Germany for Turkey in 1943 and he was a faculty member at the Istanbul Technical University from 1946 to 1954 and oversaw renovation of the universitys Taşkışla campus.
He was a professor at the University of Stuttgart from 1954 until his death in 1956, in 1902 he married Helene Fröhlich, their daughter Susanne, born in 1906, married the architect Kurt Dübbers. His younger brother, Karl Bonatz, was an architect and was chief planner of Berlin succeeding Hans Scharoun and he was a founder and an important exponent of the Stuttgart School, which sought modern architectural solutions based on tradition. The Stuttgart station, which was influential, has seen as a transformation of historicism, the building itself was modern. Bonatzs most famous building in Stuttgart is the Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof, built 1913–1927, on 25 November 2009 the station complex was nominated by UNESCO for possible inclusion in their World Cultural Heritage list. The brick edifice was constructed in 1924-30 and was designed by the Bulgarian architect Georgi Ovcharov. Among his technical buildings, he built bridges from the start of his career, beginning at Ulm in 1907, for the autobahns, he oversaw all bridge design and himself designed many of the innumerable small bridges required.
In the 1920s he was responsible for ten dams on the Neckar, in 1952, he was awarded the Pour le Mérite, Civil Class. In 1958/59, the city of Stuttgart instituted the Paul Bonatz Prize for architectural services in his memory, Nazi architecture Organisation Todt Stoilova, Ljubinka. Prof. Paul Bonatz at the archINFORM database, Paul Bonatz, Structurae Bonatz, Architekturdatenbank, Technical University of Dortmund
Daniel François Esprit Auber was a French composer. The son of a Paris print-seller, Auber was born in Caen in Normandy, though his father expected him to continue in the print-selling business, he allowed his son to learn how to play several musical instruments. His first teacher was the Tirolean composer, Josef Alois Ladurner, at the age of 20 Auber was sent to London for business training, but he was obliged to leave England in 1804 when the Treaty of Amiens was breached. Auber had already attempted musical composition, and at this period produced several concertos pour basse, modelled after the violoncellist Lamare, in whose name they were published. The praise given to his concerto for the violin, which was played at the Paris Conservatoire by Mazas, encouraged him to undertake a resetting of an old comic opera and he began to study with the renowned Luigi Cherubini. In 1813 the unfavourable reception of his one-act debut opera Le Séjour militaire put an end for some years to his attempts as composer, but his failure in business, and the death of his father in 1819, compelled him once more to turn to music.
He produced another opera, Le Testament et les billets-doux, which was no better received than the former, but he persevered, and the next year was rewarded by the complete success of La Bergère châtelaine, an opera in three acts. This was the first in a series of brilliant successes. In 1822 began his association with librettist Eugène Scribe. Their first opera, shows evidence of the influence of Gioachino Rossini in its musical style, Auber soon developed his own voice, light, vivacious and melodious—characteristically French. Le maçon was his first major triumph, staying in the repertory until the 20th century, an ensemble from the latter found its way into Herolds ballet La Somnambule as an air parlante. Auber achieved another triumph in La muette de Portici, known as Masaniello after its hero. Produced in Paris in 1828, it became a European favourite, and the foundation work of a new genre, grand opera. La Muette broke ground in its use of a ballerina in a leading role and other dignities testified to the public appreciation of Aubers works.
In 1829 he was elected a member of the Institut de France, Fra Diavolo, which premiered on 28 January 1830, was his most successful opera. That same year,1830, he was named director of the court concerts, next year, on 20 June 1831, he had another big success, with Le Philtre, starring Adolphe Nourrit. The libretto was translated into Italian and set by Donizetti as Lelisir damore, two years later, on 27 February 1833, Gustave III, his second grand opera and stayed in the repertory for years. The libretto was to be used more, first by Saverio Mercadante for Il reggente, with the action transferred to Scotland
Jean-Baptiste Biot was a French physicist and mathematician who established the reality of meteorites, made an early balloon flight, and studied the polarization of light. The mineral biotite was named in his honor, Jean-Baptiste Biot was born in Paris on 21 April 1774 the son of Joseph Biot, a treasury official. He was educated at Lyceum Louis-le-Grand and École Polytechnique in 1794, Biot served in the artillery before he was appointed professor of mathematics at Beauvais in 1797. He went on to become a professor of physics at the Collège de France around 1800, in 1804 Biot was on board for the first scientific hot-air balloon ride with Gay-Lussac. They reached a height of 7016 metres, quite dangerous without supplementary oxygen, Biot was a member of the Legion of Honor, he was elected chevalier in 1814 and commander in 1849. In addition, Biot received the Rumford Medal in 1840, awarded by the Royal Society in the field of thermal or optical properties of matter. In 1850 Jean-Baptiste Biot published in the Journal des savants a 7-page memoir from his recollections of the period of the late 1790s, Jean-Baptiste Biot had a single son, Édouard Constant Biot, an engineer and Sinologist, born in 1803.
Edouard died in 1850 and it was thanks to the extraordinary efforts of his father that the second half of Edouards last book. It had been left in manuscript, unfinished, to this day, Biots translation remains the only translation into a Western language of this book. He died in Paris on 3 February 1862, Jean-Baptiste Biot made many contributions to the scientific community in his lifetime – most notably in optics and astronomy. The Biot–Savart law in magnetism is named after Biot and his colleague Félix Savart for their work in 1820, in 1803 Biot was sent by the Académie française to report back on 3000 meteorites that fell on L’aigle, France. He found that the meteorites, called stones at the time, were from outer space, with his report, Biot helped support Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladnis argument that meteorites were debris from space, which he had published in 1794. Prior to Biots thorough investigation of the meteorites that fell near lAigle, France in 1803, there were anecdotal tales of unusual rocks found on the ground after fireballs had been seen in the sky, but such stories were often dismissed as fantasy.
Serious debate concerning the unusual rocks began in 1794 when German physicist Chladni published a book claiming that rocks had an extraterrestrial origin. Only after Biot was able to analyze the rocks at lAigle was it accepted that the fireballs seen in the sky were meteors falling through the atmosphere. Since Biots time, analysis of meteorites has resulted in measurements of the chemical composition of the solar system. The composition and position of meteors in the system have given astronomers clues as to how the solar system formed. In 1812, Biot turned his attention to the study of optics, prior to the 19th century, light was believed to consist of discrete packets called corpuscles
For most of his career, Bethe was a professor at Cornell University. During World War II, he was head of the Theoretical Division at the secret Los Alamos laboratory which developed the first atomic bombs. After the war, Bethe played an important role in the development of the hydrogen bomb, Bethe campaigned with Albert Einstein and the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists against nuclear testing and the nuclear arms race. He helped persuade the Kennedy and Nixon administrations to sign, freeman Dyson, once one of his students, called him the supreme problem-solver of the 20th century. Bethe was born in Strasbourg, which was part of Germany, on July 2,1906, the only child of Anna and Albrecht Bethe. Although his mother, the daughter of a professor at the University of Strasbourg, was Jewish, despite having a religious background, he was not religious in life, and described himself as an atheist. His father accepted a position as professor and director of the Institute of Physiology at the University of Kiel in 1912, and he was initially schooled privately by a professional teacher as part of a group of eight girls and boys.
The family moved again in 1915 when his father became the head of the new Institute of Physiology at the University of Frankfurt am Main, Bethe attended the Goethe-Gymnasium in Frankfurt, Germany. His education was interrupted in 1916, when he contracted tuberculosis, by 1917, he had recovered sufficiently to attend the local realschule, and the following year he was sent to the Odenwaldschule, a private, coeducational boarding school. He attended the Goethe-Gymnasium again for his three years of secondary schooling, from 1922 to 1924. Having passed his abitur, Bethe entered the University of Frankfurt in 1924 and he decided to major in chemistry. Bethe entered the University of Munich in April 1926, where Sommerfeld took him on as a student on Meissners recommendation, Sommerfeld taught an advanced course on differential equations in physics, which Bethe enjoyed. Because he was such a renowned scholar, Sommerfeld frequently received advance copies of scientific papers, when Bethe arrived, Sommerfeld had just received Erwin Schrödingers papers on wave mechanics.
For his PhD thesis, Sommerfeld suggested that Bethe examine electron diffraction in crystals, as a starting point, Sommerfeld suggested Paul Ewalds 1914 paper on X-ray diffraction in crystals. Bethe recalled that he became too ambitious, and, in pursuit of greater accuracy, when he met Wolfgang Pauli for the first time, Pauli told him, After Sommerfelds tales about you, I had expected much better from you than your thesis. I guess from Pauli, Bethe recalled, that was a compliment, after Bethe received his doctorate, Erwin Madelung offered him an assistantship in Frankfurt, and in September 1928 Bethe moved in with his father, who had recently divorced his mother. His father met Vera Congehl earlier that year, and married her in 1929 and they had two children, born in 1933, and Klaus, born in 1934. Bethe did not find the work in Frankfurt very stimulating, while there, he wrote what he considered to be his greatest paper, Zur Theorie des Durchgangs schneller Korpuskularstrahlen durch Materie
Adolf von Baeyer
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer was a German chemist who synthesised indigo, developed a nomenclature for cyclic compounds and was the 1905 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Baeyer was born in Berlin as the son of Johann Jacob Baeyer, a Prussian officer who reached the rank of lieutenant general and a well-known geodesist, and his wife Eugenie Hitzig. His mother was daughter of Julius Eduard Hitzig, member of the Jewish Itzig family, Baeyer had four sisters, Clara Emma, Johanna and two brothers, Edward. Baeyer lost his mother at young age while she was giving birth to his sister Adelaide, although his birth name was Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf Baeyer, he was known simply as Adolf Baeyer, throughout most of his life. The poet Adelbert von Chamisso and the astronomer Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel were his godparents, on his 50th birthday he was raised to the hereditary nobility by King Ludwig II of Bavaria, conferring on him the “von” distinction. Three years later, he synthesized a previously unknown chemical compound -double carbonate of copper, on his 13th birthday, he initiated his lifework, buying a chunk of indigo worth two talers for his first dye experiments.
When still a schoolboy, his teacher at the Friedrich Wilhelm Gymnasium appointed him as his assistant. After graduating from school in 1853, he entered the Berlin University to study physics and mathematics. A stint in the Prussian army interrupted his study until 1856, after an argument with the renowned chemist, however, he changed his mentor to August Kekulé. He continued to collaborate with Kekule even after he returned to Berlin in 1858 for the completion of his doctorate on arsenic methyl chloride, after completed his doctorate, he followed Kekulé to the University of Ghent, when Kekulé became professor there. He became a lecturer at the Royal Trade Academy in 1860, in 1875 he succeeded Justus von Liebig as Chemistry Professor at the University of Munich. He was the first to propose the correct formula for indole in 1869 and his contributions to theoretical chemistry include the strain theory of triple bonds and strain theory in small carbon rings. In 1871 he discovered the synthesis of phenolphthalein by condensation of phthalic anhydride with two equivalents of phenol under acidic conditions and that same year he was the first to obtain synthetic fluorescein, a fluorophore pigment which is similar to naturally occurring pyoverdin that is synthesised by microorganisms.
Baeyer named his finding resorcinphthalein as he had synthesised it from phthalic anhydride, the term fluorescein would not start to be used until 1878. In 1872 he experimented with phenol and formaldehyde, the product was a precursor for Leo Baekelands commercialization of Bakelite. In 1881 the Royal Society of London awarded Baeyer the Davy Medal for his work with indigo and he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1884. 1881, Davy Medal of the Royal Society in London 1884, American Academy of Arts and his name is reflected in various name reactions as the Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation and Baeyers reagent. There is the Von Baeyer nomenclature in chemistry and Baeyer strain theory of alicyclic compounds
Count Francesco Algarotti was an Venetian polymath, poet, anglophile, art critic and art collector. His father and uncle were art collectors, unlike his older brother Bonomo he did not step into the company, but decided to become an author. Francesco studied natural sciences and mathematics in Bologna under Francesco Maria Zanotti, first he travelled in the North of Italy, but moved to Florence, and Rome. At the age of twenty, he went to Cirey and Paris, two years he was in London, where he was made a fellow of the Royal Society. He became embroiled in a lively bisexual love-triangle with the politician John Hervey, Algarotti left for Italy and finished his Neutonianismo per le dame, a work on optics, dedicated to Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle. In the meantime Algarotti had made acquaintance with Antiochus Kantemir, a Moldavian diplomat, poet and he was invited to visit Russia for the wedding of Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick. In 1739 he left with Lord Baltimore from Sheerness to Newcastle upon Tyne, because of a heavy storm the ship sheltered in Harlingen.
Algarotti was discovering this new city, returning from Saint Petersburg, they visited Frederick the Great in Rheinsberg. Algarotti had obligations in England and came back the year after, Algarotti went together with Frederick to Königsberg where he was crowned. Frederick, who was impressed with this walking encyclopedia, made him, Algarotti accompanied Frederick to Bayreuth, Kehl and Moyland Castle where they met with Voltaire, who was taking baths in Kleve for his health. In 1741 Algarotti went to Turin as his diplomat, Frederick had offered him a salary, but Algarotti refused. First he went to Dresden and Venice, where he bought 21 paintings, Algarotti did not succeed to have the Kingdom of Sardinia attack Austria in the back. He wantedsuggetti graziosi e leggeri from Balestra and Donato Creti, other artist he protected were Giuseppe Nogari, Bernardo Bellotto, and Francesco Pavona. In 1747 Algarotti went back to Potsdam and became court chamberlain, in 1749 he moved to Berlin. Algarotti was involved in finishing the architectural designs of Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff who had fallen ill, in February 1753, after several years residing in Prussia he returned to Italy, living most of the time in Bologna.
In 1759 Algarotti was involved in a new opera-style in the city of Parma and he influencing Guillaume du Tillot and the Duke of Parma. Algarottis Essay on the Opera was an influence on the librettist Carlo Innocenzo Frugoni and the composer Tommaso Traetta. Algarotti proposed a simplified model of opera seria, with the drama pre-eminent, instead of the music
Otto von Bismarck
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890. In the 1860s, he engineered a series of wars that unified the German states and deliberately excluding Austria, into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. With that accomplished by 1871, he skillfully used balance of power diplomacy to maintain Germanys position in a Europe which, despite many disputes and war scares, in 1862, King Wilhelm I appointed Bismarck as Minister President of Prussia, a position he would hold until 1890. He provoked three short, decisive wars against Denmark and France, aligning the smaller German states behind Prussia in its defeat of France, in 1871, he formed the German Empire with himself as Chancellor, while retaining control of Prussia. His diplomacy of realpolitik and powerful rule at home gained him the nickname the Iron Chancellor, German unification and its rapid economic growth was the foundation to his foreign policy.
He disliked colonialism but reluctantly built an empire when it was demanded by both elite and mass opinion. A master of politics at home, Bismarck created the first welfare state in the modern world. In the 1870s, he allied himself with the Liberals and fought the Catholic Church in what was called the Kulturkampf and he lost that battle as the Catholics responded by forming a powerful Centre party and using universal male suffrage to gain a bloc of seats. Bismarck reversed himself, ended the Kulturkampf, broke with the Liberals, imposed protective tariffs, a devout Lutheran, he was loyal to his king, who argued with Bismarck but in the end supported him against the advice of his wife and his heir. Under Wilhelm I, Bismarck largely controlled domestic and foreign affairs, until he was removed by the young Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1890, bismarck—a Junker himself—was strong-willed and sometimes judged overbearing, but he could be polite and witty. Occasionally he displayed a violent temper, and he kept his power by threatening resignation time and again.
He possessed not only a national and international vision but the short-term ability to juggle complex developments. As the leader of what historians call revolutionary conservatism, Bismarck became a hero to German nationalists, many historians praise him as a visionary who was instrumental in uniting Germany and, once that had been accomplished, kept the peace in Europe through adroit diplomacy. Bismarck was born in Schönhausen, a family estate situated west of Berlin in the Prussian province of Saxony. He had two siblings and Malwine, the world saw Bismarck as a typical Prussian Junker, an image that he encouraged by wearing military uniforms. Bismarck was well educated and cosmopolitan with a gift for conversation, in addition to his native German, he was fluent in English, Italian and Russian. Bismarck was educated at Johann Ernst Plamanns elementary school, and the Friedrich-Wilhelm, from 1832 to 1833, he studied law at the University of Göttingen, where he was a member of the Corps Hannovera, and enrolled at the University of Berlin.
In 1838, while stationed as an army reservist in Greifswald, at Göttingen, Bismarck befriended the American student John Lothrop Motley
John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury
John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury PC FRS, known as Sir John Lubbock, 4th Baronet from 1865 until 1900, was a banker, Liberal politician, philanthropist and polymath. He was a banker and worked with his family’s company, but significant contributions in archaeology, ethnography. He helped establish archaeology as a discipline, and was influential in nineteenth-century debates concerning evolutionary theory. He introduced the first law on the protection of the UKs archaeological and architectural heritage. John Lubbock was born in 1834, the son of Sir John Lubbock, 3rd Baronet, a London banker, the youth was soon a frequent visitor to Down House, and became the closest of Darwin’s younger friends. Their relationship stimulated young Lubbock’s passion for science and evolutionary theory, in 1845, Lubbock began studies at Eton College, and after graduation was employed by his fathers bank, of which he became a partner at the age of twenty-two. In 1865 he succeeded to the baronetcy, in the early 1870s Lubbock became increasingly interested in politics.
In 1870, and again in 1874, he was elected as a Liberal Party Member of Parliament for Maidstone and he lost the seat at the election of 1880, but was at once elected member for London University, of which he had been vice-chancellor since 1872. He was successful with numerous enactments in parliament, including the Bank Holidays Act of 1871, when the Liberals split in 1886 on the issue of Irish Home Rule, Lubbock joined the breakaway Liberal Unionist Party in opposition to Irish home rule. A prominent supporter of the Statistical Society, he took a part in criticizing the encroachment of municipal trading. In 1879 Lubbock was elected the first president of the Institute of Bankers, in 1881 he was president of the British Association, and from 1881 to 1886 president of the Linnean Society of London. In March 1883 he founded the Bank Clerks Orphanage, which in 1986 became the Bankers’ Benevolent Fund – a charity for bank employees and present, in January 1884 he founded the Proportional Representation Society, to become the Electoral Reform Society.
From 1888 to 1892 he was president of the London Chamber of Commerce, from 1889 to 1890 vice-chairman, in February 1890 he was appointed a privy councillor, and was chairman of the committee of design for the new coinage in 1891. He was President of the Royal Statistical Society from 1900 to 1902, the quotation, We may sit in our library and yet be in all quarters of the earth, is widely attributed to Lubbock. This variation appears in his book The Pleasures of Life, in addition to his work at his father’s bank, Lubbock took a keen interest in archaeology and evolutionary theory. A collection of Iron Age antiquities Lubbock and Sir John Evans excavated at the site of Hallstatt in Austria is now in the British Museums collection and he spoke in support of the evolutionist Thomas Henry Huxley at the famous 1860 Oxford evolution debate. During the 1860s, he published articles in which he used archaeological evidence to support Darwin’s theory. In 1864, he one of the founding members of the elite X Club