Berthold von Deimling
Berthold Karl Adolf von Deimling was a general officer of the German Army during World War I. Deimling entered the army in 1871, following the Franco-Prussian War, on the outbreak of the First World War, Deimling was in command of the XV Corps near the Swiss border and commanded them during the Battle of Mulhouse. He would command forces in the First Battle of Ypres, the Battle of Verdun and he was awarded the Pour le Mérite on 28 August 1916. After the war Deimling became a committed pacifist and a member of the board of directors of the German Peace Society and he was a member of the German Democratic Party
Hauptmann Oskar Gustav Rudolf Berthold, commonly known as Rudolf Berthold, was a German flying ace of World War I. Between 1916 and 1918, he shot down 44 enemy planes—16 of them while flying one-handed, Berthold had a reputation as a ruthless, fearless and—above all—very patriotic fighter. His perseverance and willingness to return to combat while still wounded made him one of the most famous German pilots of World War I, Berthold joined the German Imperial Army in 1909, and paid for his own piloting lessons, qualifying in September 1913. He was one of the aviators of World War I. During 1915, he one of the first aerial warriors. Decamping from hospital, he returned to duty while still unwell to successively command two of Germanys original fighter squadrons, by 24 April 1917, when he was wounded again, he had brought his tally to 12 and won Germanys greatest honor, the Pour le Merite. On 18 August, he once again bolted from medical care to return to battle, over the next few weeks, he would score 16 more victories before being crippled by a British bullet on 10 October 1917.
With an arm at hazard of amputation, Berthold was rescued by his sister Franziska, Berthold was bedridden until February 1918, only to return to duty to command one of the worlds first fighter wings. On 28 May, he once again to fly combat, though flying one-handed and under the influence of narcotics. On 10 August, he shot down his two victims on his final flight before being downed. After two days in the hospital, he would once flee treatment and return to combat, only a direct order from Kaiser Wilhelm II returned him to medical care for the rest of the war. In Postwar Germany, Rudolf Berthold organized a Freikorps and fought the Bolsheviks in Latvia and he was killed in political street fighting in Hamburg on 15 March 1920. Oskar Gustav Rudolf Berthold entered the world at about 18,00 hours on 24 March 1891 and he was born in Ditterswind, Kingdom of Bavaria in the German Empire, the sixth child of Oberförster Oskar Berthold. The young child, who became known as simply Rudolf, was the first born to Helene Stief Berthold.
Oskars first wife, Ida Anne Hoffmann Berthold, died in childbirth, leaving as survivors a daughter, Rudolf was followed by three younger brothers, two of whom survived to adulthood. Rudolfs father was employed by a nobleman, Oskar Freiherr von Deuster. Early in September 1897, Rudolf enrolled in the elementary school. Upon his completion of studies there at age ten, he enrolled in the Humanistische Neue Gymnasium in nearby Bamberg
Hans-Joachim Buddecke was a German flying ace in World War I, credited with thirteen victories. He was the ace, after Max Immelmann and Oswald Boelcke. He saw combat in three theaters during the First World War, Bulgaria and the Western Front, Buddecke was born in Berlin and followed his fathers footsteps into the Army. In 1904, he started as a Cadet, in 1910 and he left the army in 1913 due to his little time for a social life and his new enthusiasm for flying. In the same year, he moved to the USA to start a new life, there, he worked as a mechanic at a car factory in Indianapolis. By saving his earnings, he soon was able to buy his own aircraft, on the day Buddecke started his own aircraft production company, war was declared and he abandoned his business plans and returned to Germany. Travelling under a name, Buddecke crossed the Atlantic in the Greek ship Athene to Palermo. After he arrived in Europe, he made his way home to join the German Flying Service. Buddecke was sent to the Western Front in September 1914, initially he flew as an observer but soon he would become a single-seater fighter pilot with FFA23.
Because of his previous experience on monoplanes, Buddeckes good friend, Rudolph Berthold and Berthold, flying the Eindecker and an AEG G. II, formed a small Kampfstaffel within the unit, intercepting British reconnaissance aircraft. Buddecke scored his first three victories during this assignment, Buddecke scored his and the new units first victory on 19 September 1915, a B. E. 2c of No 8 Squadron RFC, crewed by pilot Lt WH Nixon and observer Capt JNS Stott. Opening fire from 200 meters he disabled the observers machine gun and it was shot out of his hands at a range of ten meters and Nixon was hit. Buddeckes gun jammed when its cartridge belt tore in the slipstream, as Buddecke struggled with the jammed gun, Stott clambered atop the shoulders of his dying pilot, set his heels on the pilots knees to operate the rudder and bent forward to grab the controls. Buddecke cleared his gun and aimed at the British observers yellow leather coat, the BE. 2c crash landed near Saint Quentin. Buddecke drove to the wreck after landing, where the uninjured captive Stott showed him the bullet holes in his coat, Buddecke followed this up with confirmed claims on 23 October and 11 November and an unconfirmed victory on 6 December 1915.
He was sent to Gallipoli to fly the Halberstadt D. II, the Turkish campaign was successful, with four confirmed victories and seven unconfirmed, and Buddecke was personally awarded he Gold Liakat Medal by Enver Pasha. He was recalled to the Western Front in late August 1916 as leader of the newly formed Royal Prussian Jagdstaffel 4, after three kills during September, he again left for Turkey to fly with Ottoman FA5. By early 1918 he was back in France with Royal Prussian Jasta 30, within a few days Buddecke was killed during an aerial combat above Lens, France on 10 March 1918, victim to Sopwith Camels of 3 Naval Squadron RNAS
Wilhelm Sebastian von Belling
Wilhelm Sebastian von Belling was a Prussian Hussar general under Frederick the Great. Belling was born in Paulsdorf, East Prussia to Lieutenant Colonel Johann Abraham von Belling and he was the grandson of general Johann Georg von Belling. Belling was educated as a cadet and joined the Prussian Army in 1737, because of his small body size he was deployed at Kolberg for garrison service only. In 1739 he joined the Prussian Hussars and was removed to the Zieten Hussars in 1741, throughout the War of the Austrian Succession he fought at the battles of Mollwitz, Hohenfriedberg and Kesselsdorf. Belling was awarded the Pour le Mérite in 1757 for his actions in the Seven Years War, in 1758 he became commander of a newly founded regiment of hussars under Prince Henry of Prussia, the Belling-Hussars. In the Pomeranian War, on 29 August 1760, the Belling-Hussars captured Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher and Belling, distantly related to Blücher, managed to persuade him to join the Prussian Hussars. In 1776 he was promoted to Lieutenant General and was awarded the Order of the Black Eagle for his role in the War of the Bavarian Succession in 1778, Belling died in service at his regiments garrison in Stolp.
Belling was married to Katharine Elisabeth von Grabow, they had one daughter and he is described as a religious and devout Christian, whose evening prayers in times of peace ended, Thou seest, dear Heavenly Father, the sad plight of thy servant Belling. Grant him soon a little war that he may better his condition
Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal
Von Blumenthal was born in Schwedt, Brandenburg on 30 July 1810, the son of Captain Ludwig von Blumenthal, who was killed in 1813 at the Battle of Dennewitz. He entered the Guards as 2nd lieutenant in 1827 and he studied at the Berlin General War School. After serving in the Rhine Province, he joined the division of the general staff in 1846. As lieutenant of the 31st foot, he took part in 1848 in the suppression of the Berlin riots, in 1850, von Blumenthal was general staff officer of the mobile division under Tietzen in Hesse-Kassel. He was sent on a mission to England in that year, having attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel, he was appointed personal adjutant to Prince Frederick Charles in 1859. In 1860 he became colonel of the 31st, and of the 71st and he was chief of the staff of the III. In the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, von Blumenthal was chief of the staff to the crown prince of Prussia. It was upon this army that the brunt of the fighting fell, von Blumenthals own part in these battles and in the campaign generally was most conspicuous.
At Königgrätz the crown prince said to him, I know to whom I owe the conduct of my army, and von Blumenthal soon received promotion to lieutenant-general and he was made a knight of the Hohenzollern Order. From 1866 to 1870, he commanded the 14th division at Düsseldorf, in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, von Blumenthal was chief of staff of the 3rd army under the crown prince. Eighteen other members of his family fought in this war. Bismarck said, So far as one can see, the papers make no mention of him, although he is chief of the staff to the Crown Prince and, next after Moltke, deserves most credit for the conduct of the war. He won the battles of Wörth and Wissembourg, and after that of Sedan and he directed the Siege of Paris and resisted calls to bombard it. He directed the operations conducted by General von der Tann around Orleans, in 1871, Blumenthal represented Germany at the British manoeuvres at Chobham, and was given the command of the IV. army corps at Magdeburg. In 1873, he became a general of infantry, and ten years he was made a count, in 1888 he was made a general field marshal, after which he was in command of the 4th and 3rd army inspections.
He retired in 1896, and died at Quellendorf near Köthen on 21 December 1900 and he was noted for his kindliness and sense of humour. His least appreciated but arguably most important work was the development of the doctrine of Fire and Infiltration, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Blumenthal, Leonhard. Journals of Field Marshal Count von Blumenthal for 1866 and 1870-71, edited by his son, Count Albrecht von Blumenthal, translated by Major Gillespie-Addison, published by Edward Arnold,1903
Fritz von Below
Fritz Theodor Carl von Below was a Prussian general in the German Army during the First World War. He commanded troops during the Battle of the Somme, the Second Battle of the Aisne, born in Danzig, in 1912 Below was appointed to the command of XXI Corps. In this capacity, he fought along with the 6th Army on the Western Front at the beginning of World War I and his corps was transferred in 1915 to the Eastern Front where it participated in the Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes. Below was awarded the Pour le Mérite on 16 February 1915 for successful campaigns on the Western Front and he was elevated to command of the 2nd Army at the beginning of the Somme offensive in 1916. 2nd Army bore the brunt of the Allied attack in the Battle of the Somme and it had grown to such an extent that a decision was made to split it into two still-powerful armies. Therefore, 1st Army was reformed on 19 July 1916 from the wing of the 2nd Army. Below took command of 1st Army and 2nd Army got a new commander General der Artillerie Max von Gallwitz, Gallwitz was installed as commander of Heeresgruppe Gallwitz-Somme to co-ordinate the actions of both armies on the Somme.
Below was awarded the Oakleaves to the Pour le Mérite on 11 August 1916 for his success in operations during the Battle of the Somme, finally, he was appointed to command the 9th Army in June 1918, still on the Western Front. However, Below had contracted pneumonia so its former commander, General der Infanterie Johannes von Eben, below died in Weimar on 23 November 1918, shortly after Germany had signed the armistice. He is buried in the Invalidenfriedhof Cemetery in Berlin, below was the cousin of Otto von Below, another German commander during the war. The two generals are often confused, armee-Abteilung or Army Detachment in the sense of something detached from an Army. It is not under the command of an Army so is in itself a small Army, armee-Gruppe or Army Group in the sense of a group within an Army and under its command, generally formed as a temporary measure for a specific task. Heeresgruppe or Army Group in the sense of a number of armies under a single commander, list of people from Danzig Cron, Hermann.
Imperial German Army 1914–18, Structure, Orders-of-Battle
Otto von Below
Otto Ernst Vincent Leo von Below was a Prussian general officer in the Imperial German Army during the First World War. He was most notable for his command, along with the Austro-Hungarian commander Svetozar Boroević, before the War broke out, Otto von Below was promoted Generalmajor in 1909 and Generalleutnant in 1912. He was commanding 2nd Infantry Division immediately prior to the outbreak of war, on 1 August 1914, at the outbreak of the First World War, Below was given command of I Reserve Corps as part of 8th Army on the Eastern Front. He led his Corps in the Battles of Gumbinnen, Tannenberg, as a result of his successes, he was promoted to General der Infanterie at the end of August 1914 and to command of 8th Army at the beginning of November. Below commanded the 8th Army in the Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes and his forces advanced into Courland and Lithuania as far as the southern reaches of the Western Dvina River. In October 1916, Below was appointed to the command of Heeresgruppe Below on the Macedonian Front, consisting of the German 11th Army, in April 1917, he was briefly sent to the Western Front to command 6th Army around Lille.
Below next served on the Italian Front from September 1917, commanding the Austro-German 14th Army in the Battle of Caporetto, his units were able to break into the Italian front line and rout the Italian army, which had practically no mobile reserves. The battle was a demonstration of the effectiveness of the use of stormtroopers, the use of poison gas by the Germans played a key role in the collapse of the Italian Second Army. A breakdown in German logistics brought the battle to a close on the line of the Piave River, if February 1918, Below was brought back to the Western Front to command the newly formed 17th Army for the Kaiserschlacht Offensive. Below was expected to overrun Arras during March 1918 in a repeat of Caporetto, attacking the stronger, better prepared British 3rd Army, he had less success than forces further south facing the British 5th Army. Below briefly commanded the 1st Army, shortly before the wars end, Below was involved in preparations for a possible final battle on German territory.
Below was awarded the Pour le Mérite on 16 February 1915 for outstanding leadership and distinguished military planning and successful operations, and the Oakleaves on 27 April 1917. In addition to the Pour le Mérite, Below was awarded the Order of the Black Eagle on 1 November 1917, a post-war attempt by the Allies to try him as war criminal failed. Otto von Below died on 9 March 1944 in Friedland, Lower Saxony, below was the cousin of Fritz von Below, another German commander during the war. The two Generals are often confused, Imperial German Army 1914-18, Structure, Orders-of-Battle