Category:Record labels disestablished in 1929
Record labels disestablished in the year 1929.
See also: Record labels established in 1929.
This category has only the following subcategory.
- ► Victor Records (2 C, 2 P)
Record labels disestablished in the year 1929.
See also: Record labels established in 1929.
This category has only the following subcategory.
1. 1929 – This year marked the end of a period known in American history as the Roaring Twenties after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 ushered in a worldwide Great Depression. In the Americas, an agreement was brokered to end the Cristero War a Catholic counter-revolution in Mexico, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, a British high court, ruled that Canadian women are persons in the Edwards v. Canada case. The 1st Academy Awards for film were held in Los Angeles, the Peruvian Air Force was created. In the Soviet Union, General Secretary Joseph Stalin expelled Leon Trotsky, the Grand Trunk Express began service in India. Rioting between Muslims and Jews in Jerusalem over access to the Western Wall took place in the Middle East, the centenary of Western Australia was celebrated. The Kellogg–Briand Pact, a treaty renouncing war as an instrument of national policy, in Europe, the Holy See and the Kingdom of Italy signed the Lateran Treaty. The Idionymon law was passed in Greece to outlaw political dissent, Spain hosted the Ibero-American Exposition which featured pavilions from Latin American countries. The German airship LZ127 Graf Zeppelin flew around the world in 21 days, on August 1 of this year the 1929 Palestine riots broke out between Palestinians and Jews over control of the Western Wall. The rioting, initiated in part when British police tore down a screen the Jews had constructed in front of the Wall, in total,133 Jews and 116 Palestinians were killed. The Palestinians had been told that Jews were killing Palestinians, Jews would not return to Hebron until after the Six-Day War in 1967. The other major clash was the 1929 Safed massacre, in which 18–20 Jews were killed by Palestinians in Safed in similar fashion, elsewhere in the Middle East, Iraq took a big step toward gaining independence from the British. The Iraqi government had, since the end of World War I, in September, Great Britain announced it would support Iraqs inclusion in the League of Nations, signaling the beginning of the end of their direct control of the region. Early in 1929 the Afghan leader King Amanullah lost power through revolution, habibullāhs rule, however, only lasted nine months. Nadir Shah replaced him in October, starting a line of monarchs which would last 40 years, in India, a general strike in Bombay continued throughout the year despite efforts by the British. On December 29, the All India Congress in Lahore declared Indian independence from Britain, China and Russia engaged in a minor conflict after China seized full control of the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway. Russia counterattacked and took the cities of Hailar and Manchouli after issuing an ultimatum demanding joint control of the railway to be reinstated, the Chinese agreed to the terms on November 26. The Japanese would later see this defeat as a sign of Chinese weakness, the Far East began to experience economic problems late in the year as the effects of the Great Depression began to spread. Southeast Asia was especially hard hit as its exports were more sensitive to economic problems, in the Pacific, on December 28 – Black Saturday in Samoa – New Zealand colonial police killed 11 unarmed demonstrators, an event which led the Mau movement to demand independence for Samoa
2. Blue Amberol Records – Blue Amberol Records was the trademark name for cylinder records manufactured by Thomas A. Edison, Inc. in the US from 1912 to 1929. They replaced the 4-minute black wax Amberol cylinders introduced in 1908, Blue Amberols can play for as long as 4 minutes and 45 seconds and have a surface layer of the indestructible plastic celluloid, which Edison tinted a trademark blue color. Edison brand phonographs designed to play Amberol cylinders were named Amberolas, the four-minute Amberol cylinder made its début in 1908. Amberols were made of a brittle, black wax-like compound which was harder than the original 1902 black wax and this Amberol wax was also used for 2-minute Standard records from 1908 until the Blue Amberol appeared in 1912. The introduction of the Amberol started a resurgence of interest in cylinder records, Amberols crack rather easily and could break during playback. Amberols often shattered when they broke, unlike some kinds of 2-minute wax cylinders that would simply crack into a few pieces, another problem was that wax Amberols wore out too quickly. Some Amberols mistracked or played with a wavering pitch due to shrinkage during the manufacturing process. By 1912, the shortcomings of the wax Amberol were obvious, Edison, who did not want to pay royalties to Thomas B. Lambert for his celluloid cylinder patent, eventually bought it and changed production over to a thin, the introduction of these Blue Amberols helped to bring cylinder sales up. The dubbing technique used was non-electronic until December 1927, when electronic dubbing was introduced and this resulted in a somewhat hollow dead sound on the cylinders compared to the original discs. On many dubbed cylinders, when the cylinders own 160 rpm surface noise is low enough,80 rpm disc surface noise can be heard starting up shortly before the music begins, Edison Blue Amberols are made of celluloid on a molded plaster core. The celluloid surface is able to withstand hundreds of playings with only an increase in surface noise if played on a well-maintained machine with a stylus in good condition. Blue Amberols have a playing time of about 4 minutes and 45 seconds. Like the preceding black wax Amberols, they provide twice the time of 2-minute cylinders by using a finer groove with a pitch of 200 lines per inch instead of 100. Thomas A. Edison, Inc. sold kits with gear assemblies, the Edison company also marketed new models capable of playing both. Internal horn Edison phonographs designed to play 4-minute cylinders were called Amberolas, there is at least one known example of an early Model M reproducer also fitted with a flattened fishtail weight. Upon the introduction of Blue Amberols in 1912, the M reproducer was supplanted by the Diamond A reproducer and its small-tipped conical diamond stylus and increased stylus pressure would seriously damage wax cylinders. External horn Edison phonographs were available with the Diamond B reproducer, several other Amberola models less expensive than the IA were available, such as the V, VI, and X
3. Challenge Records (1920s) – Challenge Records was a record label sold by the Sears-Roebuck Company. Releases were drawn from other recordings on labels in the late 1920s, such as Banner, Gennett, Paramount Records. Sears also had the Silvertone label and the recording of Black Bottom by Joe Candullo & his Everglades Orchestra was released on both labels. Around 1929 Sears did away with Challenge and Silvertone, replacing them with Conqueror Records, Challenge discs generally sold for less than Silvertone ones because they seldom used songs requiring royalty payments and the label generally assigned pseudonyms to the artists. Introduced in the Spring 1927 catalog for just 24¢ per disc, Challenge bore the frank disclaimer, If you want the best, the last issues appeared in Sears’ Spring 1931 catalog. Challenge Records List of record labels Encyclopedia of recorded sound, Volume 1 American record labels and companies, an encyclopedia
4. Edison Records – Edison Records was one of the earliest record labels which pioneered sound recording and reproduction and was an important player in the early recording industry. The first phonograph cylinders were manufactured in 1888, followed by Edisons foundation of the Edison Phonograph Company in the same year, until 1910 the recordings did not carry the names of the artists. The company began to lag behind its rivals in the 1920s, Edison invented the phonograph, the first device for recording and playing back sound, in 1877. The earliest phonograph was something of a curiosity, although it was one that fascinated much of the public. Early machines were sold to entrepreneurs who made an out of traveling around the country giving phonograph concerts. Talking dolls and Talking clocks were manufactured as expensive novelties using the early phonograph, in 1887, Edison turned his attention back to improving the phonograph and the phonograph cylinder. The following year, the Edison company debuted the Perfected Phonograph, Edison introduced wax cylinders approximately 4 1⁄4 inches long and 2 1⁄4 inches in external diameter, which became the industry standard. Several experimental wax cylinder recordings of music and speech made in 1888 still exist, the wax entertainment cylinder made its commercial debut in 1889. At first, the customers were entrepreneurs who installed nickel-in-the-slot phonographs in amusement arcades, saloons. At that time, a phonograph cost the equivalent of several months wages for the worker and was driven by an electric motor powered by hazardous. When relatively affordable spring-motor-driven phonographs designed for home use appeared in the mid-1890s, blank records were an important part of the business early on. Most phonographs had or could be fitted with attachments for the users to make their own recordings, one important early use, in line with the original term for a phonograph as a talking machine, was in business for recording dictation. Attachments were added to facilitate starting, stopping, and skipping back the recording for dictation, the business phonograph eventually evolved into a separate device from the home entertainment phonograph. Edison Records brand of business phonograph was called The Ediphone, see Phonograph cylinder, Edison also holds the achievement of being one of the first companies to record the first African-American quartet to record, the Unique Quartet. A notable technological triumph of the Edison Laboratories was devising a method to mass-produce pre-recorded phonograph cylinders in molds and this was done by using very slightly tapered cylinders and molding in a material that contracted as it set. To Edisons disappointment the commercial potential of this process was not realized for some years, most of the regional Edison distributors were able to fill the small early market for recordings by mechanical duplication of a few dozen cylinders at a time. Molded cylinders did not become a significant force in the marketplace until the end of the 1890s, before using metal cylinders though Edison used paraffin paper. In 1902, Edisons National Phonograph Company introduced Edison Gold Moulded Records, cylinder records of improved hard black wax, capable of being played hundreds of times before wearing out
5. Puritan Records – Puritan Records was an American record label which lasted from 1917 to 1929. Frederick Dennett, founder of the Wisconsin Chair Company, had been manufacturing phonograph cabinets for Edison for several years when he decided to get into the business himself. By March 1917, United Phonographs began advertising the sale of phonographs, however, they were capable of pressing records at Wisconsin Chairs Grafton, Wisconsin facility, from 1917. This operation was incorporated as the New York Recording Laboratories in June of that year. But the Puritan label, its phonographs and related business the Colonial Phonograph Company all belonged to divisions of Wisconsin Chair. In 1919, Art Satherley established a studio in New York City for the New York Recording Laboratories and Wisconsin Chair truly entered the market with its in-house label. For a time afterward, Puritan records were being pressed by both NYRL in Grafton and by the Bridgeport Die and Machine Company in Bridgeport, CT. The NYRL masters were also published on dozens of labels that were serviced by BD&M such as Banner Records, Triangle and Paramounts sister labels Broadway Records. BD&M went bankrupt in 1925, and NYRL dissolved by order on January 1,1926. Yet Puritan continued to operate until 1929, using masters from such as Regal Records. Puritans releases reflected the output of Paramounts New York facility, issuing mainstream dance records and popular songs. It continued to do so, for a time, after the parent label turned its undivided attention to country music and blues, recorded in and around Chicago and by Gennett Records in Richmond. United Phonographs-era Puritans employ at least three, distinct label designs, with the advent of laterals, the image of the pilgrim woman was kept, but surrounded by fancy lacework in a label printed in varying degrees of gold and black. Near the end of the United Phonographs period the image was replaced by a legend. This was retained, with an amount of the lacework, on the far simpler label design used by NYRL which is gold on blue. Around 1925 the label changed from gold on blue to gold on black, BD&M pressings, however, employ their own unique label design of gold and white on black, with an inset profile of the Puritan of legend in a broad brimmed hat. Very little information is available about the systems of the earliest Puritans and Paramounts. With switching to lateral-cut in 1919, Puritan ran at least three concurrent series,6000 for classical,9000 for light music and 11000 for popular, though the classical line didnt last beyond 1923
6. Victor Talking Machine Company – The Victor Talking Machine Company was an American flagship record company headquartered in Camden, New Jersey. The company was founded by Eldridge R. Johnson, who had previously made gramophones to play Emile Berliners disc records, Victor Talking Machine Co. was incorporated officially in 1901 shortly before agreeing to allow Columbia Records use of its disc record patent. Victor had acquired the Pan-American rights to use the trademark of the fox terrier Nipper listening to a gramophone when Berliner. Barraud noticed that whenever he played a recorded by his brother. Barrauds original depicts Nipper staring intently into the horn of an Edison-Bell while both sit on a wooden surface. The London branch was managed by an American, William Barry Owen, Barraud paid a visit with a photograph of the painting and asked to borrow a horn. Owen gave Barraud an entire gramophone and asked him to paint it into the picture, the original painting still shows the contours of the Edison-Bell phonograph beneath the paint of the gramophone when viewed in the correct light. Only 13 originally commissioned His Masters Voice paintings were commissioned by the company, in 1915, the His Masters Voice logo was rendered in immense circular leaded-glass windows in the tower of the Victrola factory building. The tower remains today with replica windows installed during Radio Corporation of Americas ownership of the plant in its later years, today, one of the original windows is located at the Smithsonian museum in Washington, D. C. There are different accounts as to how the Victor name came about, a second account is that Johnson emerged as the Victor from the lengthy and costly patent litigations involving Berliner and Frank Seamans Zonophone. A third story is that Johnsons partner, Leon Douglass, derived the word from his wifes name Victoria, finally, a fourth story is that Johnson took the name from the popular Victor bicycle, which he had admired for its superior engineering. Of these four accounts the first two are the most generally accepted, perhaps coincidentally, the first use of the Victor title on a letterhead, on March 28,1901, was only nine weeks after the death of British Queen Victoria. Before 1925, recording was done by the purely mechanical. No microphone was involved and there was no means of amplification, the recording machine was essentially an exposed-horn acoustical record player functioning in reverse. The sound-vibrated center of the diaphragm was linked to a stylus that was guided across the surface of a very thick wax disc. The wax was too soft to be played back even once without seriously damaging it, although test recordings were sometimes made, although sound quality was gradually improved by a series of small refinements, the process was inherently insensitive. From the start, Victor innovated manufacturing processes and soon rose to preeminence by recording famous performers, in 1903, it instituted a three-step mother-stamper process to produce more stampers and records than previously possible. These new celebrity recordings bore red labels, and were marketed as Red Seal records, for many years these records were single-sided, only in 1923 did Victor begin offering Red Seals in double-sided form