Monomakhs Cap, called the Golden Cap, is a chief relic of the Russian Grand Princes and Tsars. It is a symbol-crown of the Russian autocracy, and is the oldest of the crowns currently exhibited at the Kremlin Armoury, the cap is surmounted by a simple gold cross with pearls at each of the extremities. It is not to be confused with the Monomachus Crown in Budapest, boris Uspensky, in particular, argues that the Tatar headgear was originally used in coronation ceremonies to signify the Muscovite rulers subordination to the khan. According to Sergey Solovyov after the death of Ivan Kalita all Russian princes traveled to the Horde. and the Khan announced the eldest son of Kalita, the Grand Prince of Vladimir. Also Solovyov writes that the first who introduced the coronation of the Russian monarch was Ivan III, at some point in the 15th or 16th century the crown was surmounted by a cross. The legend was elaborated in The Tale of the Princes of Vladimir, the crown became known as Monomakhs Cap, the term first recorded in a Russian document from 1518.
However the fact that Constantine IX Monomachus died 50 years before the coronation of Vladimir Monomakh makes the statement really a legend, the first version of the orient origin of the Cap was arisen by George Vernadsky. Vernadsky was pointing to a fact that according to Paul Pelliot Özbäg can be interpreted as a freeman. After Ivan the Terrible had himself crowned the first Russian Tsar with this headgear, Ivan was presumably not aware that at the time of Constantine IX Monomachus death, Vladimir Monomakh was only two years old and he was not the Kievan sovereign yet. The Monomakh Cap was last used in the coronation of Ivan V and Peter the Great in 1682. When Peter assumed the title of emperor, a new crown was fashioned
The Imperial Crown of Russia, known as the Great Imperial Crown, was used by the Emperors of Russia until the monarchys abolition in 1917. The Great Imperial Crown was first used in a coronation by Catherine II and it survived the subsequent revolution and is currently on display in the Moscow Kremlin Armoury State Diamond Fund. By 1613, when Michael Romanov, the first Tsar of the Romanov Dynasty was crowned, the Russian regalia included a cross, a golden chain, a barmas, the Crown of Monomakh, sceptre. Over the centuries, various Tsars had fashioned their own private crowns, modeled for the most part after the Crown of Monomakh, in 1719, Tsar Peter I the Great founded the earliest version of what is now known as the Russian Federations State Diamond Fund. The Silk Imperial Crown of Russia was given as a coronation gift of the Russian Empire at the coronation of Nicholas II the last Emperor of the Romanov line. Nicholas II was the first and only monarch to be presented with such a coronation gift.
It was not intended as ceremonial regalia but as private Imperial property as a memento to his coronation event, the court jeweller Ekart and Jérémie Pauzié made the Great Imperial Crown for the coronation of Catherine the Great in 1762. The beautiful crown reflects Pauzies skilled workmanship and it is adorned with 4936 diamonds arranged in splendid patterns across the entire surface of the crown Bordering the edges of the mitre are a number of fine, large white pearls. It is believed to be the second largest spinel in the world, peter’s widow and successor, Catherine I, was the first Russian ruler to wear this form of imperial crown. It is believed to be the second largest spinel in the world, except for the two rows of large white pearls the entire surface of the crown is covered with 4936 diamonds and is quite heavy, weighing approximately nine pounds. At the coronation of Nicholas II in 1896, the crown was worn by Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna as was her right as a crowned Empress.
A second identical lesser Imperial Crown was made for the young Empress Alexandra Feodorovna to wear, Dowager Empresses outranked reigning Empress Consorts at the Russian Court. The work is now in the collection of the Hermitage Museum, following the tradition of the Byzantine Emperors, the Tsar of Russia placed the crown upon his own head. This left no doubt that, in the Russian system, the power came directly from God. The prayer of the Metropolitan, similar to that of the Patriarch of Constantinople for the Byzantine Emperor, a few days prior to the crowning service itself, the Tsar made a processional entry into Moscow, where coronations were always held. After the Tsar entered the cathedral, he and his spouse venerated the icons there and he took it and placed it on his head himself, while the Metropolitan recited, In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, Amen. Following this, the new Tsar crowned his consort, first briefly with his own crown, further prayers and litanies were read, the Emperor was anointed just prior to reception of Holy Communion during the Divine Liturgy.
He was invited to enter the area through the Royal Doors
Like many other monarchies, the Russian Empire had a vast collection of regalia belonging to the Tsars. This collection is now on display in Kremlin in Moscow, the Diamond Fund maintains the security of the greater diamond masterpieces. Barmas of Old Ryazan, One of the greatest masterpieces of ancient jewelry were produced by masters of Old Ryazan in late 12th - early 13th century. They belonged to the princes family, but in 1237 the city was completely destroyed by Batu Khan. In 1822, the royal barmas were found by archeologists and brought to the Armory and these precious barmas are proof of the high level of local jewelry, enameled with their precious stones, gold medallions decorated with engraving. Cap of Monomakh The oldest crown is the Cap of Monomakh or Crown of Monomakh and its name is connected with a Russian legend of the 15th century, according to which it has been brought to Russia in ancient times as a gift from the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Monomachos. The cap is of oriental workmanship of the late 13th or early 14th century, the question of its origin is still unspecified.
The oldest section of the consists of eight gold plates adorned with very fine gold lace in a pattern of six-pointed rosette-stars. The semi-spherical top with a cross, the trimming and the pearls. It weighs 698 grams and is the lightest Russian crown, since the late 14th till the late 17th century, the Cap of Monomakh a symbol of power, was used in the ceremony of setting the ruler of the Russian State for reigning. In the first quarter of the 18th century, after Peter the Greats reforms, the setting for reigning was replaced by coronation. Since 18th century the Cap of Monomakh served as crown of the Tsardom of Great, Little. Kazan crown The Crown of Kazan belonged to Ediger Mahmet, the last ruler of the Tatar state of Kazan and this 16th century crown is the second oldest in Russia. The gold crown is studded with pearls and turquoises, the sable-fur trimming was for comfort. The Kazan Crown is dated by 1553 and it was first mentioned in the treasury of Tsar Ivan the Terrible, whose reigning was signed by a series of eminent events in the Russian history.
Among them is the capture of Kazan in October 1552 and annexation of the Kazan khanate to the Russian state, the precious crown might have been executed by Moscow Kremlin jewelers on the successful solution of The Eastern problem, so important for Muscovy. Its name might have immortalized the memory of the victory of Russian warriors. The crowns look combines national and eastern artistic traditions, some elements remind decor traditions of Russian churches of the epoch