This custom was linked with others, such as that of the Feast of Fools and the Feast of Asses. In England the boy bishop was elected on 6 December, the feast of Saint Nicholas, the patron of children, and his authority lasted till Holy Innocents day. The real Bishop would, step down at the deposuit potentes de sede of the Magnificat, and the boy would take his seat at et exaltavit humiles. After the election, the boy was dressed in bishops robes with mitre and crozier and, attended by comrades dressed as priests. Typically the chosen boy and his colleagues took possession of the cathedral and performed all the ceremonies and offices, originally, it seems, confined to the cathedrals, the custom spread to many parishes. Notwithstanding the intervention of various Church authorities, the popularity of the custom made it resilient, in England it was abolished by Henry VIII in 1542, revived by Mary I in 1552 and finally abolished by Elizabeth I. On the continent of Europe it survived longest in Germany, in the so-called Gregoriusfest, there have been some recent revivals both in the English-speaking world and on the continent.
Most famous perhaps is that of Hereford, revived in 1973 for a childrens service, with full. The Boy Bishop preaches a sermon and leads prayers at various Diocesan Advent services, a single revival took place in 1959 at St. Georges Parish Church, Stockport. The custom was revived in Burgos, where the boy-bishop feast had been extremely popular before the cathedral choir was closed in the 1930s. After its re-establishment, the boy bishop was revived in 1987, other Spanish cities such as Palencia hold the ceremony, and that carried on in the Monastery of Montserrat by LEscolania is especially renowned. The festival was revived in Chavagnes International College, a Catholic boarding school in France. In December 2009, a girl from Wellingborough England was appointed Britains first girl bishop at All Saints Church in the town. In July 2016 the festival will be revived in Durham, which used to appoint two boy bishops who officiated in spring rather than winter. A. Ward, Richard Ramseys Sermon for a Boy Bishop, a.
Ward, A Sermon for A Boy Bishop by John Alcock, Bishop of Ely, in Ephemerides Liturgicae 112 58-81. N. Mackenzie, The Medieval Boy Bishops,2012, John Gough Nichols, Two Sermons pronounced by the Boy Bishop at St. Pauls, Temp. Henry VIII, and at Gloucester, Mary, in Camden Miscellany, Volume the Seventh, Camden Society,1875. Motter, The School Drama in England, London 1929, pp. 6–8, 11-12,31,33, crawford, A Note on the Boy Bishop in Spain, in Romanic Review 12 146-154
Upanayana is one of the traditional saṃskāras that marked the acceptance of a student by a guru and an individuals entrance to a school in Hinduism. The tradition is widely discussed in ancient Sanskrit texts of India, the sacred thread is received by the boy during this ceremony, that he continues wearing across his chest thereafter. The upanayana was restricted in many medieval Indian texts to the three of the four varnas of society — brahmins and vaishyas. However, Vedic period texts such as the Baudhāyana Grihyasutra encouraged all members of society to undergo the upanayana, women were encouraged to undergo upanayana in ancient India before they started Vedic studies or before their wedding. Upanayana literally means the act of leading to or near and it is an important and widely discussed samskara in ancient Sanskrit text. The rite of passage symbolizes the leading or drawing towards the self of a child, in a school and it is a ceremony in which a guru accepts and draws a child towards knowledge and initiates the second birth that is of the young mind and spirit.
Upanayana is the rite of passage for the start of education of writing, reading, arts. The Upanayana rite of passage was important to the teacher, Upanayana was an elaborate ceremony, that included rituals involving the family, the child and the teacher. A boy receives during this ceremony a sacred thread called Yajñopaveetam that he wears, the Yajñopavita ceremony announced that the child had entered into formal education. In the modern era, the Upanayana rite of passage is open to anyone at any age, the education of a student was not limited to ritual and philosophical speculations found in the Vedas and the Upanishads. They extended to many arts and crafts, which had their own, aitareya Brahmana and Puranas literature of Hinduism describe these as Shilpa Sastras. They extend to all aspects of culture, such as the sculptor, the potter, the perfumer, the wheelwright, the painter, the weaver, the architect, the dancer. Ancient Indian texts assert that the number of the arts is unlimited, the training of these began from childhood and included studies about dharma, reading, mathematics, colors, tools, as well as traditions.
The rites of passage during apprentice education varied in the respective guilds, in Hindu traditions, a human being is born at least twice — once at physical birth and second at intellectual birth through teachers care. The first is marked through the Jatakarman sanskara ritual, the second is marked through Upanayanam or Vidyarambha rites of passage, many medieval era texts discuss Upanayana in the context of three varnas — Brahmins and Vaishyas. Several texts such as Sushruta Sutrasthana, include Sudras entering schools, the ceremony was typically performed at age eight among the Brahmins, at age 11 among the Kshatriyas, and age 12 among Vaishyas. Apastamba Gryha Sutra, in verse 18.104.22.168, places an age limit of 24 for the Upanayana ceremony. In some regions, in times and girls undergo the tradition of Upanayana initiation when they start their formal schooling
A Sunday school is a Christian educational institution, usually catering to children and other young people. Many Seventh-day Adventists, Seventh Day Baptists, and other sabbatarian communities hold their Sabbath Schools on Saturdays, Sunday schools in England were first set up in the 1780s to provide education to working children. It aimed to teach the reading and cyphering. By 1785,250,000 English children were attending Sunday School, there were 5,000 in Manchester alone. By 1895, the Society for the Establishment and Promotion of Sunday Schools had distributed 91,915 spelling books,24,232 Testaments and 5,360 Bibles. The Sunday School movement was cross-denominational, and through subscription built large buildings that could host public lectures as well as classrooms, in the early days, adults would attend the same classes as the infants, as each were instructed in basic reading. In some towns the Methodists withdrew from the Large Sunday School, the Anglicans set up their own National schools that would act as Sunday Schools and day schools.
These schools were the precursors to a system of education. The role of the Sunday Schools changed with the Education Act 1870, in the 1920s they promoted sports. It was common for teams to compete in a Sunday School League and they were social centres hosting amateur dramatics and concert parties. By the 1960s, the term Sunday School could refer to the building, by the 1970s even the largest Sunday School at Stockport had been demolished. Sunday School became the name for many different types of religious education pursued on Sundays by various denominations. The first Sunday school may have opened in 1751 in St Marys Church. Another early start was made by Hannah Ball, a native of High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, in 18th-century England education was reserved for a minority and was not compulsory. The wealthy educated their children privately at home, with hired governesses or tutors for younger children, boys of that class were often sent away to boarding school, hence these fee-based educational establishments were known, confusingly, as public schools.
The town-based middle class may have sent their sons to grammar schools, the children of factory workers and farm labourers received no formal education, and typically worked alongside their parents six days a week, sometimes more than 13 hours a day. In 1781, after prompting from his friend William King who was running a Sunday School in Dursley. In the home of a Mrs Meredith he opened a school on Sunday, using the Bible as their textbook, he taught them to read and write
Preachers kid is a term to refer to a child of a preacher, deacon, lay leader, minister or other similar church leader. Although the phrase can be used in a descriptive way. Children of clergy often experience pressure due to the placed on them. Parental workload may be a source of stress, some writers suggest that there is a preachers kid syndrome, in which children of clergy reject religion and the church. Such rebellious children of the clergy are a figure in the Southern literature of the United States. One literary example occurs in Eugene ONeills play The Iceman Cometh when the traveling salesman Hickey describes his life, You see, you’ve heard the old saying, “Ministers’ sons are sons of guns. ”Well, that was me, and some. Other writers note that children of the clergy may often become clergy themselves, martin Luther King, Jr. and Franklin Graham are examples. Children of clergy may be more exposed than their peers to the events of life. Former British Prime Minister Gordon Brown recalled that he learned much about life, poverty, the preachers kid phenomenon has been connected with the related one of military brats.
Children of preachers who are missionaries may be third culture kids, there are two different stereotypes of the preachers kid, in one, they are perfectly angelic role models, in the other they are rebels at the opposite extreme. The existence of these stereotypes is a source of pressure on children of clergy, the TV series 7th Heaven is a good example of the pastors kid stereotype. The father, was a minister and he and his wife Annie had seven children. Sometimes they were angels, but most of the time the show displayed the trials that the family went through as the children were growing up. Often the children were criticized because of who their father was, version of the recording from major stars like Janis Joplin, Dusty Springfield, and Aretha Franklin kept this image, drawn from a southern US setting, visible internationally. The preachers daughter is a negative stereotype ascribed to female children that has a particular set of connotations, often sexual, rebellious. The stereotype is typically suggestive of a dual-life, one lived as the descendant of piety.
Lifetime reality TV series Preachers Daughters follows the lives of Christian preachers daughters, in Scotland, to be children of the manse is considered very influential on a persons upbringing. In German, the terms Pfarrerskind and Priesterkind are used to refer to children of clergy, list of children of clergy Preachers Daughters Child preacher Amy L Woods
Jewish views on marriage
In traditional Judaism, marriage is viewed as a contractual bond commanded by God in which a man and a woman come together to create a relationship in which God is directly involved. Though procreation is not the purpose, a Jewish marriage is traditionally expected to fulfill the commandment to have children. However, some Jewish denominations such as Reconstructionist and Conservative Judaism recognize same-sex marriage and deemphasize procreation, this is seen not as an alternate interpretation but as a diversion from the Law of Judaism. In Jewish law, an engagement is a contract between a man and a woman where they mutually promise to each other at some future time. The promise may be made by the parties or by their respective parents or other relatives on their behalf. The promise is formalized in a document known as the Shtar Tenaim, the Document of Conditions, after this reading, the mothers of the future bride and groom break a plate. Today, some sign the contract on the day of the wedding, some do it as an earlier ceremony, the young couple is not forced to marry if either does not accept the other.
In Jewish law, marriage consists of two acts, called erusin, which is the betrothal ceremony, and nissuin or chupah. Erusin changes the couples interpersonal status, while nissuin brings about the consequences of the change of status. Since the Middle Ages the two ceremonies have taken place as a ceremony performed in public. According to the Talmud, erusin involves the groom handing an object to the bride - either an object of such as a ring. In order to be valid, this must be done in the presence of two unrelated male witnesses, after erusin, the laws of adultery apply, and the marriage cannot be dissolved without a religious divorce. After nisuin, the couple may live together, marital harmony, known as shlom bayit, is valued in Jewish tradition. Similarly, a husband was expected to discuss with his wife any worldly matters that arise in his life. Tough love was frowned upon, the Talmud forbids a husband from being overbearing to his household and it was said of a wife that God counts her tears. A wife, was expected to be modest, even if the other person present with her was her husband.
Gods presence dwells in a pure and loving home, the obligations of the husband include providing for his wife. He is obligated to provide for her sustenance for her benefit, this is a right to the wife and she can release her husband of the obligation of sustaining her and she can keep her income exclusively for herself
The Columna Lactaria was a landmark in ancient Rome in the Forum Holitorium, or produce market. The Roman grammarian Festus says it was so called because they would bring babies there to be fed with milk and it seems to have been a public charity where poor parents could obtain milk for their infants, or a central site for locating and hiring wet nurses. It has interpreted as a sanctioned site of child abandonment. The Columna Lactaria was located close to the Temple of Pietas, the column was probably destroyed by the construction of the Theater of Marcellus, beginning in the 40s BC. One of the neighborhoods razed for the construction of the theater was the Vicus Sobrius and this community may have maintained the Columna Lactaria, Robert E. A. Palmer thought that the milk-offerings of Punic cult might shed light on the significance of the column, into the early 20th century, the piazza Montanara adjacent to the theater continued to be a place where wet nurses could be sought for hire
Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young children. In theological discussions, the practice is referred to as paedobaptism, or pedobaptism. Opposition to infant baptism is termed catabaptism, Infant baptism is called christening by some faith traditions. Most Christians belong to denominations that infant baptism. The exact details of the ceremony vary among Christian denominations. Many follow a prepared ceremony, called a rite or liturgy, in a typical ceremony, parents or godparents bring their child to their congregations priest or minister. The rite used would be the same as that denominations rite for adults and Orthodox churches that do this do not sprinkle. At the moment of baptism, the minister utters the words I baptise you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Although it is not required, many parents and godparents choose to dress the baby in a white gown called a christening gown for the baptism ceremony, christening gowns often become treasured keepsakes that are used by many other children in the family and handed down from generation to generation.
Traditionally, this gown is white or slightly off white and made with lace, trim. In the past, a gown was used for boys and girls, in the present day it has become more common to dress children in a baptismal outfit. Also normally made of fabric, the outfit consists of a romper with a vest or other accessories. These clothes are kept as a memento after the ceremony. It is a tradition to baptise children using the ships bell as a baptismal font. Tracking down and searching for a name on a specific bell from a ship may be a difficult. Christening information from the bells held by the Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt Museum has been entered into a data archive that is accessible to any interested web site visitors. Scholars disagree on the date when infant baptism was first practiced, some believe that 1st-century Christians did not practice it, noting the lack of any explicit evidence of paedobaptism. The earliest extra-biblical directions for baptism, which occur in the Didache, are taken to be about baptism of adults, inscriptions dating back to the 2nd century which refer to young children as children of God may indicate that Christians customarily baptised infants too
Upsherin, Opsherin or Upsherinish is a haircutting ceremony observed by a wide cross-section of Jews and is particularly popular in Haredi Jewish communities. It is typically held when a boy three years old. Among those who practice the upsherin, the male infant does not have his hair cut until this ceremony, the upsherin tradition is a relatively modern custom in Judaism and has only become a popular practice since the 17th century. Ritual haircut, probably modeled on the Muslim custom of shaving male childrens hair in saints sanctuaries, was practiced by native Palestinian Jews as early as the Middle Ages. The ritual remained primarily a Sephardi custom following Luria, but in the last 200 years it became widespread among East European Hasidim, from Palestine it spread to the Diaspora communities, where it was usually celebrated in a more modest family setting. Rabbi Chaim Vital wrote in Shaar Ha-Kavanot that Isaac Luria, cut his sons hair on Lag BaOmer, the age of his son is not mentioned.
An obvious problem raised by Avraham Yaari, in an article in Tarbiz 22, is many sources cite that the Arizal held one should not cut ones hair for the entire sefirah – including Lag BaOmer. We know from travellers that by the 18th and 19th centuries, the hilula at Meron on Lag BaOmer with bonfires and the cutting of childrens hair had by become an affair of the masses. A well-known Talmud scholar from Bulgaria, Rabbi Abraham ben Israel Rosanes, wrote that, in his visit to Palestine in 1867, in the Hasidic community, the upsherin marks a male childs entry into the formal educational system and the commencement of Torah study. A yarmulke and tzitzis will now be worn, and the child will be taught to pray, so that Torah should be sweet on the tongue, the Hebrew letters are covered with honey, and the children lick them as they read. Sometimes the hair that is cut off in the ceremony is weighed. If the hair is long enough, it may be donated to a charity that makes wigs for cancer patients. Other customs include having each of those attending the ceremony snip off a lock of hair, among some Hasidic sects, such as Skver and Gur, the upsherin is held at age two.
This custom is based on the tradition that Abraham celebrated his son Isaacs second birthday, hinted at in the Biblical verse, The child grew and was weaned, among some sephardic communities, particularly in Jerusalem, the practice is performed at age five. Cutting hair is not allowed during the time of the Counting of the Omer but is permitted on Lag BaOmer and this is why boys that turned three between Pesach and Lag BaOmer celebrate upsherin on this date. It is customary that at the Lag BaOmer celebrations by the tomb of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai in Meron, boys are given their first haircuts while their parents distribute wine and sweets. Similar upsherin celebrations are held in Jerusalem at the grave of Shimon Hatzaddik for Jerusalemites who cannot travel to Meron. The tradition had abandoned due to murderous attacks on sojourners to that relatively isolated place
Religion and children
Children usually acquire the religious views of their parents, although they may be influenced by others they communicate with such as peers and teachers. Aspects of this subject include rites of passage and child psychology, most Christian churches practice infant baptism to enter children into the faith. Some form of confirmation ritual occurs when the child has reached the age of reason, ritual circumcision is used to mark Jewish and Muslim and Coptic Christian and Ethiopian Orthodox Christian infant males as belonging to the faith. Jewish boys and girls confirm their belonging at a coming of age ceremony known as the Bar, a parochial school or faith school, is a type of school which engages in religious education in addition to conventional education. Parochial schools may be primary or secondary, and may have state funding but varying amounts of control by a religious organization, in addition there are religious schools which only teach the religion and subsidiary subjects, typically run on a part-time basis separate from normal schooling.
Examples are the Christian Sunday schools and the Jewish Hebrew schools, islamic religious schools are known in English by the Arabic loanword Madrasah. Religion may have an influence on what goes on in state schools and this requires such acts of worship to be wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character. The term mainly means that acts related to other faiths can be carried out providing the majority are Christian, evolution is accepted by the Catholic Church and is a part of the Catholic Catechism. In France, children are forbidden from wearing religious symbols in public schools. Many legal experts have argued that the government should create laws in the interests of the welfare of children and this has much more to do with the doctrines of belief taking root than threats and reports of miracles. Several authors have been critical of religious indoctrination of children, such as Nicolas Humphrey, Daniel Dennett, christopher Hitchens and Dawkins use the term child abuse to describe the harm that some religious upbringings inflict on children.
Grayling has argued we are all born atheists. and it takes an amount of work on the part of the adults in our community to persuade differently. Dawkins states that he is angered by the labels Muslim child or Catholic child and he asks how a young child can be considered intellectually mature enough to have such independent views on the cosmos and humanity’s place within it. By contrast, Dawkins points out, no person would speak of a Marxist child or a Tory child. He suggests there is controversy over such labeling because of the weirdly privileged status of religion. Islam has permitted the child marriage of older men to girls as young as 10 years of age if they have entered puberty, Latter Day Saint church founder Joseph Smith married girls as young as 13 and 14, and other Latter Day Saints married girls as young as 10. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints eliminated underaged marriages in the 19th century, a study of 2604 US children ages six to nineteen found positive correlations between physical and psychological health and religious affiliation and/or church attendance.
This included 272 children whose parents or the children themselves expressed no religious affiliation, however, of this group, 22% state that religion is important and 35% attend church
Short Creek raid
The Short Creek raid was the largest mass arrest of polygamists in American history. At the time, it was described as the largest mass arrest of men and women in modern American history, just before dawn on July 26,1953,102 Arizona officers of public safety and soldiers from the Arizona National Guard entered Short Creek. The entire community was taken into custody, with the exception of six individuals who were not to be fundamentalist Mormons. Among those taken into custody were 263 children, one hundred and fifty of the children who were taken into custody were not permitted to return to their parents for more than two years, and some parents never regained custody of their children. More than 100 reporters had been invited by Pyle to accompany the police to observe the raid, were those teenagers playing volleyball in a school yard inspiring a rebellion. Well, if so, an insurrection with diapers and volleyballs, one commentator has suggested that commentary on the raid was probably the first time in history that American polygamists had received media coverage that was largely sympathetic.
Another has suggested that the raids only American parallel is the actions against Native Americans in the nineteenth century. When Pyle lost his bid for re-election in 1954 to Democratic candidate Ernest McFarland, one of the few media outlets to applaud the raid was the Salt Lake City-based Deseret News, which was owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The News applauded the action as a response to prevent the fundamentalists from becoming a cancer of a sort that is beyond hope of human repair. The Short Creek raid was the last action against polygamous Mormon fundamentalists that has been supported by the LDS Church. After the Short Creek raid, the fundamentalist Mormon polygamist colony at Short Creek eventually rejuvenated, Short Creek was renamed Colorado City in 1960. In 1991, the Mormon fundamentalists at Colorado City formally established the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, the members of the sect did not face any prosecutions for its polygamous behavior until the late 1990s, when isolated individuals began to be prosecuted.
In 2006, FLDS Church leader Warren Jeffs was placed on the FBI Ten Most Wanted List, he was arrested in 2007, as of 8 April, a total of 416 children had been removed from the compound by authorities. A former member of the FLDS Church, Carolyn Jessop, arrived on-site 6 April, however, have drawn direct connections between the two events. Photos From a Notorious 1953 Raid on a Polygamist Arizona Town - LIFE Magazine archive