This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.
Pages in category "Revenge"
The following 15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.
The following 15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Revenge – Revenge is a form of primitive justice usually assumed to be enacted in the absence of the norms of formal law and jurisprudence. Often, revenge is defined as being an action against a person or group in response to a grievance. It is used to right a wrong by going outside of the law and this is because the individual taking revenge feels as though the law will not do justice. Francis Bacon described it as a kind of justice that does. Offend the law putteth the law out of office, primitive justice or retributive justice is often differentiated from more formal and refined forms of justice such as distributive justice and divine judgment. Detractors argue that revenge is simply wrong, of the design as two wrongs make a right. They dont want to lose face, some societies encourage vengeful behavior, which is called feud. These societies usually regard the honor of individuals and groups as of central importance, thus, while protecting of his reputation an avenger feels as if he restores the previous state of dignity and justice. According to Michael Ignatieff, revenge is a profound desire to keep faith with the dead. Thus, honor may become a heritage that passes from generation to generation, whenever it is compromised, the affected family or community members might feel compelled to retaliate against an offender to restore the initial balance of honor that preceded the perceived injury. This cycle of honor might expand by bringing the family members and they still persist in some areas, notably in Albania with its tradition of gjakmarrja or blood feuds. Blood feuds are still practiced in parts of the world, including Kurdish regions of Turkey. Honoring ones family, clan, or lord through the practice of revenge killings and these killings could also involve the relatives of an offender. Today, katakiuchi is most often pursued by means. The motto of Scotland is Nemo me impune lacessit, Latin for Nobody shall provoke/injure me with impunity, the origin of the motto reflects the feudal clan system of ancient Scotland, particularly the Highlands. Modern Western legal systems usually state as their goal the reform or reeducation of a convicted criminal, Sudan has suffered cycles of revenge for many years, for example tribal conflicts in Darfur. South Sudan is torn by conflicts with ethnic cleansing between the Nuer and Dinka peoples, fueled by appetite for revenge. The French diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord has been credited with the saying, La vengeance est un met que lon doit manger froid and it has been wrongly credited to the novel Les Liaisons dangereuses
2. Eye for an eye – The principle is sometimes referred using the Latin term lex talionis or the law of talion. The English word talion means a retaliation authorized by law, in which the punishment corresponds in kind, some propose that this was at least in part intended to prevent excessive punishment at the hands of either an avenging private party or the state. The most common expression of lex talionis is an eye for an eye, legal codes following the principle of lex talionis have one thing in common, prescribed fitting counter punishment for a felony. In the famous legal code written by Hammurabi, the principle of reciprocity is very clearly used. For example, if a person caused the death of another person, the simplest example is the eye for an eye principle. In that case, the rule was that punishment must be equal to the crime. Conversely, the tables of Rome merely prescribed particular penalties for particular crimes. Under the British Common Law, successful plaintiffs were entitled to repayment equal to their loss, in the modern tort law system, this has been extended to translate non-economic losses into money as well. The exact Latin to English translation of this phrase is actually The law of retaliation, the root principle of this law is to provide equitable retribution. This body was the state in one of its earliest forms, the principle is found in Babylonian Law. If it is surmised that in societies not bound by the rule of law, if a person was hurt, the retribution might be worse than the crime, perhaps even death. Babylonian law put a limit on such actions, restricting the retribution to be no worse than the crime, as long as victim, as with blasphemy or lèse-majesté, crimes against ones social betters were punished more severely. Roman law moved toward monetary compensation as a substitute for vengeance, in cases of assault, fixed penalties were set for various injuries, although talio was still permitted if one person broke anothers limb. In the Code of Hammurabi and Hebrew Law, the “eye for eye” was to restrict compensation to the value of the loss, thus, it might be better read only one eye for one eye. For example, a passage in Leviticus states, And a man who injures his countryman – as he has done, so it shall be done to him fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth. Just as he has injured a person, so it shall be done to him, isaac Kalimi explains that the “lex talionis was humanized by the Rabbis who interpreted an eye for an eye to mean reasonable pecuniary compensation. As in the case of the Babylonian lex talionis, ethical Judaism, pasachoff and Littman point to the reinterpretation of the lex talionis as an example of the ability of Pharisaic Judaism to adapt to changing social and intellectual ideas. Since the Torah requires that penalties be universally applicable, the phrase cannot be interpreted in this manner
3. Feud – Feuds begin because one party perceives itself to have been attacked, insulted or wronged by another. Intense feelings of resentment trigger the initial retribution, which causes the party to feel equally aggrieved. The dispute is subsequently fuelled by a cycle of retaliatory violence. This continual cycle of provocation and retaliation makes it difficult to end the feud peacefully. Feuds frequently involve the original family members and/or associates, can last for generations. They can be interpreted as an outgrowth of social relations based in family honor. Until the early period, feuds were considered legitimate legal instruments and were regulated to some degree. For example, Serb culture calls this krvna osveta, meaning blood revenge, in the English-speaking world, vendetta is sometimes extended to mean any other long-standing feud, not necessarily involving bloodshed. Sometimes, it is not mutual, but rather refers to a series of hostile acts waged by one person against another without reciprocation. Blood feuds were common in societies with a rule of law. An entire family is considered responsible for any one of them has done. Sometimes two separate branches of the family have even come to blows, or worse, over some dispute. The practice has mostly disappeared with more centralized societies where law enforcement, in Homeric ancient Greece, the practice of personal vengeance against wrongdoers was considered natural and customary, Embedded in the Greek morality of retaliation is the right of vengeance. Feud is a war, just as war is a series of revenges. In the ancient Hebraic context, it was considered the duty of the individual, the executor of the law of blood-revenge who personally put the initial killer to death was given a special designation, goel haddam, the blood-avenger or blood-redeemer. Six Cities of Refuge were established to provide protection and due process for any unintentional manslayers, the avenger was forbidden from harming the unintentional killer if the killer took refuge in one of these cities. According to historian Marc Bloch, The Middle Ages, from beginning to end, the onus, of course, lay above all on the wronged individual, vengeance was imposed on him as the most sacred of duties. The solitary individual, however, could do but little, moreover, it was most commonly a death that had to be avenged
4. Kosovo Myth – The essence of the myth is that during the battle, Serbs, headed by Tsar Lazar, lost because they consciously sacrificed the earthy kingdom in order to gain the Kingdom of Heaven. The legend evolved slowly through chronicles and particularly the tradition of Serbs. The basic elements of the Kosovo Myth are vengeance, martyrdom, betrayal and this myth dominated political discourse in Serbia until the end of the 20th century. The Kosovo myth is incorporated into the Serb national identitys multifaceted mythomoteur, since its establishment at the end of the 14th century, the Kosovo Myth and its poetic, literary, religious, and philosophical exposition was intertwined with political and ideological agendas. The mythologization of the battle occurred shortly after the event, the legend of Kosovo was not created immediately after the battle but evolved from different originators into various versions. The essence of this myth is the struggle for freedom through the defense of Christianity, although Serbias strategic fall was the Battle of Maritsa in 1371, Kosovo was the spiritual fall of Serbia and a beginning of a new era for the Serbs. The real battle was not as decisive as presented by this myth because the final downfall of medieval Serbia happened 70 years after it, in 1459, the Kosovo Myth pictures Serbia as Antemurale Christianitatis, similarly to constructions of the other nations in the Balkans. It is sometimes propagated to evoke a sense of pride and national grievance among Serbs, the scale of interpretations of the Kosovo Myth is undeniably one of the richest. It can be interpreted as democratic, anti-feudal, with a love for justice, the myth can be interpreted in different ways in connection with other myths like, myth of military valor, myth of victimhood, myth of salvation and myth of chosen people. Oral epic poetry and folk songs cultivated the Kosovo Myth, medieval church writers portrayed Prince Lazar as a servant of God whose death was martyrdom for the faith, while Serbs are portrayed as heavenly people who defended Christianity against Islam. Military defeat in the Kosovo Battle was portrayed as moral victory, the Kosovo Myth is the central myth of Serbian nationalism used since the 19th century to legitimize the intention of the Serbian nationalistic movement to create an independent national state. The Kosovo Myth was often used to create a Serbian victimization narrative and this myth and its connection to the Serbian victim-centered position was used to legitimize reincorporation of Kosovo into Serbia. The Kosovo Myth was activated and linked to the metaphors of genocide, Albanians from Kosovo were accused of genocide of Kosovo Serbs since the Battle of Kosovo in 1389. Islamized Albanians were presented as violent and treacherous people who were settled in Kosovo to collaborate with Ottoman occupiers, there was a deep belief among Montenegrins that they descended from Serb knights who fled after the battle and settled in the unreachable mountains. The Kosovo Myth was present among the people in Montenegro before the time of Njegoš, in the form of folk legends, at the beginning of the 20th century, with the Yugoslav idea spreading, it also became a trope in common culture of Croats and Slovenes. The temples actual construction on the Field of Kosovo was postponed because of the Balkan Wars, World War I, World War II, and eventually shelved. Mirko Rački, also adopted the mythos and painted numerous paintings within Kosovo cycle, including The Mother of the Jugović, Nine Jugović brothers, Kosovo Maiden and Miloš Obilić. Kosovo was particularly present in the opinion of Great Britain during the First World War where 28 June was proclaimed Kossovo Day
5. Original Poetry by Victor and Cazire – The work was Shelleys first published volume of poetry. Shelley wrote the poems in collaboration with his sister Elizabeth and it was written before Shelley entered the University of Oxford. The volume consisted of sixteen poems and a fragment of a poem, Shelley wrote eleven of the poems while Elizabeth wrote five. Shelley contributed seven lyrical poems, four Gothic poems, and the political poem The Irishmans Song, Elizabeth wrote three lyrical poems and two verse epistles. The collection included the early poems Revenge, Ghasta, Or, The Avenging Demon. The epigraph was from the Lay of the Last Minstrel by Sir Walter Scott, Call it not vain, — they do not err, Who say, that, when the poet dies, Mute Nature mourns her worshipper. Controversy surrounded the work, however, because one of the included, Saint Edmonds Eve, was written by Matthew Gregory Lewis. Shelley told Stockdale that his sister Elizabeth had included the Lewis poem, Shelley apologised and informed Stockdale to suppress the volume. Fourteen hundred and eighty copies had been printed and one hundred copies had been circulated, fearing a plagiarism lawsuit, Stockdale withdrew the work from publication. Copies of the work became rare and it lapsed into obscurity. In 1859, Richard Garnett was able to substantiate that the volume had been published but was unable to locate an extant copy, the collection was reprinted and revived in 1898 by John Lane in an edition edited by Richard Garnett after a copy of the volume had been found. Fragment, Or The Triumph of Conscience The volume was advertised in the Morning Chronicle of 18 September, the Morning Post of 19 September, reviews appeared in Literary Panorama, The Anti-Jacobin Review, The British Critic, and The Poetical Register. The reviews, which focused on Elizabeths poems, were negative. Literary Panorama dismissed the poems as examples of nonsensical rhyme, the British Critic review described the volume as filled up by songs of sentimental nonsense, and very absurd tales of horror. The Poetical Register called the poems downright scribble and a waste of paper, Original Poetry by Victor and Cazire influenced Frankenstein, or, The Modern Prometheus. Victor was Percy Shelleys pen-name for his first publication, Original Poetry, by Victor, Victor Frankensteins family resembles Percy Shelleys, in both, the father is married to a woman young enough to be his daughter, in both the oldest son has a favorite sister named Elizabeth. The theme of unremitting vengeance is also common to both works, Revenge and Ghasta, Or, The Avenging Demon. Rely on the theme of revenge, the Being similarly seeks revenge against Victor Frankenstein
6. Posthumous Fragments of Margaret Nicholson – The pamphlet was subtitled, Being Poems found amongst the Papers of that Noted Female who attempted the Life of the King in 1786. The pamphlet was published by John Munday and Henry Slatter in Oxford and consisted of fragments that were in the nature of a hoax. The collection was one of the earliest published works of Shelley, the work was reprinted in 1877. Shelley expressed his political views on government, war. Shelley and Hogg presented the poems as being written by Margaret Nicholson herself but which were edited by her nephew, John FitzVictor, John FitzVictor was not a real person but contrived by Shelley and Hogg. Moreover, Margaret Nicholson was alive at the time of publication, the work is important because it shows the early political views and radicalism that would evolve in Shelleys later writings. In this work Shelley, in the guise of Margaret Nicholson, attacks the British monarchy as oppressive and he expresses his antiwar and antimonarchical views. He blames absolutist and monarchist governments for fomenting wars and these political views would be developed further in Queen Mab in 1812. This work is significant as the earliest expression of Shelleys political radicalism, shelly perceived Monarchs as the Oppressors of mankind. He wrote, Kings are but dust—the last eventful day/Will level all and make them lose their sway, Shelley would later more fully develop these political views, in Queen Mab, The Revolt of Islam, and Ozymandias. This early work is important because it shows the genesis and initial development of Shelleys views on politics, Donald H. Margaret Nicholson was a real person who is remembered today chiefly through the Shelley work. She attempted to assassinate King George III in 1786 with a knife, in spite of the title, she was still alive in 1810, dying in Bethlem Royal Hospital on 14 May 1828. Shelley also has a poem on Charlotte Corday who assassinated Jean-Paul Marat in 1793, françois Ravaillac, the assassin of King Henry IV of France in 1610, is also a subject of the poem. Shelley, however, uses the real-life Margaret Nicholson only as a point to develop. The real-life Margaret Nicholson has very little in common with Shelleys fictional recreation and her motives for the attack were based on a delusion that she was the rightful heir to the throne of England. Shelley is not retelling the story of her life but using it as merely a premise to develop a new political theory or vision. This theory would be developed in Shelleys subsequent works such as Queen Mab, what is important are not the facts of her life but the political views that Shelley would espouse in the work. In this important early work, Shelley presents his theories on political reform and revolution, supposed to be an Epithalamium of Francis Ravaillac and Charlotte Corde
7. Spite house – A spite house is a building constructed or substantially modified to irritate neighbors or any party with land stakes. Spite houses may create obstructions, such as blocking out light or blocking access to neighboring buildings, because long-term occupation is at best a secondary consideration, spite houses frequently sport strange and impractical structures. Spite houses are more rare than spite fences. In 1716, Thomas Wood, a sailmaker, built a house in Marblehead, Massachusetts, according to one theory, it was inhabited by two brothers who occupied different sections, would not speak to each other, and refused to sell to the other. The Old Spite House is still standing and occupied, upset about his loss, McCobb built a house directly across from the McCobb mansion to spite his stepbrother. The National Park Services Historic American Buildings Survey photographed and documented the 1925 move of the McCobb Spite House by barge from Phippsburg to Deadmans Point in Rockport, the city made plans to extend Record Street south through Tylers land to meet West Patrick Street. In fighting the city, Tyler discovered a law that prevented the building of a road if work was in progress on a substantial building in the path of a proposed road. To spite the city, Tyler immediately had workmen pour a building foundation, in 1830, John Hollensburys home in Alexandria, Virginia, was one of two houses that directly bordered an alley that attracted an annoying amount of horse-drawn wagon traffic and loiterers. The brick walls of the Hollensbury Spite House living room have gouges from wagon-wheel hubs, proffits attempted scam in this passage is to build a spite house and extort his neighbors to pay him to tear it down. The fact in question is indeed the basis of the Eye-Sore trade, of course, we cant afford to take these structures down under a bonus of five hundred per cent upon the prime cost of our lot and plaster. I ask it of business men and it would be irrational to suppose that we can. In 1874, two brothers in the North End of Boston, Massachusetts, got into a dispute, each had previously inherited land from their deceased father. When the soldier returned, he found his inheritance depleted and built a house at 44 Hull St. to spite his brother by blocking the sunlight. The outside of the house spans 10.4 feet and tapers to 9.25 feet in the rear, the Skinny House is still standing and occupied. In 1880, Adam Schilling owned a tract of 80 acres adjoining the town of Hiawatha, Schilling sold three-quarters of an acre of this land, on which a house eventually was built and became owned by James Falloon. Together, the 80 acres were well-suited to add to the town of Hiawatha, the Richardson Spite House in New York City at Lexington Avenue and 82nd Street was built in 1882 and demolished in 1915. It was four stories tall,104 feet wide, and only five feet deep, Joseph Richardson, the owner of the plot, built it after the owner of an adjacent plot, Hyman Sarner, unsuccessfully tried to purchase the land. Sarner considered the plot useless by itself and offered only $1000, after the deal fell through, Richardson had an apartment building constructed on his land
8. Vengeful ghost – In mythology and folklore, a vengeful ghost or vengeful spirit is said to be the spirit of a deceased person who returns from the afterlife to seek revenge for a cruel, unnatural or unjust death. The concept of a vengeful ghost seeking retribution as a spirit for harm that it endured as a person goes back to ancient times and is part of many cultures. They may not be satisfied until they have succeeded in punishing either their tormentors who made their life bitter, or and they usually return to the world of the dead after justice is done, but in some cases may remain unappeased. In certain cultures vengeful ghosts are mostly female, said to be women that were treated during their lifetime. Such women or girls may have died in despair or the suffering they endured may have ended up in early death caused by the ill-treatment or torture they were subject to. Exorcisms and appeasement are among the religious and social customs practiced by various cultures in relation to the vengeful ghost, the northern Aché people group in Paraguay cremated old people thought to harbor dangerous vengeful spirits instead of giving them a customary burial. In cases where the person has been killed and the body disposed of unceremoniously, others have been known to salt and burn their body, the place where they were killed or the instrument that they were killed with. Vengeful ghosts have been featured in contemporary movies of different countries such as Candyman, The Grudge, The Pit. Lemures in Roman mythology are the wandering and vengeful spirits of those not afforded proper burial, funeral rites or affectionate cult by the living, keres, spirits of violent or cruel death in Greek mythology. A restless female spirit said to haunt certain locations in Scotland such as Crathes Castle, Knock Castle, in some tales she was murdered in a green dress, and then stuffed unceremoniously up the chimney by a servant. It is said that her footsteps can still be heard as she walks the castle in sadness, mogwai, a vengeful ghost or demon in Chinese mythology Nü gui is a vengeful female ghost of the Chinese folklore. Yuan gui, the spirits of persons who have died wrongful deaths, chudail, a female ghost of Indian folklore, well known in North India and Pakistan. This spirit is said to originate in a woman who died either in childbirth, in pregnancy or during her menstruation, a generic name of the Japanese folklore for ghosts who come back from purgatory for a wrong done to them during their lifetime. Onryō are mostly women and often manifest themselves in rather than spectral form. Funayūrei are ghosts that have become vengeful spirits at sea and they are mentioned in the folklore of various areas of Japan. Kuchisake-onna, the vengeful ghost of a woman mutilated by her husband Mu-onna, also known as Woman in White. Can be a spirit from Mexico who drowned her own children because her husband left her. A female spirit who believed her husband had an affair with her mother in Venezuela, a female spirit from South America that appears as a beautiful woman
9. Vigilante – A vigilante is a civilian or organization acting in a law enforcement capacity without legal authority. Vigilante justice is often rationalized by the concept that proper legal forms of punishment are either nonexistent, insufficient. Vigilantes normally see the government as ineffective in enforcing the law, persons alleged to be escaping the law or above the law are sometimes the victims of vigilantism. Vigilante conduct involves certain degrees of violence, Vigilantes could assault targets verbally and/or physically, damage and/or vandalize property, or even kill individuals. In a number of cases, vigilantism has involved targets with mistaken identities, in Britain in the early 2000s, there were reports of vandalism, assaults, and verbal abuse towards people wrongly accused of being pedophiles, following the murder of Sarah Payne. In Guyana in 2008, Hardel Haynes was beaten to death by a mob who mistook him for a thief, Vigilantism and the vigilante ethos existed long before the word vigilante was introduced into the English language. There are conceptual and psychological parallels between the Dark Age and medieval aristocratic custom of private war or vendetta and the modern vigilante philosophy, when Jacob protested that their actions might bring trouble upon him and his family, the brothers replied Should he treat our sister as a harlot. Similarly, in 2 Samuel 13, Absalom kills Amnon after King David, their father, fails to punish Amnon for raping Tamar, recourse to personal vengeance and dueling was considered a class privilege of the sword-bearing aristocracy before the formation of the modern centralized liberal-bureaucratic nation-state. In addition, sociologists have posited a complex legal and ethical interrelationship between vigilante acts and rebellion and tyrannicide, in the Western literary and cultural tradition, characteristics of vigilantism have often been vested in folkloric heroes and legendary outlaws. Vigilantism in literature, folklore and legend is connected to the issues of dissatisfied morality, injustice, the failures of authority. Formally-defined vigilantism arose in the early American colonies and these people would assault accused thieves, rapists and murderers. When they assaulted these thieves, they would steal their gold, other than reports and newspapers, there are not many records of vigilantes. Few names or groups are known, later in the United States, vigilante groups arose in poorly governed frontier areas where criminals preyed upon the citizenry with impunity. The death of Joseph Smith, Jr. on June 27,1844, in 1851 and 1856, San Francisco Vigilance Movement sought to eliminate crime, an element of this movement focused on immigrants like the Sydney Ducks. This touched off a cycle of retaliatory battles and raids by the two sides in which some 29 people were killed. In 1858 San Luis Obispo vigilantes ended the reign of the bandit gang of Pío Linares on El Camino Real between San Luis and Santa Barbara. In October 1862 in northern Texas, several Unionist sympathizers were arrested and taken to Gainesville, seven were tried and hanged, and 14 were hanged without trial. A few weeks later, Unionist sympathizers were hanged without trial across northern Texas, known as the Great Hanging at Gainesville, it may have been the deadliest act of vigilante violence in U. S. history