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- ► Bridges across the River Orwell (2 P)
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1. River Orwell – The River Orwell flows through the county of Suffolk in England. Its source river, above the limit at Stoke Bridge, is known as the River Gipping. It broadens into an estuary at Ipswich where the Ipswich dock has operated since the 7th century, the large Orwell Bridge carries the A14 trunk road over the estuary to the south of Ipswich. In the name Orwell, Or- comes from an ancient river-name — probably pre-Celtic, in A tour through England and Wales written in 1722, Daniel Defoe calls the river Orwel. The writer Eric Blair chose the pen name under which he would become famous, George Orwell. The Orwell provides a venue for sailing. Interest originally centred on the hamlet of Pin Mill, which is home to the Pin Mill Sailing Club, ransome had kept his yacht Selina King at the Pin Mill anchorage in 1937-39. Since the 1970s marinas have opened at Levington, Woolverstone, Foxs and it now hosts a broad range of sailing events, such as the annual Junior Race Week. The 1957 film Yangtse Incident, The Story of HMS Amethyst was filmed on the river, the naval shore establishment at HMS Ganges also featured in the film being used as a site for Chinese gun batteries
2. Felixstowe – Felixstowe is an Edwardian seaside town and civil parish between the River Orwell and River Deben on the North Sea coast of Suffolk, England. The 2011 Census recorded the population as 23,689. It includes the Port of Felixstowe, which is the largest container port in the United Kingdom, the nearby small town of Walton is often viewed as an extension of Felixstowe as the two towns are virtually side by side, though Walton was the original village. The quieter area nearer to the Deben River is often referred to as Old Felixstowe, the old Felixstowe hamlet was centred on a pub and church, having stood on the site since long before the Norman conquest of England. In the Doomsday book, for instance, only Walton is shown, and not Felixstowe, Walton was a settlement on the River Orwell and in 1844 had a population of 907 compared to the relatively small Felixstowe Parish holding only 502 people. The town only became related to a port in 1886 when the port opened to trade. On 11 August 1919, A Felixstowe Fury, sideslipped and crashed into the sea 500 yards offshore soon after takeoff while on a test flight and it was preparing for an 8, 000-mile flight to Cape Town, South Africa. The wireless operator, Lt. MacLeod, was killed, at the turn of the century, tourism increased, and a pier was constructed in 1905 of which is partially functional to this day as an amusement arcade. Indeed, during the late Victorian period it became a resort, a trend initiated by the opening of Felixstowe railway station, the pier. It remained so until the late 1930s, in 1953, at least 48 people died in the town in the North Sea flood. Landguard Fort originally known as Langer Fort is on the site of the last opposed invasion of England in 1667, the current fort was built in the 18th century, and modified in the 19th century with substantial additional 19th/20th century outside batteries. The Fort hosts regular military re-enactments, including Darells Day, which is a celebration of the last invasion, childrens events, Landguard Fort is in the care of English Heritage and is managed by the Landguard Fort Trust to make it accessible to the public. It is located in the old submarine mining establishment building at the Landguard Peninsula, unfortunately after the war the damage was never repaired and the pier never regained its original length. Felixstowe was also one of the few places bombed by the Italians during the Blitz, benito Mussolinis airforce proved to be no match for the Royal Air Force, who shot down a fair number of Italian biplanes over the English Channel and around Felixstowe itself. Felixstowe was bombed by a Zeppelin during the First World War, the Pier was opened in 1906, and was then re-built later on. The sole remaining station, called Felixstowe Town, was opened in 1898. in the well-preserved building which now houses a supermarket. Felixstowe Radio, the community radio station who were formerly in the building have now moved to the old Coes building at the top of Bent Hill. In its prime the railway station saw more than 20 services a day and is now served by a service to Ipswich
3. Ipswich – Ipswich is the county town of Suffolk, England, located on the estuary of the River Orwell, about 60 miles north east of London. The town has been occupied since the Saxon period. It has also known as Gyppewicus and Yppswyche. Ipswich is one of Englands oldest towns, if not the oldest, the claim has also been made of the Essex town of Colchester, but that town was abandoned for some time, leaving Ipswich to claim to be the oldest continuously inhabited town in England. Under the Roman empire, the area around Ipswich formed an important route inland to towns and settlements via the rivers Orwell. A large Roman fort, part of the defences of Britain, stood at Walton near Felixstowe. The modern town took shape in Anglo-Saxon times around Ipswich dock, gipeswic ) arose as the equivalent to these, serving the Kingdom of East Anglia, its early imported wares dating to the time of King Rædwald, supreme ruler of the English. The famous ship-burial and treasure at Sutton Hoo nearby is probably his grave, the Ipswich Museum houses replicas of the Roman Mildenhall and Sutton Hoo treasures. A gallery devoted to the towns origins includes Anglo-Saxon weapons, jewellery, the 7th-century town was centred near the quay. Towards 700 AD, Frisian potters from the Netherlands area settled in Ipswich and their wares were traded far across England, and the industry was unique to Ipswich for 200 years. With growing prosperity, in about 720 AD a large new part of the town was out in the Buttermarket area. Ipswich was becoming a place of national and international importance, parts of the ancient road plan still survive in its modern streets. After the invasion of 869 Ipswich fell under Viking rule, the earth ramparts circling the town centre were probably raised by Vikings in Ipswich around 900 to prevent its recapture by the English. The town operated a mint under royal licence from King Edgar in the 970s, the abbreviation Gipes appears on the coins. King John granted the town its first charter in 1200, laying the foundations of its modern civil government. In the next four centuries it made the most of its wealth, Five large religious houses, including two Augustinian Priories, and those of the Greyfriars, Ipswich Whitefriars and Ipswich Blackfriars, stood in medieval Ipswich. The last Carmelite Prior of Ipswich was the celebrated John Bale, there were also several hospitals, including the leper hospital of St Mary Magdalene, founded before 1199. During the Middle Ages the Marian Shrine of Our Lady of Grace was a pilgrimage destination
4. Pin Mill – A pin mill is a mill that comminutes materials by the action of pins that repeatedly move past each other. Much like a kitchen blender, it breaks up substances through repeated impact, the mill is a type of vertical shaft impactor mill and consists of two rotating disks with pins embedded on one face. The disks are arrayed parallel to each other so that the pins of one disk face those of the other, the substance to be homogenized is fed into the space between the disks and either one or both disks are rotated at high speeds. Pin mills can be used on both dry substances and liquid suspensions, pin mills are commonly use in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, as they can achieve particle sizes as low as a few micrometers. However, heat generated by friction can sometimes be a concern, a manual form of the mill is commonly used to grind marijuana to a useful consistency
5. Shotley Peninsula – The Shotley Peninsula is a rural area east of the A137 Ipswich-Colchester road located between the rivers Stour and Orwell in Suffolk, England. The peninsula is named after the settlements of Shotley and Shotley Gate which are situated near its south-eastern tip, other villages on the peninsula include Chelmondiston, Erwarton, Freston, Harkstead, Holbrook, Stutton, Tattingstone, Wherstead and Woolverstone. The population was 10,310 according to the 2001 Census, the rivers Stour and Orwell meet at Shotley Gate and merge to join with the North Sea. The Stour and Orwell is a designated Special Protection Area, a Site of Special Scientific Interest, the landscape is predominantly ancient estate farmlands, with salt marshes and intertidal mudflats. The mudflats are an important winter feeding area for birds, wild fowl. The wetlands and estuaries are home to otters and water voles, there are significant areas of woodland, parkland and hedgerows with dormouse and stag beetle populations. Trips to places of local interest can be arranged through Shotley Peninsula Tours The main crops farmed on the peninsula are winter wheat, winter and spring barley, potatoes and sugar beet. The climate and soil on the peninsula are also suitable for viticulture and a small vineyard occupies the valley below St. Marys church, Shotley, footpaths on the peninsula shoreline are at risk of coastal erosion, which is being mitigated by the efforts of the local community. The Shotley peninsular experiences a climate with a narrow range of temperature. The nearest weather station for data is available is East Bergholt,7 miles west of Holbrook. There is archaeological evidence of Bronze Age barrows, and late Iron Age or Roman field enclosures, several groups of Iron Age coins and a small group of late Saxon finds have been discovered on the peninsula. In 1995, an Anglo-Saxon fish trap dating from between 650AD and 1050AD was found on the mudflats at Holbrook Bay, several settlements on the peninsula are mentioned in the Domesday survey of 1068. The peninsula lies within the historic Samford Hundred, deposits of clay along the shoreline were used by brick works in the 19th and early 20th centuries at Holbrook Creek, Shotley, Hares Creek and Bourne Hill in Wherstead. The peninsula lies within the Suffolk Coast and Heaths Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, the Stour and Orwell Walk is a coastal footpath that starts from the Orwell Bridge and extends around the peninsula to Cattawade, providing links with the Essex Way. Towards the tip of the peninsula there are views of the Port of Felixstowe, Landguard Fort. The dense marine traffic criss-crossing the deep-water channels to the Haven ports comprises container ships, cruise ships, pleasure craft, the attractive riverside hamlet of Pin Mill and marinas at Woolverstone and Shotley Gate make the peninsula a popular sailing destination. Alton Water is a reservoir that offers a variety of such as birdwatching, sailing, windsurfing, walking and cycling. The Old Hall at Shotley is a 16th-century grade II listed building, Erwarton Hall, Crowe Hall and Stutton Hall are substantial Tudor and Jacobean houses that overlook the Stour estuary to the south
6. Shotley, Suffolk – Shotley is the parish giving its name to the Shotley peninsula south of Ipswich, between the River Stour and the River Orwell in Suffolk, England. Shotley parish comprises the village of Shotley and the adjacent settlement of Shotley Gate. In 2001 there were 2,373 people living in Shotley, the village of Shotley is about a mile northwest from the tip of the peninsula, and lies either side of the B1456 road. There are two entries for Shotley and an adjacent settlement of Kirkton listed in the Domesday Book of 1086, a school is located outside the village opposite the turning into Oldhall Road. Oldhall Road is located east of the village leading north to St Marys Church, the church contains a naval cemetery cared for by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Shotley Hall is located near to the church, Rose Farm lies to the south of the village. Both are open to the public, Shotley Gate is a settlement to the south of the village of Shotley at the tip of the peninsula. By about 800 AD, the Vikings or Danes started to make an appearance in this area, under the Peace of Wedmore in 878, all land north of the old Roman Watling Street, which ran from London to Chester, was given to the Viking leader, Guthrum. Shotley therefore became part of Danelaw, the peace was short-lived however, and following an unsuccessful Viking attack on Kent, Alfred King of Wessex attacked the enemy in East Anglia. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the year 885 reads as follows, The same year sent King Alfred a fleet from Kent into East Anglia. As soon as they came to Stourmouth, there met them sixteen ships of the pirates, as they returned homeward with their booty, they met a large fleet of pirates and fought with them the same day, but the Danes had the victory. It could also have derived this name late in the century when the Vikings returned to the estuary in force, twice plundering Ipswich. Shotley Gate and the parish have a position for protecting the ports of Felixstowe, Harwich and Ipswich. Shotley Gate also harbours HMS Ganges, a former Royal Navy training establishment for boys, the teak ship was constructed in 1821 and taken out of service in 1861. It was moved to Shotley in 1899, and by 1905 was moved ashore, the training establishment closed in 1976 and the site was subsequently sold for redevelopment. In June 2011 Babergh District Council declared the site a Conservation Area, the HMS Ganges Museum houses artefacts and memorabilia from the old shore establishment including a large collection of photographs and original documents. The Rose public house is situated in the village of Shotley, the Bristol Arms public house lies in Shotley Gate near the piers and Martello towers. The Shipwreck public house is located at Shotley Marina, also in Shotley Gate at the end of King Edward VII Drive – a popular tourist destination