Buckhorn Draw Pictograph Panel
The Buckhorn Draw Pictograph Panel is an example of rock art, located in Buckhorn Draw in the San Rafael Swell in central Utah, approximately four miles north of the San Rafael campground and bridge. Primarily a Barrier Canyon Style panel, there are a few petroglyphs of Fremont culture origin as well, in many cases the Fremont painted figures on top of the older Barrier Canyon ones. The route up Buckhorn Draw was part of the Old Spanish Trail, as a result of the relatively large number of people passing by, the panel was repeatedly vandalized and marked with graffiti over the years. In 1996 the State of Utah and Emery County restored the panel as part of the centennial celebration. Media related to Buckhorn Draw Pictograph Panel at Wikimedia Commons
Stone spheres of Costa Rica
The stone spheres of Costa Rica are an assortment of over three hundred petrospheres in Costa Rica, located on the Diquís Delta and on Isla del Caño. Locally, they are known as Las Bolas, the spheres are commonly attributed to the extinct Diquís culture and are sometimes referred to as the Diquís Spheres. They are the stone sculptures of the Isthmo-Colombian area. They are thought to have placed in lines along the approach to the houses of chiefs. The Palmar Sur Archeological Excavations are a series of excavations of a site located in the portion of Costa Rica. The excavations have centered on a known as Farm 6, dating back to the Aguas Buenas Period. In June 2014, the Precolumbian Chiefdom Settlements with Stone Spheres of the Diquis was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites, the spheres range in size from a few centimetres to over 2 metres in diameter, and weigh up to 15 tons. Most are sculpted from gabbro, the equivalent of basalt. There are a dozen or so made from limestone. They appear to have made by hammering natural boulders with other rocks.
The degree of finishing and precision of working varies considerably, the gabbro came from sites in the hills, several kilometres away from where the finished spheres are found, though some unfinished spheres remain in the hills. The archaeological site of Palmar Sur is located in the portion of Costa Rica, known as the Diquís Delta. This area is defined by two seasons and dry, the dry season runs from December through March with the wet season comprising the remaining months. The Site is located in Palmar Sur, southern Costa Rica, the site is located on approximately 10 hectares of property that was previously owned by the United Fruit Company in the alluvial plain of the Térraba River. The archaeological site of Farm 6 has been dated to the Aguas Buenas Period and it was a multifunctional site accommodating a settlement and a cemetery, and remains of monumental architecture and sculpture are present on the site. The monumental architecture consists of two mounds which were constructed with retaining walls made of rounded cobbles and filled with earth.
The site contains multiple locations where large stone spheres are found in situ, the stones are believed to have been first created around the year 600, with most dating to after 1000 but before the Spanish conquest. The only method available for dating the stones is stratigraphy
In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone, it is largely synonymous with parietal art. A global phenomenon, rock art is found in many diverse regions of the world. It has been produced in many contexts throughout history, although the majority of rock art that has been ethnographically recorded has been produced as a part of ritual. Such artworks are often divided into three forms, which are carved into the surface, which are painted onto the surface. The oldest known rock art dates from the Upper Palaeolithic period, having found in Europe, Asia. Archaeologists studying these artworks believe that they likely had magico-religious significance, Rock art continues to be of importance to indigenous peoples in various parts of the world, who view them as both sacred items and significant components of their cultural patrimony. Such archaeological sites are significant sources of cultural tourism, and have been utilised in popular culture for their aesthetic qualities.
Normally found in cultures, a rock relief or rock-cut relief is a relief sculpture carved on solid or living rock such as a cliff. They are a category of art, and sometimes found in conjunction with rock-cut architecture. However, they tend to be omitted in most works on rock art, a few such works exploit the natural contours of the rock and use them to define an image, but they do not amount to man-made reliefs. Rock reliefs have been made in many cultures, and were important in the art of the Ancient Near East. Rock reliefs are generally large, as they need to be to make an impact in the open air. Most have figures that are over life-size, and in many the figures are multiples of life-size, the vertical relief is most common, but reliefs on essentially horizontal surfaces are found. The term typically excludes relief carvings inside caves, whether natural or themselves man-made, natural rock formations made into statues or other sculpture in the round, most famously at the Great Sphinx of Giza, are usually excluded.
Reliefs on large boulders left in their location, like the Hittite İmamkullu relief, are likely to be included. The term rock art appears in the literature as early as the 1940s. It has described as rock carvings, rock drawings, rock engravings, rock inscriptions, rock paintings, rock pictures. The defining characteristic of rock art is that it is placed on natural rock surfaces, as such, rock art is a form of landscape art, and includes designs that have been placed on boulder and cliff faces, cave walls and ceilings, and on the ground surface
Writing-on-Stone Provincial Park
Writing-on-Stone Provincial Park is located about 100 kilometres southeast of Lethbridge, Canada, or 44 kilometres east of the community of Milk River, and straddles the Milk River itself. It is one of the largest areas of protected prairie in the Alberta park system, the park is important and sacred to the Blackfoot and many other aboriginal tribes. The park has been nominated by Parks Canada and the Government of Canada as a World Heritage Site and its UNESCO application was filed under the name Áísínai’pi which is Niitsítapi meaning it is pictured / written. The provincial park is synonymous with the Áísínai’pi National Historic Site of Canada, Writing-on-Stone Park contains the greatest concentration of rock art on the North American Great Plains. There are over 50 petroglyph sites and thousands of works, the park showcases a North-West Mounted Police outpost reconstructed on its original site. It was rebuilt since the original outpost was burned down by persons unknown, the park comprises 17.80 square kilometres of coulee and prairie habitat, and boasts a diverse variety of birds and animals.
Bird species include prairie falcon, great horned owl, short-eared owl, American kestrel, cliff swallow, tiger salamanders, boreal chorus frogs and leopard frogs, and plains spadefoot toads represent the amphibians, and garter snakes, bull snakes and prairie rattlesnakes can be found. The coulee environment is optimal for tree species such as balsam poplar, peachleaf willow and plains cottonwood are found here. A large number of shrubs grow here, including chokecherry, saskatoon, sandbar willow, some of the most northern species of cactus, including Opuntia and Pediocactus are found in the park as well. The location where the park now sits was,85 million years ago, sand deposited in the Late Cretaceous Period compacted over time and became sandstone. With the melting of the ice sheets at the end of the last Ice Age, water and wind eroded the sandstone to produce the hoodoos, there is evidence that the Milk River Valley was inhabited by native people as long ago as 9000 years. Native tribes such as the Blackfoot probably created much of the carvings and paintings.
Other native groups such as the Shoshone travelled through the valley and these carvings and paintings tell not only of the lives and journeys of those who created them, but of the spirits they found here. The towering cliffs and hoodoos had a impact on the native visitors. The shelter of the coulees and the abundance of game and berries made the area that is now the park an excellent location for these people to stop on their seasonal migrations. While the greatest use of the area was made by those in transit, there is evidence, including tipi rings and a medicine wheel. Beginning about 1730, large numbers of horses, metal goods and this signified not only a change in the native lifestyle, but a change in the content of the rock art. Pictures of hunters on horseback, and warriors without body shields began to be created, in the period immediately preceding World War I, settlers began to arrive in the area, which helped to alleviate some of the boredom and isolation the NWMP officers faced
Yakima Indian Painted Rocks
Indian Painted Rocks is a tiny state park right outside Yakima, Washington at the intersection of Powerhouse and Ackely Roads. The paintings were thought to be only a few hundred years old. The pictographs were painted on the cliff when a prehistoric lake submerged the bottom, the natives painted the cliff from canoes using organic materials. The rock paintings are stylized polychromatic paintings using white, the paintings are said to have been enhanced by Lucullus Virgil McWhorter using enamel paints, a technique unacceptable to todays preservation community. The state park was acquired from the Yakima Valley Canal Company in 1950, a sign erected by the Washington State Highway Commission at the parks entrance states the following, Origin of these paintings is unknown to present day Indian tribes of this region. They are similar to others found in western North America and are often interpreted as depicting religious experiences. This location was on the old Indian trail which ran from the Wenas Mountains to the Ahtanum bank of the Yakimas, in 1850s, miners en route to British Columbia gold fields used the same trail.
Later, as Americans settled the Yakima Valley, a coach route passed these cliffs. In early 2007, the parks department closed the Indian Painted Rocks park because of graffiti. There are plans to restructure the park in order to protect the painted rocks, Indian Rock Art of the Columbia Plateau. Indian Legends of the Pacific Northwest, spokane Outdoors virtual tour of the Painted Rocks
Roche-a-Cri State Park
Roche-a-Cri State Park is a state park north of Adams and Friendship in central Wisconsin. The park,605 acres in area, was established in 1948, the park features a 300-foot rock outcropping with Native American petroglyphs—the Roche-a-Cri Petroglyphs—and a wooden stairway to the top, as well as more than 5 miles of hiking trails. The striking 300-foot bluff is a core that remains from a larger sheet of Cambrian sandstone which has mostly eroded away. Around 19,000 to 15,000 years ago it was a rising above Glacial Lake Wisconsin. On top of the bluff grow red oak, black oak, white oak, red pine, white pine, roche-A-Cri State Park Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
Atlantean figures, are carved stone support pillars in the shape of fierce men. In Mesoamerica these figures are considered to be statues of Toltec warriors. Atlantean here refers to the figures supporting posture, alluding to the load-bearing Titan Atlas, Atlantean figures were made out of the available stone in the area, such as limestone, sandstone, or volcanic rock. They were carved by hand, presumably by individuals at once. To carve them the individuals would have used tools, such as small chisels for fine sculpting, scrapers of various sizes to shape and add little details. Additional smaller and softer stones were used for smoothing, creating these figures would have been very time-consuming, which is an indication that they served a purpose of some sort. At Potrero Nuevo near San Lorenzo, there is an altar supported by two Atlantean figures, the atlantes are not carved out roundly like they are at sites. Instead they are carved into the background, Chichen Itza is a site located on the northern centre of the Yucatan Peninsula and contains what is known as the Temple of Warriors.
At the top of the temple, used as support for the roof, run columns of the warriors wearing a feathered headdress, a butterfly-shaped pectoral. Tula has long considered the capital for the Toltec people. At Tula one can find the Temple of Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, where there are four Atlantean figures standing over 4.6 metres tall. The figures here are depicted as wearing stylized butterfly breastplates, sun-shaped shields on their backs, feathered headdresses and carry spear throwers, the exact dates for when these figures were carved is unknown. However, rough estimates can be made by dating the sites, the construction of the Toltec empire has been dated to approximately A. D.750, and Chichen Itza earlier to about A. D. 100-250. These dates mark the earliest time that the figures could have been carved, because of the similarity between the sites, it is likely that there are factors that influenced all the places. Therefore, it is likely that the sculpting of these figures took place at a date.
There is indication that Atlantean figures express the rise of new kind of military order, between A. D.850 and A. D. Mesoamerican Atlantean figures are seen to be the representation of this shift in political thinking. Many researchers believe that the figures at Tula may represent the Toltec ruler Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl, Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl is believed to be named after the fair-skinned god worshipped by many Mesoamerica cultures. It is possible, that Atlantean figures in Mesoamerica share not just political roots, Atlas Bacab Maya stelae Potbelly sculpture
Deer Valley Petroglyph Preserve
The petroglyphs are between 500 and 7,000 years old, and at least one source dates the petroglyphs to 10,000 years ago. The site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984, the preserve and museum are operated by the ASU Center for Archaeology + Society. The museum was designed by Will Bruder and was constructed on the site in 1994, the following pictures are of some of the Hohokan Petroglyphs and other items at the Deer Valley Rock Art Center. Phoenix Historic Property Register ASU Deer Valley Petroglyph Preserve - Center for Archaeology and Society
The Esperanza Stone was a large inscribed stone found in the valley of the Yaqui, Mexico. It was discovered and excavated in 1909 by Major F. R. Burnham, the stone was discovered during an expedition in the Yaqui valley. The stone was a brown, igneous rock, its longest axis about eight feet, and on the eastern face, symbols on the stone include a volute and a swastika, found on other stones in Mexico. There was a legend that the stone had fallen out of heaven in times past. Burnham believed that the symbols were Mayan