Rano Raraku is a volcanic crater formed of consolidated volcanic ash, or tuff, and located on the lower slopes of Terevaka in the Rapa Nui National Park on Easter Island in Chile. It was a quarry for about 500 years until the eighteenth century. Rano Raraku is a record of moai design vocabulary and technological innovation. Rano Raraku is in the World Heritage Site of Rapa Nui National Park, the sides of Rano Raraku crater are high and steep except on the north and northwest, where they are much lower and gently sloping. The interior contains one of the islands three freshwater lakes, which is bordered by ngaatu or totora reeds. Some of the incomplete moai seem to have been abandoned after the carvers encountered inclusions of very hard rock in the material, others may be sculptures that were never intended to be separated from the rock in which they are carved. On the outside of the quarry are a number of moai and they are distinctive in that their eyes were not hollowed out, they do not have pukao and they were not cast down in the islands civil wars.
For this last reason, they supplied some of the most famous images of the island and its beard and kneeling posture distinguish it from standard moai. The peculiar posture of this statue is known on Easter Island and is called tuku turi or simply tuku. It was the used by the men and women who formed the chorus in the festivals called riu. Typical of the singers was the slightly backward inclination of the trunk, the head. Tukuturi is made of red scoria from Puna Pau, but sits at Rano Raraku and it is possibly related to the Tangata manu cult, in which case it would be one of the last moai ever made. It seems likely that this represents a riu singer and was made after the production of classic statues had ceased. Terevaka Rapa Nui National Park Easter Island P. E. Baker, preliminary Account of Recent Geological Investigations on Easter Island. Island at the Center of the World, New Light on Easter Island, J. R. Flenley, S. M. King, J. T. Teller, M. E. Prentice, J. Jackson, and C. The Late Quaternary Vegetational and Climatic History of Easter Island, journal of Quaternary Science 6, 85-115.
Easter Island Archaeology and Culture, british Museum Press, Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 0-7141-2504-0 http, //www. sscnet. ucla. edu/ioa/eisp/ Alfred Metraux Katherine Routledge, the Mystery of Easter Island, The Story of an Expedition
Oceania, known as Oceanica, is a region centred on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The term is used more specifically to denote a continent comprising Australia. The term was coined as Océanie circa 1812 by geographer Conrad Malte-Brun, the word Océanie is a French word derived from the Latin word oceanus, and this from the Greek word ὠκεανός, ocean. Natives and inhabitants of this region are called Oceanians or Oceanicans, as an ecozone, Oceania includes all of Micronesia and all of Polynesia except New Zealand. New Zealand, along with New Guinea and nearby islands, part of the Philippine islands, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, in geopolitical terms, New Zealand, the Solomon Islands and New Caledonia are almost always considered part of Oceania. Australia and Papua New Guinea are usually considered part of Oceania along with the Maluku Islands, puncak Jaya in Papua is often considered the highest peak in Oceania. Oceania was originally conceived as the lands of the Pacific Ocean and it comprised four regions, Micronesia and Melanesia.
The area extends to Sumatra in the west, the Bonin Islands in the northwest, the Hawaiian Islands in the northeast, Rapa Nui and Sala y Gómez Island in the east, and Macquarie Island in the south. Not included are the Pacific islands of Taiwan, the Ryukyu Islands and the Japanese archipelago, all on the margins of Asia, and the Aleutian Islands of North America. The islands at the extremes of Oceania are Bonin, a politically integral part of Japan, Hawaii, a state of the United States. There is a geographic definition that excludes land on the Sunda Plate. Biogeographically, Oceania is used as a synonym for either the Australasian ecozone or the Pacific ecozone, Oceania is one of eight terrestrial ecozones, which constitute the major ecological regions of the planet. The Oceania ecozone includes all of Micronesia and all of Polynesia except New Zealand, New Zealand, New Guinea, Melanesia apart from Fiji, and Australia constitute the separate Australasian ecozone. The Malay Archipelago is part of the Indomalaya ecozone, related to these concepts are Near Oceania, that part of western Island Melanesia which has been inhabited for tens of millennia, and Remote Oceania which is more recently settled.
The term is used to denote a continent comprising Australia. New Zealand forms the corner of the Polynesian Triangle. Its indigenous Māori constitute one of the cultures of Polynesia. It is also, considered part of Australasia, the history of Oceania in the medieval period was synonymous with the history of the indigenous peoples of Australasia, Melanesia, Polynesia
Chugai' Pictograph Site
The Chugai Pictograph Site is a prehistoric rock art site on the island of Rota in the Northern Mariana Islands. The rock art is located in a cave on the southeastern side of the island. It consists of a panel,185 feet in length, of about 90 painted drawings. The site is accessed via a cut by the Japanese during the South Pacific Mandate period. The site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1998, National Register of Historic Places listings in the Northern Mariana Islands
A latte stone, or simply latte, is a pillar capped by a hemispherical stone capital with the flat side facing up. Used as building supports by the ancient Chamorro people, they are throughout most of the Mariana Islands. In modern times, the stone is seen as a sign of Chamorro identity and is used in many different contexts. Latte stones have been made of limestone, basalt, or sandstone, typical pillars range in height from 60 centimeters to three meters, and generally narrow towards the top. The pillar was normally quarried and transported to the construction site, for small to medium-sized lattes, the capstone was a large hemispherical coral head that was gathered from a reef. The massive capstones found in Rota were instead quarried, like the pillars, in Oceania the latte stone is unique to the Marianas, though megaliths of differing construction and purpose are common to Oceanic cultures. Similarities between the stone and the wood posts made by the Ifugao sub-group of the Igorot in the Philippines.
The rounded capstones help prevent rats from climbing up the pillar, Latte stones varied greatly in size. The smallest were several feet tall, the largest latte still standing is 16 feet tall, located in Tinian. In Rota, quarried latte would have stood 25 feet high if erected, the largest shaft found here weighs 34 tons while the largest cap weighs 22 tons. The history of the pre-contact Marianas is usually divided into three periods, Pre-Latte, Transitional Pre-Latte, and Latte, undisturbed stones are found usually arranged in parallel pairs of between eight and fourteen lattes framing a rectangular space. The more pairs in the structure, the taller the latte stones, one twenty latte arrangement was found in the current location of the military Ordnance Annex on southern Guam. However, the lack of definitive, consistent evidence means that all theories are disputed, archaeologists who have worked in the Marianas since the end of World War II have noted a distinct difference between latte stones located along the coast, as opposed to those located inland.
Coastal latte tend to be placed in sand containing extensive relics of habitation, including shards of pottery and animal bones, human burials were placed within sand containing these archaeological remnants, either within or near sets of lattes. In contrast, the soil in which inland lattes stones are placed rarely has an archaeological stratum or associated burial, the implication is that mainland latte sites were temporarily occupied, and perhaps of a change in burial practice in the Latte Period. In modern times, latte stones are a symbol of Chamorro identity and are found in a variety of government, business. Concrete lattes are sometimes incorporated into new buildings, while residents of the Marianas will sometimes incorporate actual latte stones into the landscaping around their homes, history of Guam Moai Nan Madol Staddle stones Media related to Latte stones at Wikimedia Commons
Relocation of moai objects
The following table lists the most prominent figures held in museums and collections, The issue of authenticiy of Moai heads may never be fully resolved. The fact is that the used to carve the heads are as old as the volcano eruption that formed them. Determining the age of an Easter Island Moai head is therefore an art, field experts make judgments and express opinions about what tools they feel were used and attempt to tie an age to that opinion. Such a condition means that Moai Heads cannot be tested with hope of determining authenticity, they may, however, as with any object of antiquity, the patrimony, the history and story of the heads, is an important part in determining authenticity. An unauthenticated moai head entitled Henry currently stands in the Forest Lawn Memorial Park, Glendale and it was obtained in the first half of the 20th century by the founder of the park Dr. Hubert Eaton. Dr. Eaton received the moai in a transaction between Rapanui fishermen at Easter Island who were using the head as ballast for a boat.
The Memorial Park has no plans for authenticating or testing the moai in the near future and it appears that the cuts have been made with modern machinery and not with stone tools. In 1968, a moai was taken from Rapa Nui and displayed in New York City as a publicity stunt to oppose the building of a jet refueling facility on Easter Island, around the time of the campaign and the following tour to Washington D. C. In co-operation with the International Fund for Monuments Inc, Lippincott produced a copy from the original moai, in 1974, Object No.3 was produced from the copy, and now stands outside the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone, it is largely synonymous with parietal art. A global phenomenon, rock art is found in many diverse regions of the world. It has been produced in many contexts throughout history, although the majority of rock art that has been ethnographically recorded has been produced as a part of ritual. Such artworks are often divided into three forms, which are carved into the surface, which are painted onto the surface. The oldest known rock art dates from the Upper Palaeolithic period, having found in Europe, Asia. Archaeologists studying these artworks believe that they likely had magico-religious significance, Rock art continues to be of importance to indigenous peoples in various parts of the world, who view them as both sacred items and significant components of their cultural patrimony. Such archaeological sites are significant sources of cultural tourism, and have been utilised in popular culture for their aesthetic qualities.
Normally found in cultures, a rock relief or rock-cut relief is a relief sculpture carved on solid or living rock such as a cliff. They are a category of art, and sometimes found in conjunction with rock-cut architecture. However, they tend to be omitted in most works on rock art, a few such works exploit the natural contours of the rock and use them to define an image, but they do not amount to man-made reliefs. Rock reliefs have been made in many cultures, and were important in the art of the Ancient Near East. Rock reliefs are generally large, as they need to be to make an impact in the open air. Most have figures that are over life-size, and in many the figures are multiples of life-size, the vertical relief is most common, but reliefs on essentially horizontal surfaces are found. The term typically excludes relief carvings inside caves, whether natural or themselves man-made, natural rock formations made into statues or other sculpture in the round, most famously at the Great Sphinx of Giza, are usually excluded.
Reliefs on large boulders left in their location, like the Hittite İmamkullu relief, are likely to be included. The term rock art appears in the literature as early as the 1940s. It has described as rock carvings, rock drawings, rock engravings, rock inscriptions, rock paintings, rock pictures. The defining characteristic of rock art is that it is placed on natural rock surfaces, as such, rock art is a form of landscape art, and includes designs that have been placed on boulder and cliff faces, cave walls and ceilings, and on the ground surface
Moai /ˈmoʊ. aɪ/, or mo‘ai, are monolithic human figures carved by the Rapa Nui people on Easter Island in eastern Polynesia between 1250 and 1500 A. D. Nearly half are still at Rano Raraku, the main moai quarry, almost all moai have overly large heads three-eighths the size of the whole statue. The moai are chiefly the living faces of deified ancestors, the statues still gazed inland across their clan lands when Europeans first visited the island in 1722, but all of them had fallen by the latter part of the 19th century. The production and transportation of the more than 900 statues are considered remarkable creative, the moai toppled after European contact when islander traditions radically changed. The moai are monolithic statues, their minimalist style related to forms found throughout Polynesia, Moai are carved in relatively flat planes, the faces bearing proud but enigmatic expressions. The human figures would be outlined in the wall first. The over-large heads have heavy brows and elongated noses with a distinctive fish-hook-shaped curl of the nostrils, the lips protrude in a thin pout.
Like the nose, the ears are elongated and oblong in form, the jaw lines stand out against the truncated neck. The torsos are heavy, sometimes, the clavicles are subtly outlined in stone, the anatomical features of the backs are not detailed, but sometimes bear a ring and girdle motif on the buttocks and lower back. Except for one kneeling moai, the statues do not have clearly visible legs, though moai are whole-body statues, they are erroneously referred to as Easter Island heads in some popular literature. Some of the heads at Rano Raraku have been excavated and their bodies seen, the average height of the moai is about 4 m, with the average width at the base around 1.6 m. These massive creations usually weigh in at around 12.5 tonnes each, all but 53 of the more than 900 moai known to date were carved from tuff from Rano Raraku, where 394 moai and incomplete moai are still visible today. There are 13 moai carved from basalt,22 from trachyte and 17 from fragile red scoria, at the end of carving, the builders would rub the statue with pumice.
Easter Island statues are known for their large, broad noses and strong chins, along with rectangle-shaped ears and their bodies are normally squatting, with their arms resting in different positions and are without legs. The major of the ahu are found along the coast and face inland towards the community, there are some inland ahu such as Ahu Akivi. These moai face the community but given the size of the island. The discovery was made by collecting and reassembling broken fragments of coral that were found at the various sites. Subsequently, previously uncategorized finds in the Easter Island museum were re-examined and recategorized as eye fragments, many archaeologists suggest that statues were thus symbols of authority and power, both religious and political
Rai, or stone money, are large, circular stone disks carved out of limestone formed from aragonite and calcite crystals. Rai stones were quarried on several of the Micronesian islands, mainly Palau, but briefly on Guam as well and they have been used in trade by the Yapese as a form of currency. The monetary system of Yap relies on a history of ownership. Because these stones are too large to move, buying an item with one simply involves agreeing that the ownership has changed. As long as the transaction is recorded in the history, it will now be owned by the person it is passed on to. Rai stones are circular disks with a hole in the middle, the stones vary widely in size, the largest are 3.6 meters in diameter,0.5 meters thick and weigh 4 metric tons. The largest rai stone is located on Rumung island, near Riy village, smaller rai stones might have a diameter of 7–8 centimetres. The extrinsic value of a stone is based not only on its size and craftsmanship. If many people—or no one at all—died when the stone was transported, or a famous sailor brought it in.
Many of them are placed in front of meetinghouses or along pathways, the physical location of the stone may not matter—though the ownership of a particular stone changes, the stone itself is rarely moved due to its weight and risk of damage. The names of owners are passed down to the new one. In one instance, a large rai being transported by canoe and outrigger was accidentally dropped, although it was never seen again, everyone agreed that the rai must still be there, so it continued to be transacted as genuine currency. What is important is that ownership of the rai is clear to everyone, Yapese quarried the limestone rocks from the islands of Palau and took them to Yap with canoes and rafts. There is evidence that some limestone has been mined in Palau by Yapese as early as 500 AD, local legend holds that the Yapese discovered the rock of Palau about 500–600 years ago when an expedition led by a man called Anagumang landed on Palau. Limestone was nonexistent in Yap and therefore valuable to the Yapese.
First Anagumang ordered his men to cut stone into the shape of fish but eventually a circular shape was chosen, a pole was put through the hole in the center of the stone so that laborers could carry the stone. The largest of the disks probably needed hundreds of men to transport, residents of Palau in turn required Yapese to pay in beads, coconut meat and copra or in the form of services for the privilege of quarrying. It is unknown how long money stones have been used in Yap, flat rocks have been found there that are up to 2000 years old, but the oldest do not resemble todays rai stones, and it is not known if they were used as money