Alfonso the Battler
Alfonso I, called the Battler or the Warrior, was the king of Aragon and Navarre from 1104 until his death in 1134. He was the son of King Sancho Ramírez and successor of his brother Peter I. Alfonso the Battler earned his sobriquet in the Reconquista and he won his greatest military successes in the middle Ebro, where he conquered Zaragoza in 1118 and took Ejea, Calatayud, Tarazona and Monreal del Campo. He died in September 1134 after a battle with the Muslims at the Battle of Fraga. During his brothers reign, he participated in the taking of Huesca, which became the largest city in the kingdom and he joined El Cids expeditions in Valencia. His father gave him the lordships of Biel, Ardenes, a series of deaths put Alfonso directly in line for the throne. His brothers children and Peter, died in 1103 and 1104 respectively, a passionate fighting-man, he was married in 1109 to the ambitious Queen Urraca of León, widow of Raymond of Burgundy, a passionate woman unsuited for a subordinate role.
The marriage had been arranged by her father Alfonso VI of León in 1106 to unite the two chief Christian states against the Almoravids, and to them with a capable military leader. But Urraca was tenacious of her right as queen regnant and had not learnt chastity in the household of her father. Husband and wife quarrelled with the brutality of the age and came to open war, Alfonso had the support of one section of the nobles who found their account in the confusion. The marriage of Alfonso and Urraca was declared null by the Pope, as they were cousins, in 1110. He inserted the title of imperator on the basis that he had three kingdoms under his rule, the king quarrelled with the church, and particularly the Cistercians, almost as violently as with his wife. As he defeated her, so he drove Archbishop Bernard into exile and he was finally compelled to give way in Castile and León to his stepson, Alfonso VII of Castile, son of Urraca and her first husband. The intervention of Pope Calixtus II brought about an arrangement between the old man and his young namesake, in 1122 in Belchite, he founded a confraternity of knights to fight against the Almoravids.
It was the start of the orders in Aragon. Years later, he organised a branch of the Militia Christi of the Holy Land at Monreal del Campo, Alfonso spent his first four years in near-constant war with the Muslims. In 1105, he conquered Ejea and Tauste and refortified Castellar, in 1106, he defeated Ahmad II al-Mustain of Zaragoza at Valtierra. In 1107, he took Tamarite de Litera and Esteban de la Litera, followed a period dominated by his relations with Castile and León through his wife, Urraca
Amadeo I of Spain
Amadeo I was the only King of Spain from the House of Savoy. He was the son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and was known for most of his life as the Duke of Aosta. He was elected by the Cortes as Spains monarch in 1870, following the deposition of Isabella II, amadeos reign was fraught with growing republicanism, Carlist rebellions in the north, and the Cuban independence movement. He abdicated and returned to Italy in 1873, and the First Spanish Republic was declared as a result, Prince Amedeo of Savoy was born in Turin. He was the son of King Vittorio Emanuele II and of Archduchess Adelaide of Austria. He was styled the Duke of Aosta from birth, in 1867 his father yielded to the entreaties of parliamentary deputy Francisco Cassins, and on 30 May of that year, Amedeo was married to Donna Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo. The King initially opposed the match on the grounds that her family was of insufficient rank, despite her princely title, Donna Maria Vittoria was not of royal birth, belonging rather to the Piedmontese nobility.
In March 1870, the Duchess appealed to the King to remonstrate with his son for marital infidelities that caused her hurt and embarrassment. But the King wrote in reply that, while understanding her feelings, he considered that she had no right to dictate her husbands behaviour and that her jealousy was unbecoming. The wedding day of Prince Amedeo and Donna Maria Vittoria was marred by the death of a stationmaster who was crushed under the wheels of the honeymoon train, after the Spanish revolution deposed Isabella II, the new Cortes decided to reinstate the monarchy under a new dynasty. The Duke of Aosta was elected King as Amadeus on 16 November 1870 and he swore to uphold the constitution in Madrid on 2 January 1871. The election of the new King coincided with the assassination of General Marqués de los Castillejos and he could count on the support of only the progressive party, whose leaders were trading off in the government thanks to parliamentary majority and electoral fraud. The progressives divided into monarchists and constitutionalists, which made the instability worse, there was a Carlist uprising in the Basque and Catalan regions, and after that, republican uprisings happened in cities across the country.
The artillery corps of the went on strike, and the government instructed the King to discipline them. With the possibility of reigning without popular support, Amadeus issued an order against the artillery corps, at ten oclock that same night, Spain was proclaimed a republic, at which time Amadeo made an appearance before the Cortes, proclaiming the Spanish people ungovernable. Completely disgusted, the ex-monarch left Spain and returned to Italy and they had one child, who died of the flu during the First World War. Amadeo remained in Turin, Italy until his death on 18 January 1890 and his friend Puccini composed the famous elegy for string quartet Crisantemi in his memory. Lake Amadeus in central Australia is named after him, as is the Philippine municipality of Amadeo, by Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo, Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta Marshal of Italy married to Princess Hélène of Orléans and had issue
Bohemond I of Antioch
Bohemond I was the Prince of Taranto from 1089 to 1111 and the Prince of Antioch from 1098 to 1111. He was a leader of the First Crusade, which was governed by a committee of nobles, the Norman monarchy he founded in Antioch arguably outlasted those of England and of Sicily. Bohemond was the son of Robert Guiscard, Count of Apulia and Calabria and he was born between 1050 and 1058—in 1054 according to historian John Julius Norwich. He was baptised Mark, possibly because he was born at his fathers castle at San Marco Argentano in Calabria and he was nicknamed Bohemond after a legendary giant. His parents were related within the degree of kinship that made their marriage invalid under canon law, with the annulment of his parents marriage, Bohemond became a bastard. Before long, Alberada married Robert Guiscards nephew, Richard of Hauteville and she arranged for a knightly education for Bohemond. Robert Guiscard was taken ill in early 1073. Fearing that he was dying, Sikelgaita held an assembly in Bari, Roberts nephew, Abelard of Hauteville, was the only baron to protest, because he regarded himself Roberts lawful heir.
Bohemond fought in his fathers army during the rebellion of Jordan I of Capua, Geoffrey of Conversano and his father dispatched him at the head of an advance guard against the Byzantine Empire in early 1081 and he captured Valona. He sailed to Corfu, but did not invade the island since the local garrison outnumbered his army and he withdrew to Butrinto to await the arrival of his fathers forces. After Robert Guiscard arrived in the half of May, they laid siege to Durazzo. The Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos came to the rescue of the town but, on 18 October, Bohemond commanded the left flank, which defeated the Emperors largely Anglo-Saxon Varangian Guard. The Normans captured Durazzo on 21 February 1082 and they marched along the Via Egnatia as far as Kastoria, but Alexioss agents stirred up a rebellion in Southern Italy, forcing Robert Guiscard to return to his realm in April. He charged Bohemond with the command of his army in the Balkans, Bohemond defeated the Byzantines at Ioannina and at Arta, taking control of most of Macedonia and Thessaly, the six-month siege of Larissa was unsuccessful.
Supply and pay problems undermined the morale of the Norman army, during his absence, most of the Norman commanders deserted to the Byzantines and a Venetian fleet recaptured Durazzo and Corfu. Bohemond accompanied his father to the Byzantine Empire again in 1084, an epidemic decimated the Normans and Bohemond, who was taken seriously ill, was forced to return to Italy in December 1084. Robert Guiscard died at Cephalonia on 17 July 1085 and she persuaded the army to acclaim Roger Borsa his fathers successor and they hurried back to Southern Italy. Two months later, the assembly of the Norman barons confirmed the succession and he made an alliance with Jordan of Capua, and captured Oria and Otranto
Alfonso II of Aragon
Alfonso II, called the Chaste or the Troubadour, was the King of Aragon and, as Alfons I, the Count of Barcelona from 1164 until his death. The eldest son of Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona and Queen Petronilla of Aragon and he was Count of Provence, which he conquered from Douce II, from 1166 until 1173, when he ceded it to his brother, Ramon Berenguer III. Born at Huesca, called indistinctly from birth Alfonso and Ramon, ascended the throne of Aragon and Barcelona as Alfonso, in deference to the Aragonese. For most of his reign he was allied with Alfonso VIII of Castile, in his Reconquista effort Alfonso pushed as far as Teruel, conquering this important stronghold on the road to Valencia in 1171. The same year saw him capturing Caspe, apart from common interests, kings of Aragon and Castile were united by a formal bond of vassalage the former owed to the latter. Besides, on January 18,1174, in Zaragoza Alfonso married Sancha, another milestone in this alliance was the Treaty of Cazorla between the two kings in 1179, delineating zones of conquest in the south along the watershed of the rivers Júcar and Segura.
Southern areas of Valencia including Denia were thus secured to Aragon, Alfonso reached an agreement, the Treaty of Sangüesa, with Sancho VI of Navarre dividing the territory of the Taifa of Murcia between them. During his reign Aragonese influence north of the Pyrenees reached its zenith and his realms incorporated not only Provence, but the counties of Cerdanya and Roussillon. Béarn and Bigorre paid homage to him in 1187, Alfonso II provided the first land grant to the Cistercian monks on the banks of the Ebro River in the Aragon region, which would become the site of the first Cistercian monastery in this region. He died at Perpignan in 1196 and he was a noted poet of his time and a close friend of King Richard the Lionheart. The debate had begun by Guilhem de Saint-Leidier and was taken up by Azalais de Porcairagues and Raimbaut of Orange. Wife, Sancha of Castile, daughter of king Alfonso VII of Castile, b.1155 or 1157, d.1208 Peter II, King of Aragon, married firstly King Imre of Hungary and secondly Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor.
Alfonso II, Count of Provence and Razès, married Count Raymond VI of Toulouse. Sancha, married Count Raymond VII of Toulouse, in March 1211 Ferdinand, cistercian monk, Abbot of Montearagón
Augustus II the Strong
Augustus II the Strong of the Albertine line of the House of Wettin was Elector of Saxony, Imperial Vicar and became King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. Augustus great physical strength earned him the nicknames the Strong, the Saxon Hercules, in order to be elected King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Augustus converted to Roman Catholicism. As a Catholic, he received the Order of the Golden Fleece from the Holy Roman Emperor, as Elector of Saxony, he is perhaps best remembered as a patron of the arts and architecture. He established the Saxon capital of Dresden as a cultural centre. Augustus amassed an art collection and built lavish baroque palaces in Dresden. His reigns brought Poland some troubled times and he led the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Great Northern War, which led to the Russian Empire strengthening its influence in Europe, especially within Poland. His main pursuit was bolstering royal power in the Commonwealth, characterized by broad decentralization in comparison with other European monarchies and he tried to accomplish this goal using foreign powers and thus destabilized the state.
Augustus was born in Dresden on 12 May 1670, the son of the Elector Johann Georg III. As the second son, Augustus had no expectation of inheriting the electorate, since his brother, Johann Georg IV. Augustus married Kristiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth in Bayreuth on 20 January 1693 and they had a son, Frederick Augustus II, who succeeded his father as Elector of Saxony and King of Poland as Augustus III. While cavorting during the season in Venice, his older brother. On 27 April 1694, Johann Georg died without issue and Augustus became Elector of Saxony. To be eligible for election to the throne of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1697, the Saxon dukes had traditionally been called champions of the Reformation. Saxony had been a stronghold of German Protestantism and Augustus conversion was considered shocking in Protestant Europe. Although the prince-elector guaranteed Saxonys religious status quo, Augustus conversion alienated many of his Protestant subjects, as a result of the enormous expenditure of money used to bribe the Polish nobility and clergy, Augustus contemporaries derisively referred to the Saxon dukes royal ambitions as his Polish adventure.
His church policy within the Holy Roman Empire followed orthodox Lutheranism and ran counter to his new-found religious, the Protestant princes of the empire and the two remaining Protestant electors were anxious to keep Saxony well-integrated in their camp. Saxony remained Lutheran and the few Roman Catholics residing in Saxony lacked any political or civil rights. In 1717, it clear just how awkward the situation was, to realize his ambitious dynastic plans in Poland and Germany
Baldwin II, Latin Emperor
Baldwin II, known as Baldwin of Courtenay, was the last monarch of the Latin Empire ruling from Constantinople. Baldwin II was born in Constantinople, a son of Yolanda of Flanders. The barons chose John of Brienne as emperor-regent for life, Baldwin was to marry Marie of Brienne, daughter of John and his third wife Berenguela of Leon, and on Johns death to enjoy the full imperial sovereignty. The marriage contract was carried out in 1234, the realm Baldwin governed was little more than the city of Constantinople. He adopted the Byzantine title of porphyrogenetos and his financial situation was desperate, and his life was chiefly occupied in begging at European courts. He went to the West in 1236, visited Rome and Flanders, trying to raise money, in 1237, with the support of the King of France and the Countess of Flanders, he chased his sister Margaret from power to become the next Count of Namur. But Baldwin was practically never present, and after the invasion and conquest of Namur by Henry V, Count of Luxembourg in 1256, he sold the rights on the County to his cousin Guy, Count of Flanders.
In 1237, Baldwin II pawned the Crown of Thorns to a Venetian merchant for 13,134 gold pieces and his efforts met with success, and in 1240 he returned to Constantinople at the head of a considerable army. Circumstances hindered him from accomplishing anything with this help, and in 1245 he traveled again to the West, first to Italy and to France, the empress Marie and Philip of Toucy governed during his absence. He was happy to be able to get money from King Louis IX in exchange for relics, in 1249 he was with King Louis at Damietta. The extremity of his financial straits reduced him soon afterwards to handing over his son, Philip. Philip was redeemed by Alfonso X of Castile, the rest of his reign was spent by Baldwin in mendicant tours in western Europe. On the night of 24 July 1261, a group of soldiers under Alexios Strategopoulos managed to enter Constantinople through a secret passageway, Baldwin made his way to the harbor where he boarded a Venetian galley to Negropont. From there he proceeded to Athens, thence to Apulia, finally to France, as titular emperor, his role was still the same, to beg help from the western powers.
In 1267 he went to Italy, his hopes were centred on Charles of Anjou, to this intent, he signed the Treaty of Viterbo with Baldwin. During the next year Baldwin and his son Philip lived on pensions from Charles, in October 1273 Philip married Beatrice, daughter of Charles, at Foggia. A few days Baldwin died in Naples, under Baldwin II, Constantinoples population had fallen to a mere 35,000 people. Harris, Jonathan and the Crusades, Bloomsbury, 2nd ed.2014, mortgage and Redemption of an Emperors Son and the Latin Empire of Constantinople
Alfonso XII of Spain
Alfonso XII was King of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885, after a coup détat restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic. Having been forced into exile after the Glorious Revolution deposed his mother Isabella II from the throne in 1868, Alfonso studied in Austria and his mother abdicated in his favour in 1870, and he returned to Spain as king in 1874 following a military coup. Alfonso died aged 27 in 1885, and was succeeded by his unborn son, Alfonso was born in Madrid as the eldest son of Queen Isabella II. Officially, his father was her husband, King Francis, alfonsos biological paternity is uncertain, there is speculation that his biological father may have been Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans. These rumours were used as propaganda against Alfonso by the Carlists. His mothers accession created the second cause of instability, which was the Carlist Wars, the supporters of the Count of Molina as king of Spain rose to have him enthroned. This led to the cause of instability of note, the Independence of the American Kingdoms.
When Queen Isabella and her husband were forced to leave Spain by the Revolution of 1868, from there, he was sent to the Theresianum at Vienna to continue his studies. On 25 June 1870, he was recalled to Paris, where his mother abdicated in his favour, after Amadeos abandonment in 1873, Parliament declared the Federal Republic, the first act of President Estanislao Figueras was to extend the Abolition Act to Puerto Rico. Cuban slaves would have to wait until 1889, but the republicans were not in agreement either, and they had to contend with the War in Cuba, and Muslim uprisings in Spanish Morocco. By 1872, the Third Carlist War erupted and this unrest led to the creation of a group in favor of the Bourbon restoration, made by some sectors of the conservatives led by Canovas del Castillo. The Prince of Asturias, was the chosen to develop the new road map proposed by Canovas. The new road map, which indeed ended the eternal crisis begun in 1810 was called Alfonsismo, as having Alfonso in Spain would be a problem, Cánovas became responsible for his education.
He sent Alfonso to the Sandhurst Military Academy in England, where the training Alfonso received was severe but more cosmopolitan than in Spain, on 1 December 1874, Alfonso issued the Sandhurst Manifesto, where he set the ideological basis of the Bourbon Restoration. It was drafted in reply to a greeting from his followers. Thereupon the President resigned, and his power was transferred to the kings plenipotentiary and adviser, the 29 December 1874 military coup of Gen. Martinez Campos in Sagunto ended the failed republic and meant the rise of the young Prince Alfonso. In 1876, a campaign against the Carlists, in which the young king took part, resulted in the defeat of Don Carlos. Cánovas was the architect of the new regime of the Restoration
Angevin kings of England
The Angevins /ændʒvɪns/ were an English royal house in the 12th and early 13th centuries, its monarchs were Henry II, Richard I and John. As a political entity this was different from the preceding Norman. Geoffrey became Duke of Normandy in 1144 and died in 1151, in 1152 his heir, added Aquitaine by virtue of his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine. Henry inherited the claim of his mother, Empress Matilda, Henry was succeeded by his third son, whose reputation for martial prowess won him the epithet Cœur de Lion or Lionheart. He was born and raised in England but spent very little time there during his adult life, despite this Richard remains an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France, and is one of very few kings of England remembered by his nickname as opposed to regnal number. When Richard died, his brother John – Henry’s fifth and only surviving son – took the throne, in 1204 John lost much of the Angevins continental territories, including Anjou, to the French crown. He and his successors were recognized as dukes of Aquitaine.
The loss of Anjou from which the dynasty is named is the rationale behind Johns son—Henry III of England— being considered the first Plantagenet—a name derived from a nickname for Geoffrey. Where no distinction is made between the Angevins—and Angevin era— and subsequent English Kings, Henry II is the first Plantagenet king, in addition it is used pertaining to Anjou, or any sovereign, government derived from this. As a noun it is used for any native of Anjou or Angevin ruler, the term Angevin Empire was coined in 1887 by Kate Norgate. Whereas the Angevin part of this term has proved uncontentious the empire portion has proved controversial, in 1986 a convention of historical specialists concluded that there had been no Angevin state and no empire but the term espace Plantagenet was acceptable. The Angevins descend from Geoffrey II, Count of Gâtinais and Ermengarde of Anjou, in 1060 this couple inherited, via cognatic kinship, the county of Anjou from an older line dating from 870 and a noble called Ingelger.
It was from this marriage that Geoffrey’s son, inherited the claims to England and Anjou that marks the beginning of the Angevin and this was the third attempt by Geoffrey’s father Fulk V to build a political alliance with Normandy. The first was by marrying his daughter Matilda to Henry’s heir William Adelin, Fulk married his daughter Sibylla to William Clito, heir to Henrys older brother Robert Curthose, but Henry had the marriage annulled to avoid strengthening William’s rival claim to his lands. As society became more prosperous and stable in the 11th century, the twelfth-century chronicler Ralph de Diceto noted that the counts of Anjou extended their dominion over their neighbours by marriage rather than conquest. The marriage of Geoffrey to the daughter of a king occurred in this context, King Henry’s great relief in 1133 at the birth of a son to the couple, described as the heir to the Kingdom, is understandable in the light of this situation. According to William of Newburgh writing in the 1190s, the plan failed because of Geoffrey’s early death in 1151.
Henry’s brother Geoffrey died in 1154, too soon to receive Anjou, the unity of Henry’s assemblage of domains was largely dependent on the ruling family, influencing the opinion of most historians that this instability made it unlikely to endure
Aimery of Cyprus
Aimery of Lusignan, erroneously referred to as Amalric or Amaury in earlier scholarship, was the first King of Cyprus from 1196 to 1205. He was King of Jerusalem by virtue of being the husband of the queen, Isabella I of Jerusalem and he was the younger son of Hugh VIII of Lusignan, a nobleman in Poitou. After participating in a rebellion against Henry II of England in 1168, he went to the Holy Land and his marriage to Eschiva of Ibelin strengthened his position in the kingdom. His younger brother, Guy of Lusignan, married Sibylla, the sister of, Baldwin made Aimery Constable of Jerusalem around 1180. Aimery supported his brother, even after Guy had lost his claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem according to most barons of the realm, because of the death of Sibylla, the new king of Jerusalem, Henry of Champagne, arrested him for a short period. After his release, he retired to Jaffa which was the fief of his brother, Geoffrey of Lusignan. After Guy died in May 1194, his vassals in Cyprus elected Aimery as their lord and he accepted the suzerainty of the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VI.
With the emperors authorization, Aimery was crowned King of Cyprus in September 1197 and he soon married Henry of Champagnes widow, Isabella I of Jerusalem. He and his wife were crowned king and queen of Jerusalem in January 1198 and he signed a truce with Al-Adil I, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, which secured the Christian possession of the coastline from Acre to Antioch. His rule was a period of peace and stability in both of his realms, Aimery was the fifth son of Hugh VIII of Lusignan and his wife, Burgundia of Rancon. His family had been noted for generations of crusaders in their native Poitou and his great-grandfather, Hugh VI of Lusignan, died in the Battle of Ramla in 1102, Aimerys grandfather, Hugh VII of Lusignan, took part in the Second Crusade. Aimerys father came to the Holy Land and died in a Muslim prison in the 1160s, earlier scholarship erroneously referred to him as Amalric, but documentary evidence shows he was actually called Aimericus, which is a distinct name. Aimery joined a rebellion against Henry II of England in 1168, according to Robert of Torignis chronicle, Aimery left for the Holy Land and settled in the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
He was captured in a battle and held in captivity in Damascus, a popular tradition held, the king of Jerusalem, ransomed him personally. Ernoul claimed, Aimery was a lover of Amalric of Jerusalems former wife, Aimery married Eschiva of Ibelin, a daughter of Baldwin of Ibelin, who was one of the most powerful noblemen in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Amalric of Jerusalem, who died on 11 July 1174, was succeeded by his son by Agnes of Courtenay. Aimery became the member of the court with his father-in-laws support. Aimerys youngest brother, married Baldwin IVs widowed sister, Ernoul wrote, it was Aimery who had spoken of his brother to her and her mother, Agnes of Courtenay, describing him as a handsome and charming young man
Alois, Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein
Alois, Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein, Count Rietberg, is the eldest son of Hans Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein, and Countess Marie Aglaë Kinsky of Wchinitz and Tettau. Alois has been regent of Liechtenstein since 15 August 2004 and he is married to Duchess Sophie of Bavaria. Alois attended the Liechtenstein Grammar School in Vaduz-Ebenholz and the Royal Military Academy and he served in the Coldstream Guards in Hong Kong and London for six months before entering the University of Salzburg, from which he earned a Masters degree in Jurisprudence in 1993. Until 1996, Alois worked at a firm of chartered accountants in London, in May of that year, he returned to Vaduz and became active in managing his fathers finances. Hans-Adam II retained the powers in a Constitutional referendum in 2003. On Liechtenstein Day in 2004, Hans-Adam II formally turned the power of making day-to-day governmental decisions over to his son, on 27 November 2005, Liechtenstein voters rejected an initiative that would prohibit abortion and birth control in the principality.
Instead, a counter proposal was ratified. The pro-life initiative was supported by Roman Catholic Archbishop Wolfgang Haas, Alois was initially sympathetic to the pro-life proposal, but became neutral during the run-up to the vote. In 2011, Alois threatened to exercise his princely veto if voters approved a referendum to legalize abortion in the principality. Such a veto was not necessary as the rejected the proposal. Following the Princes threat, the Damit deine Stimme zählt initiative was launched to change the constitution to prevent the Prince from vetoing legislation approved in referendums, the referendum was held on 1 July 2012 and 76% of voters upheld the Princes power to veto referendum results. On 3 July 1993, at St. Florins in Vaduz, Alois married Duchess Sophie in Bavaria, now Hereditary Princess of Liechtenstein and they have four children, Prince Joseph Wenzel Maximilian Maria of Liechtenstein, Count Rietberg. Princess Marie-Caroline Elisabeth Immaculata of Liechtenstein, Countess Rietberg, Prince Georg Antonius Constantin Maria of Liechtenstein, Count Rietberg.
Prince Nikolaus Sebastian Alexander Maria of Liechtenstein, Count Rietberg, the prince hosts an open day at his castle on 15 August every year where guests are treated to local drinks and the opportunity to meet and mingle with the princely family. Later that night, the castle is lit up by a projection system and a world class fireworks display. 11 June 1968 –13 November 1989, His Serene Highness Prince Alois of Liechtenstein,13 November 1989 – present, His Serene Highness The Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein. 15 August 2004 – present, His Serene Highness The Prince Regent of Liechtenstein, Grand Star of the Order of Merit of the Principality of Liechtenstein. Austria, Grand Decoration of Honour in Gold with Sash for Services to the Republic of Austria, King Bhumibol Adulyadej Diamond Jubilee Medal