Lucrinus Lacus, or Lucrine Lake is a lake of Campania, southern Italy, less than one kilometre to the south of Lake Avernus. The lake is separated from the sea by a strip of land that is traversed by the coast road, the Via Herculanea. The road runs on an embankment, the construction of which was attributed to Heracles in Strabos time. The length of the dyke that separated it from the sea. Its greatest depth is about 5 metres, in Roman days its fisheries were important and its oyster-beds, whose foundation is attributed to one Sergius Orata in about 100 BC, were renowned - as they are today. The remnants of this villa, with the village of Tripergola, today Lucrino is a frazione of the comune of Pozzuoli. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. Endnote, Karl Julius Beloch, Campanien, ed.2,172
Pozzuoli is a city and comune of the Metropolitan City of Naples, in the Italian region of Campania. It is the city of the Phlegrean Peninsula. Pozzuoli began as the Greek colony of Dicaearchia, the Roman colony was established in 194 BC, and took the name Puteoli which it has his roots from puteus, meaning well and osco fistulus. An alternative etymology of Puteoli from the Latin puteo, referring to the smell in the area. This is because Pozzuoli lies in the center of the Campi Flegrei, Puteoli was the great emporium for the Alexandrian grain ships, and other ships from all over the Roman world. It was the hub for goods exported from Campania, including blown glass, wrought iron. The Roman naval base at nearby Misenum housed the largest naval fleet in the ancient world and it was the site of the Roman Dictator Sullas country villa and the place where he died in 78 BC. The local volcanic sand, pozzolana formed the basis for the first effective concrete, instead of just evaporating slowly off, the water would turn this sand/lime mix into a mortar strong enough to bind lumps of aggregate into a load-bearing unit.
This made possible the cupola of the Pantheon, which is still the worlds largest unreinforced concrete dome, the apostle Paul landed here on his way to Rome, from which it was 170 miles distant. Here he stayed for seven days and began with his companions his journey by the Appian Way to Rome, Puteoli is considered the best candidate for the unnamed city where the 1st century Roman novel Satyricon takes place. Saint Proculus was martyred here with his companions in the fourth century, the seven eagle heads on the coat-of-arms for the town of Pozzuoli are said to represent seven of these martyrs. November 16 was the official feast day for Saint Proculus, st. Proculus was affectionately nicknamed u pisciasotto because November 16 was often a day of rain. The townspeople celebrated his feast day on the second Sunday in May, charles Lyell visited Pozzuoli in 1828 and studied the Macellum columns. The events raised the sea bottom by almost 2 m, the towns attractions include, The Macellum of Pozzuoli, known as the Temple of Serapis or serapeum, is considered the citys symbol.
The temple was actually a marketplace and its name derives from the misinterpretation of its function after a statue of the god Serapis was found in 1750 at this location. Flavian Amphitheater, the third largest Italian amphitheater after the Colosseum, Solfatara Forum Minor Amphitheater, very near to the Flavian one, its remains were absorbed by other buildings, but some arches can be seen by Via Solfatara and Via Vigna. Villa Avellino, one of the few urban parks of Pozzuoli and it shows several Roman ruins and water tanks. There is a still working Roman face water fountain, rione Terra, the first settlement of Puteoli, originally Dicearkia in Greek
Cales was an ancient city of Campania, in todays comune of Calvi Risorta in southern Italy, belonging originally to the Aurunci/Ausoni, on the Via Latina. The Romans captured it in 335 BC and established a colony with Latin rights of 2,500 citizens, cales was initially the centre of the Roman dominion in Campania. To the period after 335 belong numerous silver and bronze coins with the inscription Caleno and it was an important base in the war against Hannibal, and at last refused further contributions for the war. Before 184 BC more settlers were sent there, after the Social War it became a municipium. The fertility of its territory and its manufacture of glazed pottery. At the end of the 3rd century BC it appears as a colony, and in the 5th century it became an episcopal see, which it still is, though it is now a mere village. The cathedral, of the 12th century, has a carved portal, near it are two grottos, which have been used for Christian worship and contain frescoes of the 10th and 11th centuries.
Inscriptions name six gates of the town, and there are remains of antiquity, especially of an amphitheatre and theatre, of a supposed temple. A number of tombs belonging to the Roman necropolis were discovered in 1883, another city of the Ausones/Aurunci Ausona, another city of the Ausones/Aurunci Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Thomas
Torre Annunziata is a city and comune in the Metropolitan City of Naples, region of Campania in Italy. It is located on the Gulf of Naples at the foot of Mt. Vesuvius, the city was destroyed in the Vesuvius eruption of 79 AD and in 1631. It is known locally in the Neapolitan dialect as Torre Nunziata, the city was once the seat of important ironwork food processing and pasta industries. Today industries still active include naval and pharmaceutical ones, the archaeological site of Oplonti is a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1997. Torre Annunziata borders with the municipalities of Boscoreale, Castellammare di Stabia, Torre del Greco, on the Tabula Peutingeriana Torre Annunziata is called Oplonti. In the communal territory, one of the richest Roman villas has been excavated, dating to the 1st century BC, it probably belonged to the gens Poppaea, and is known as Villa Poppaea. Torre Annunziata is home to F. C. Savoia 1908 who play at the Stadio Giraud and their highest achievement was during the 1923-24 season where they finished Serie A runners up.
Professional footballer Ciro Immobile was born in Torre Annunziata
Stabiae was an ancient Roman town which is famous for the magnificent Roman villas found there near to the modern town of Castellammare di Stabia approximately 4.5 km southwest of Pompeii. The beautiful objects and frescoes taken from these villas were sold and distributed. The villas were sited on a 50 m high overlooking the Gulf of Naples. Being only 16 kilometres from Mount Vesuvius, this resort was largely buried by two metres of tephra ash in 79 AD. Originally a small port, by the 6th century BC Stabiae had already overshadowed by the much larger port at Pompeii. The town was destroyed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla on 30 April 89 BC during the Social War, the Roman author and admiral Pliny the Elder recorded that the town was rebuilt and became a popular resort for wealthy Romans. He reported that there were miles of luxury villas built along the edge of the headland. According to the account written by his nephew, Pliny the Elder was at the side of the bay in Misenum when the eruption started.
He travelled by ship across the bay, partly to observe the eruption more closely. Pliny died at Stabiae the following day, probably during the arrival of the sixth, the very diluted outer edge of this surge reached Stabiae and left two centimetres of fine ash on top of the immensely thick aerially-deposited tephra which further protected the underlying remains. The archaeological remains of Stabiae were originally discovered in 1749 by Cavaliere Rocco de Alcubierre and these ruins were partially excavated by Alcubierre with help from Karl Weber between 1749–1782. The ruins that had been excavated, were reburied and their location was forgotten until 1950, the site was declared an archaeological protected area in 1957, and by 1962 many of the ruins had been again uncovered. The remains of both an Oscan settlement and the Roman town were discovered, the most famous of the findings at Stabiae are the villas that come from the time between the destruction of Stabiae by Sulla in 89 BC and the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD.
As described above, Stabiae became a town during this time and was particularly favored for its view of the Bay of Naples. Stabiae was known for the quality of its spring water. The ideal placement and qualities of this location drew many wealthy Romans to build villas on the ridge overlooking the bay. These villas, which are described below, provide us with some of the most stunning architectural, a great many artifacts which come from Stabiae are preserved in the Naples National Archaeological Museum. Before the age of the villas, however, an Oscan settlement existed in the region of Stabiae, in 1957 three hundred tombs dating from the 7th to the 3rd centuries BC were found in a necropolis associated with this town
Paestum was a major ancient Greek city on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Magna Graecia. The ruins of Paestum are famous for their three ancient Greek temples in the Doric order, dating from about 600 to 450 BC, the city walls and amphitheatre are largely intact, and the bottom of the walls of many other structures remain, as well as paved roads. The site is open to the public, and there is a national museum within it. After its foundation by Greek colonists under the name of Poseidonia it was conquered by the local Lucanians. The Lucanians renamed it to Paistos and the Romans gave the city its current name, as Pesto or Paestum, the town became a bishopric, but it was abandoned in the Early Middle Ages, and left undisturbed and largely forgotten until the eighteenth century. Today the remains of the city are found in the frazione of Paestum. The modern settlement, directly to the south of the site, is a popular seaside resort. Much the most celebrated features of the site today are the three temples in the Archaic version of the Greek Doric order, dating from about 550 to 450 BC.
All are typical of the period, with massive colonnades having a pronounced entasis. Above the columns, only the second Temple of Hera retains most of its entablature, the two temples of Hera are right next to each other, while the Temple of Athena is on the other side of the town center. There were other temples, both Greek and Roman, which are far less well-preserved, Paestum is far from any sources of good marble. The three main temples had few stone reliefs, perhaps using painting instead, painted terracotta was for some detailed parts of the structure. The large pieces of terracotta that have survived are in the museum, the whole ancient city of Paestum covers an area of approximately 120 hectares. It is only the 25 hectares that contain the three temples and the other main buildings that have been excavated. The other 95 hectares remain on land and have not been excavated. The city is surrounded by walls that still stand. The walls are approximately 4750 m long,5 –7 m thick and 15 m high, positioned along the wall are 24 square and round towers.
There may have been as many as 28, but some of them were destroyed during the construction of a highway during the century that effectively cut the site in two
Nile God Statue, Naples
The Statue of the Nile God is an Ancient Roman, likely Hellenistic, marble statue dating from the 2nd to 3rd century A. C. It is located at Piazzetta Nilo, at the start of via Nilo, in the quarter of the same name, the church of Santa Maria Assunta dei Pignatelli faces the statue, and the Palazzo Panormita is on the north flank. Two blocks mainly east, along Via Benedetto Croce rises the church of San Domenico, the statue represents the Nile God, recumbent with a cornucopia and lying on a now mutilated sphinx. The statue was erected in the Roman port city by Alexandrian merchants. It was recovered, headless, in 1476, and was nicknamed Corpo di Napoli and it was placed upon a pedestal in 1657, and than century a bearded head was sculpted. In recent decades, the statue was decapitated by robbers. A higher quality version of the topic, Ancient Roman, is found in the Vatican Museums. Both statues are copies of an original from Alexandria, Egypt
Macellum of Pozzuoli
The Macellum of Pozzuoli was the macellum or market building of the Roman colony of Puteoli, now the city of Pozzuoli in southern Italy. When first excavated in the 18th century, the discovery of a statue of Serapis led to the building being misidentified as the citys serapeum or Temple of Serapis. The city of Dicearchia, founded by Greek refugees escaping dictatorship on Samos, was integrated into the Roman Empire as the city of Puteoli in 194 BC. The macellum or food market was built between the late first and early second century AD, and restored during the third century AD under the Severan dynasty, the building was in the form of an arcaded square courtyard, surrounded by two-storey buildings. Shops lined the marble floored colonnade forming an arcade with 34 grey granite columns, the exedra had three niches for statues of divinities giving protection to the market, including the sculpture of Serapis. Marine animals decorated friezes around the base of the tholos, the courtyard had four secondary entrances on its longer sides, with latrines in the corners of the colonnade and four tabernae with their own external entrances as well as access from the arcade.
King Charles of Naples had excavations carried out between 1750 and 1756, exposing the three large marble columns which gave the site its name of the three column vineyard. In 1798 Scipione Breislak described his fieldwork at the site in his Topografia fisica della Campania and he concluded that there must have been undetectable movement of the crust of the Earth, but recognised that this was unsatisfactory as the cause could not be seen. Between 1806 and 1818 further excavations exposed the whole of the Serapeum or Temple of Serapis, by this time the pavement was flooded by the sea, indicating a slight lowering of the land level. In 1819 Giovanni Battista Brocchi proposed that the columns below the bands had been protected from the molluscs by being buried in silt or volcanic ash. The first volume of Veränderungen der Erdoberfläche by Karl Ernst Adolf von Hoff, published in 1822, included an account of the ruins as demonstrating relative changes in land, hoffs second volume of 1824 reviewed how earthquakes might have caused this, and mentioned Jorios study.
Hoffs account motivated Johann Wolfgang von Goethe to publish his own idea, in Goethes 1823 Architektonisch-naturhistorisches Problem, he suggested that silt or ash had partially buried the columns and at the same time held back water forming a lagoon above sea level. Robert Jameson had this paper translated for his Edinburgh journal, to oppose Playfairs views, other naturalists thought this unlikely, as the fresh water lagoon would not have supported marine molluscs, and the sea was by higher than at the time of Goethes visit. Daubeny doubted changing sea levels, so concluded that the bands of holes bored by molluscs must be due to damming of water around the buildings. Charles Lyells Principles of Geology of 1830 featured as its frontispiece a replication of di Jorios illustration of the columns, and he strongly contested Daubenys argument, and instead proposed slow and steady geological forces. In 1832 the young Charles Darwin used Lyells methods at the first landfall of the Beagle survey voyage, in his journal, Darwin dismissed Daubenys argument, and wrote that he felt sure at St Jago in some places a town might have been raised without injuring a house.
Charles Babbage carried out a survey of the ruins in 1828 and his Observations on the Temple of Serapis at Pozzuoli. In some of the rooms of the macellum Babbage found a dark brownish encrustation of salts, and a thicker encrustation up to a height of about 9 feet from floor level
Benevento listen is a city and comune of Campania, capital of the province of Benevento,50 kilometres northeast of Naples. It is situated on a hill 130 metres above sea level at the confluence of the Calore Irpino and it is the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop. Benevento occupies the site of the ancient Beneventum, originally Maleventum or still earlier Maloenton, the -vent portion of the name probably refers to a market-place and is a common element in ancient place names. The Romans theorized that it meant the site of bad events, in the imperial period it was supposed to have been founded by Diomedes after the Trojan War. A patron saint of Benevento is Saint Bartholomew, the Apostle, Benevento, as Maleventum, was one of the chief cities of Samnium, situated on the Via Appia at a distance of 51 kilometres east from Capua on the banks of the river Calor. Festus, on the contrary, related that it was founded by Auson, a son of Ulysses and Circe, a tradition which indicates that it was an ancient Ausonian city, previous to its conquest by the Samnites.
But it first appears in history as a Samnite city, and must have already been a place of strength and it appears, however, to have fallen into their hands during the Third Samnite War, though the exact occasion is unknown. Benevento was certainly in the power of the Romans in 274 BC, six years they further sought to secure its possession by establishing there a Roman colony with Latin rights. It is probable that the Oscan or Samnite name was Maloeis, or Malieis, whence the form Maleventum would derive, like Agrigentum from Acragas, Selinuntium from Selinus and its wealth is evidenced by the quantity of coins minted by Beneventum. Horace famously notes Beneventum on his journey from Rome to Brundusium and it was indebted to the same circumstance for the honor of repeated visits from the emperors of Rome, among which those of Nero and Septimus Severus, are particularly recorded. It was probably for the reason that the triumphal arch. The Arch of Trajan is one of the best-preserved Roman structures in the Campania and it repeats the formula of the Arch of Titus in the Roman Forum, with reliefs of Trajans life and exploits of his reign.
Some of the sculptures are in the British Museum, successive emperors seem to have bestowed on the city accessions of territory, and erected, or at least given name to, various public buildings. Its inhabitants were included in the Stellatine tribe, diaconus speaks of it as a very wealthy city, and the capital of all the surrounding provinces. The territory of Beneventum under the Roman Empire was of considerable extent. An inscription has preserved to us the names of several of the pagi or villages dependent upon Beneventum, the citys most ancient coins bear the legend Malies or Maliesa, which have been supposed to belong to the Samnite, or pre-Samnite, Maleventum. Coins with the legend BENVENTOD, must have struck after it became a Latin colony. Not long after it had been sacked by Totila and its walls razed, the circumstances of the creation of duchy of Benevento are disputed
Miseno is one of the frazioni of the municipality of Bacoli in the Italian Province of Naples. Known in ancient times as Misenum, it is the site of an ancient port in Campania, nearby Cape Miseno marks the northwestern end of the Bay of Naples. According to mythology, Misenum was named after Misenus, a companion of Hector, Misenus is supposed to have drowned near here after a trumpet competition with the sea-god Triton, as recounted in Virgils Aeneid. In 38 BC, Misenum was the site where a pact was made between Octavian, and his rival Sextus Pompeius. In ancient times, Misenum was the largest base of the Roman navy, since its port was the base of the Classis Misenensis and it was first established as a naval base in 27 BC by Marcus Agrippa, the right-hand man of the emperor Augustus. With its gorgeous natural setting close to the base and the nearby important Roman cities of Puteoli and Neapolis. Pliny the Elder was the praefect in charge of the fleet at Misenum in AD79, at the time of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius.
Seeing the beginnings of the eruption, Pliny left for a view and to effect a possible rescue. The account of his death is given by his nephew Pliny the Younger, the church of San Sossio stands here. It is said to be the birthplace of Saint Sossius, a deacon who was martyred with Proculus of Pozzuoli and it is the place of death of Emperor Tiberius. Misenum is one of the settings in Robert Harris novel Pompeii, whose protagonist, Attilius. In the novel Ben-Hur, Misenum is the location of a villa owned by Quintus Arrius bequeathed to his adopted son Judah Ben-Hur, the Ben-Hur family would live in Misenum. Media related to Miseno at Wikimedia Commons The Church of St. Sossio in Miseno
Baiae was a mineral springs and coastal resort on the northwest shore of the Gulf of Naples in ancient Italy. It was fashionable for centuries during antiquity, particularly towards the end of the Roman Republic, when it was reckoned as superior to Pompeii, Herculaneum and it was notorious for its hedonistic offerings and the attendant rumors of corruption and scandal. It formed part of Port Julius, the base of the fleet of the Imperial Roman Navy. It was deserted and its ruins largely submerged by volcanic activity by the time of the Renaissance. What is left of Baia is now a frazione of the comune of Bacoli in the Campania region of Italy, Baiae was said to have been named after Baius, the helmsman of Odysseuss ship in Homers Odyssey, who was supposedly buried nearby. The adjacent Baian Gulf was named after the town and it now forms the western part of the Gulf of Pozzuoli. The settlement was mentioned in 178 BC under the name Aquae Cumanae. Baiae was built on the Cumaean Peninsula in the Phlegraean Fields and it perhaps originally developed as the port for Cumae.
The bathhouses of Baiae were filled with mineral water directed to its pools from underground sulfur springs. Roman engineers were able to construct a complex system of chambers that channeled underground heat into facilities that acted as saunas. In addition to their function, the baths were used in Roman medicine to treat various illnesses. Baiae was particularly fashionable towards the end of the Roman Republic, marius and Pompey all frequented it. Julius Caesar had a villa there, and much of the town became imperial property under Augustus, with its large swimming pools and domed casino, it continued to be a getaway for the elite. Nero had a villa constructed in the middle of the 1st century. It was a spot of the emperor Septimius Severus. Caligula ordered a 3-mile-long pontoon bridge to be built from impounded ships of the area, fastened together and weighted with sand, clad in a gold cloak, he crossed it upon a horse. Cassius Dios Roman History includes the event, with the detail that the emperor ordered resting places and lodging rooms with potable water erected at intervals along the bridge.
As late as the 18th century, scattered fragments were still being shown to tourists as the Bridge of Caligula. ”Baiae was notorious for the lifestyle of its residents and guests