Category:Roman towns and cities in Provence
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
1. Ambrussum – Ambrussum is a Roman archaeological site in Villetelle, Hérault département, in southern France. It is close to the modern town Lunel, between Nîmes and Montpellier, Ambrussum is notable for its museum, its staging post on the Via Domitia, its bridge Pont Ambroix over the Vidourle, painted by Gustave Courbet, and for its oppidum. Its history of settlement spanned 400 years, the whole site is still being excavated. The higher settlement was based on a pre-Roman oppidum which was within a wall including 21 towers. The Romans re-modelled the oppidum, so there is evidence of a range of housing styles from the earliest one room dwellings to sophisticated courtyard houses on the second century AD. The Roman road, the Via Domitia, ran at the foot of the settlement, the Roman bridge was used until the Middle Ages but fell into disrepair, and only one complete arch remains. All place it midway between Nimes and Castelnau-le-Lez, that is 22 kilometres from each, the Via Domitia linked the Alps with the Pyrenees, and is the oldest Roman Road in Gaul, more specifically Gallia Narbonensis in France. It was laid out by Cneius Domitius Ahenobarbus around 120 BC, at Ambussum the Via Domitia crosses the Vidourle, and the settlement provided a staging point on this road. Directly adjacent to the site, the modern A9 autoroute, the Languedocienne crosses the Vidourle and at this point there is the modern day equivalent of a mutatio, the site is reached through the village of Villetelle. The bridge is 20 m above sea level, and the highest point of the oppidum is 58 m, when in spate the Vidourle will rise by 8 m. From the highest point, the Oppidum de Nages is easily seen, further one can see Mont Ventoux, Pic Saint-Loup, and the hills of the Cevennes including the Causse du Larzac and Mont Aigoual. The site was first settled in 2,300 BC and the construction started on the oppidum around 300 BC and it was a settlement of Gauls. The Romans conquered the area in 120 BC, the paved road at the heart of the oppidum was laid around 100 BC. Between the oppidum and the river was a staging post on the Via Domitia and that, and the Pont Ambroix were constructed at around 30 BC. The flow patterns of the river changed around 10 BC, it became more aggressive, the large houses on the south of the oppidum were built in AD50. The whole oppidum abandoned in AD100, but parts of the settlement were still in use in AD400. It took a battering from the Vidourlades, or violent floods or crues on the Vidourle, During a crue, floods were recorded 8 October 1723. The floods of 18 November 1745 reduced the bridge from four arches to three, further major floods occurred 6 October 1812,21 October 1891,21 September 1907
2. Antibes – Antibes is a Mediterranean resort in the Alpes-Maritimes department of southeastern France, on the Côte dAzur between Cannes and Nice. The town of Juan-les-Pins is in the commune of Antibes and the Sophia Antipolis technology park is northwest of it, traces of occupation dating back to the early Iron Age have been found in the areas of the castle and cathedral. However, most trade was with the Greek world, via the Phocaeans of Marseille, Antipolis was founded by Phocaeans from Massilia. As a Greek colony settlement, it was known as Antipolis from its close to Nice. The exact location of the Greek city is not well known, given Greek colonial practices, it is likely that it was set at the foot of the rock of Antibes in todays old city. Traces of occupation in the Hellenistic period have been identified around the castle, the goods unearthed during these excavations show the dominance of imported products of the Marseilles region, associated with Campanian and indigenous ceramics. Early in the second century BC the Ligurian Deceates and Oxybiens tribes launched repeated attacks against Nikaia, the Greeks of Marseille appealed to Rome as they had already done a few years earlier against the federation of Salyens. In 154 BC the consul Quintus Opimius defeated the Décéates and Oxybiens, Rome gradually increased its hold over the Mediterranean coast. In 43 BC, Antipolis was officially incorporated in the province of Narbonesian Gaul. Antipolis grew into the largest town in the region and an entry point into Gaul. Roman artifacts such as aqueducts, fortified walls. The city was supplied with water by two aqueducts, the Fontvieille aqueduct rises in Biot and eventually joins the coast below the RN7 and the railway track at the Fort Carré. It was discovered and restored in the 18th century by the Chevalier dAguillon for supplying the modern city, the aqueduct called the Bouillide or Clausonnes rises near the town of Valbonne. Monumental remains of aqueduct bridges are located in the neighbourhood of Fugaret, in the forest of Valmasque, like most Roman towns Antipolis possessed these buildings for shows and entertainment. A Roman theatre is attested by the tombstone of the child Septentrion, the inscription says he danced and was popular on the stage of the theatre. The theatre was located, like the amphitheatre, between Rue de la République and Rue de Fersen, near the Porte Royale, the back wall is positioned substantially next to Rue Fourmillère. A radial wall was found on the side of the bus station. A plan of the made in the 16th century is in the Marciana National Library of Venice. The remains of the amphitheatre were still visible at the end of the 17th century during the restructuring of the fortifications of the city, a concentric oval was still visible in many plans of the seventeenth century and in a map of Antibes from the early nineteenth century
3. Glanum – Glanum was an oppidum, or fortified town in present day Provence, founded by a Celto-Ligurian people called the Salyes in the 6th century BCE. It became officially a Roman city in 27 BCE and was abandoned in 260 AD and it is particularly known for two well-preserved Roman monuments of the 1st century B. C. known as les Antiques, a mausoleum and a triumphal arch. A shrine was built at the spring to Glanis, a Celtic god, the town grew, and a second wall was built in the 2nd century BC. The people of Glanum were in contact with the Greek colony of Massalia, present day Marseille. The contact influenced the architecture and art of Glanum- villas were built in the Hellenic style, but by the 2nd century BC conflicts and wars arose between the Salyens and the Greeks of Marseille, who not having a powerful army, called upon the assistance of their Roman allies. In 125 BC the Salyens were defeated by the army of the Roman consul Marcus Fulvius Flaccus, many of the old monuments of Glanum were destroyed. Due to its commercially useful location on the Via Domitia, and the attraction of its healing spring, the city produced its own silver coins and built new monuments. The prosperity lasted until 90 BC when the Salyens again rebelled against Rome, the public buildings of Glanum were again destroyed. The rebellion was crushed this time by the Consul Caecilius, in 49 BC Julius Caesar captured Marseille, and after a period of destructive civil wars, the Romanization of Provence and Glanum began. A triumphal arch was built outside the town between 10 and 25 BC, near the end of the reign of Augustus, as well as a mausoleum of the Julii family. Glanum did not survive the collapse of the Roman Empire, after its abandonment Glanum became a source of stone and other building materials for Saint-Remy. Since the Roman system of drains and sewers was not maintained, the mausoleum and triumphal arch, together known as Les Antiques, were famous, and were visited by King Charles IX, who had the surroundings cleaned up and maintained. Some excavations were made around the monuments as early as the 16th and 17th centuries, finding sculptures and coins, the first systematic excavations began in 1921, directed by the architect of historic monuments, Jules Foremigé. From 1921 until 1941, the archeologist Pierre LeBrun worked on the site, discovering the baths, the basilica, from 1928 to 1933, Henri Roland worked on the Iron Age sanctuary, to the south. From 1942 until 1969, Roland took over the work and excavated the area from the forum to the sanctuary, the objects he discovered are on display today at the Hotel de Sade in nearby Saint-Remy. New excavation and exploration began in 1982, devoted mainly to the preservation of the site. The Mausoleum of the Julii, located across the Via Domitia, to the north of, and just outside the city entrance, dates to about 40 BCE, the mausoleum is built in three stages. The upper stage, or tholos, is a chapel with Corinthian columns
4. Orange, Vaucluse – Orange is a commune in the Vaucluse Department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region in southeastern France, about 21 km north of Avignon. It has an agricultural economy. The name was unrelated to that of the orange fruit. Arausio covered an area of some 170 acres and was endowed with civic monuments, in addition to the theatre and arch, it had a monumental temple complex. It was the capital of an area of northern Provence. It is found in both the Tabula Peutingeriana and Le cadastre dOrange maps, the town prospered, but was sacked by the Visigoths in 412. It had, by then, become largely Christianized, and from the end of the third century constituted the Ancient Diocese of Orange, no longer a residential bishopric, Arausio, as it is called in Latin, is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. It hosted two important synods, in 441 and 529, the Second Council of Orange was of importance in condemning what later came to be called Semipelagianism. The sovereign Carolingian counts of Orange had their origin in the eighth century, from the 12th century, Orange was raised to a minor principality, the Principality of Orange, as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. During this period, the town and the principality of Orange belonged to the administration and this pitched it into the Protestant side in the Wars of Religion, during which the town was badly damaged. In 1568, the Eighty Years War began with William as stadtholder leading the bid for independence from Spain, William the Silent was assassinated in Delft in 1584. His son, Maurice of Nassau, with the help of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, the United Provinces survived to become the Netherlands, which is still ruled by the House of Orange-Nassau. William, Prince of Orange, ruled England as William III of England, Orange gave its name to other Dutch-influenced parts of the world, such as the Oranges in New Jersey, USA, and the Orange Free State in South Africa. Following the French Revolution of 1789, Orange was absorbed into the French département of Drôme, then Bouches-du-Rhône, however, the title remained with the Dutch princes of Orange. Orange attracted international attention in 1995, when it elected a member of Front National, Jacques Bompard, Bompard left the FN in 2005 and became a member of the conservative Movement for France until 2010. Orange was also home to the French Foreign Legions armored First Foreign Cavalry Regiment, the regiment officially moved to Carpiagne on July 10,2014. The city of Orange is the 3rd largest town of Vaucluse by population after Avignon, in 2013, the municipality had 29,193 residents. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known throughout the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793, the fine Triumphal Arch of Orange is often said to date from the time of Augustus or Tiberius, but is probably much later, perhaps Severan
5. History of Toulouse – The history of Toulouse, in Midi-Pyrénées, southern France, traces back to ancient times. After Roman rule, the city was ruled by the Visigoths, capital of the County of Toulouse during the Middle Ages, today it is the capital of the Midi-Pyrénées region. Archaeological evidence dates human settlement in Toulouse to the 8th century BC and its location was advantageous, the Garonne River bends westward toward the Atlantic Ocean, and can be crossed easily. People settled on the hills overlooking the river,9 kilometres south of present downtown Toulouse, just north of the hills is a large plain suitable for agriculture, and the site was a center for trade between the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. The citys early name was Tolosa, although researchers agree that it was probably Aquitanian, Toulouses name has remained almost unchanged through the centuries, despite Celtic, Roman and Germanic invasions. The first inhabitants were apparently the Aquitani, of whom little is known, later came Iberians from the south, who were non-Indo-Europeans. During the third century BC the Volcae Tectosages arrived, the first Indo-Europeans in the region and they settled in Tolosa, intermarrying with the local people, and their Gaulish language became predominant. By 200 BC, Tolosa is attested on coins as the capital of the Volcae Tectosages, according to archaeologists, Tolosa was one of the wealthiest and most important cities in Gaul during the pre-Roman era. Gold and silver mines were nearby, and offerings to its shrines and temples accumulated wealth in the city, the Romans began their conquest of southern Gaul in 125 BC. In 118 BC they founded the colony of Narbo Martius and made contact with the Tolosates, noted for their wealth, Tolosa allied with the Romans, who established a fort on the plain north of the city but otherwise left Tolosa semi-independent. In 109 BC the Germanic Cimbri tribe descended the Rhône Valley, invaded the Provincia and defeated the Romans, the Tolosates rebelled against Rome, killing the Roman garrison, before Rome recovered and defeated the invaders. Servilius Caepio was sent to reconquer and punish Tolosa, with the aid of Tolosates who remained loyal to Rome, he captured the city and the wealth of its temples and shrines. Tolosa was then incorporated into the Roman Provincia, no Roman colony was established, and few soldiers settled in the area. Caesar established his camp on the Tolosa plain in 52 BC, with the conquest of Aquitania and Gaul, Tolosa was no longer a military outpost. Capitalizing on its position for trade between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, the city grew rapidly, the most important event in the citys history was the decision to relocate north of the hills. A typical Roman city, with streets, was founded on the plain on the beginning bank of the river between the end of Augustus reign and the beginning of Tiberius. The population was forced to relocate to the new city, walls were built around the new city, probably at the initiative of Emperor Augustus, such walls, unnecessary during the Pax Romana, were built as an imperial favor to indicate a citys status. Until the fall of Rome, the new Tolosa was a civitas of the province of Gallia Narbonensis, with imperial favor and thriving trade, Tolosa became a major city in the Roman Empire
6. Vaison-la-Romaine – Vaison-la-Romaine is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region in southeastern France. The French archaeologist and hellenist Henri Metzger died here. The historic section is in two parts, the Colline du Château on a height on one side of the Ouvèze, the city and on the opposite bank. Vaison-la-Romaine is famous for its rich Roman ruins, medieval town, what makes Vaison-la-Romaine so unique is the possibility to see the antique, medieval and modern towns within the same environment,2,000 years of history. A large share of collections originating from Vaison-la-Romaine are now dispersed among 25 museums worldwide, mostly in Europe, with four theaters, numerous exhibitions and galeries, Vaison-la-Romaine is also renown for its art scene. Many writers, painters and actors live in the area, the area was inhabited in the Bronze Age. At the end of the fourth century BCE, the city of Vaison became the capital of a Celtic tribe. After the Roman conquest the Vocontii retained a degree of autonomy. Their continued authority in the gradual Romanization of the Celtic oppidum meant that the city incurred no disruptive re-founding along rigid Roman orthography. The Polyclitan Vaison Diadumenos was discovered in the theatre in the nineteenth century, at Vasio Pompeius Trogus, the Augustan historian, was born. At disturbed times of the Middle Ages, the inhabitants emigrated to the ground on the left bank of Ouvèze, with the shelter of the ramparts. From the eighteenth century most of the population had moved back down to the plains by the river, a flood struck Vaison-la-Romaine on 22 September 1992, costing $1.5 billion in damages. It was the towns worst flood since 1632, and was featured in the Discovery Channel series Destroyed In Seconds, one of the most interesting aspects of the town is its geography, and its Roman ruins. The Roman ruins and the town are in the valley on the banks of the river Ouvèze which is crossed by an ancient bridge from the 1st century AD. The medieval town is high on the rocky cliff, the valley floor was safe from attack in Roman and modern times. In the Middle Ages attacks were frequent, and the town retreated up-hill to a defensible position. The apse of the Church of St. Quenin, dedicated to Saint Quinidius, seems to date from the eighth century, as a whole the cathedral dates from the 11th century, but the apse and the apsidal chapels are from the Merovingian period. At Vaison-la-Romaine, a street was named Impasse Alice Colonieu, the town also has a famous open air market held on Tuesdays year round. Ancient Diocese of Vaison Belisama Council of Vaison Dentelles de Montmirail Vgo Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus, was born in Vaison-la-Romaine, gallia Narbonensis, Southern Gaul in Roman Times, part II, Civitates