Category:Runestones in memory of Viking warriors
Pages in category "Runestones in memory of Viking warriors"
The following 27 pages are in this category, out of 27 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 27 pages are in this category, out of 27 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Baltic area runestones – The Baltic area runestones are Varangian runestones in memory of men who took part in peaceful or warlike expeditions across the Baltic Sea, where Finland and the Baltic states are presently located. Other runestones that deal with Varangian expeditions include the Ingvar runestones, in addition, there were also voyages to Western Europe mentioned on runestones that are treated in the articles Viking runestones, England runestones and Hakon Jarl runestones. Below follows a presentation of the based on the Rundata project. It was made by the runemaster Visäte, the stone commemorates a man who either died in Viborg, Jutland, or in Vyborg, Karelia. English translation, Sighvatr and Þorbjǫrn and Þorgrímr and Erinmundr had the stone raised in memory of their brother Sigsteinn and this runestone from c.1100 is in the style RAK. It is in the wall of the porch of the church of Vallentuna, the U215 contains the first part of the message. The stones were carved in memory of a man who drowned in Holmrs sea, one interpretation proposed by Jansson is that it means the Novgorodian sea and refers to the Gulf of Finland. The runestone provides the earliest Swedish attestation of an end rhyme, uk × inkiber × eftiʀ × buanta × sin han troknaþi ÷ a holms hafi skreþ knar hans i kaf þriʀ eniʀ kamo af Old Norse transcription. Hann drunknaði a Holms hafi, skræið knarr hans i kaf, and Ingibjǫrg in memory of her husbandman. He drowned in Holmrs sea - his cargo-ship drifted to the sea-bottom - only three came out, han drunknade på Holms hav, skred knarr hans i kvav, tre endast kommo av. This runestone has disappeared but it was located at the church of Frösunda and it was made by the runemaster Åsmund Kåresson in style Pr3-Pr4, and it was raised in memory of a man who died in Virland. It contains the message as U356. Latin transliteration, Old Norse transcription, Ragnfriðr let retta stæin þenna æftiʀ Biorn, guð hialpi hans and ok Guðs moðiʀ. English translation, Ragnfríðr had this stone erected in memory of Bjǫrn, her son, may God and Gods mother help his spirit. This runestone in style Pr3 is located in Ängby and it was made by the runemaster Åsmund Kåresson for a lady in memory of her son who died in Virland. It contains the message as U346. Guð hialpi hans and ok Guðs moðiʀ, English translation, Ragnfríðr had this stone raised in memory of Bjǫrn, her son and Ketilmundrs. May God and Gods mother help his spirit and this runestone in style Fp is one of the Ingvar Runestones and due to uncertainties as to the decipherment also one of the Serkland Runestones
2. England runestones – The England runestones is a group of about 30 runestones that refer to Viking Age voyages to England. They were engraved in Old Norse with the Younger Futhark, the Anglo-Saxon rulers paid large sums, Danegelds, to Vikings, who mostly came from Denmark and who arrived to the English shores during the 990s and the first decades of the 11th century. Canute sent home most of the Vikings who had helped him conquer England, but he kept a strong bodyguard, the Þingalið, the vast majority of the runestones,27, were raised in modern-day Sweden and 17 in the oldest Swedish provinces around lake Mälaren. In contrast, modern-day Denmark has no such runestones, but there is a Danish runestone in Scania that mentions London, there is also a runestone in Norway and a Swedish one in Schleswig, Germany. There are eight runestones in Uppland that mention voyages to England, several of them were raised in memory of men who had partaken in the Danegeld in England. This secluded runestone is located in a grove near Väsby, Uppland and it was raised by a Viking in commemoration of his receiving one danegeld in England. It is classified as being carved in runestone style Pr3 and, together with U344, it has been said to be the earliest example of an Urnes style inscription in Uppland. The runic text follows a rule to only carve a single rune for two consecutive letters, even when the letters were at the end of one word and the beginning of a second word. When the text shown as Latin characters, the runes are doubled. For U194 has three examples where this occurred, þinoftiʀ is transliterated as þino| |oftiʀ, tuknuts as tuk| |knuts, hann tok Knuts giald a Ænglandi. English translation, Áli/Alli had this stone raised in memory of himself and he took Knútrs payment in England. This runestone is one of the Lingsberg Runestones and was part of a monument with U240. It is located on the courtyard of the estate Lingsberg in Uppland and it was raised by the grandchildren of Ulfríkr in commemoration of his receiving two danegelds in England. It is carved in runestone style Pr3, hann hafði a Ænglandi tu giald takit. Guð hialpi þæiʀa fæðga salu ok Guðs moðiʀ, English translation, And Danr and Húskarl and Sveinn had the stone erected in memory of Ulfríkr, their fathers father. He had taken two payments in England, may God and Gods mother help the souls of the father and son. The runestone U344, in the style Pr3, was found in 1868, at Yttergärde, by Richard Dybeck, together with U194, it is considered to be the earliest example of the Urnes style in Uppland. The runes are written right to left with the orientation of the runes going in the same direction
3. Gunnar's bridge runestones – The second stone was discovered in a church only 500 metres away and is raised in the cemetery. The second stone informs that Håkon raised more than one stone in memory of his son, the inscription on this stone, which is 1.6 metres in height, consists of a Christian cross above an arching runic text band and a second partial interior band. The design of the inscription is similar to that of Ög Fv1970,310, the runic text on both stones indicates that Hákon constructed a bridge as a memorial to his son Gunnarr, who died vestr or in the West. Although the messages of most runestones are formulaic, some of them convey the sadness of those who raised them in memory of lost family members, Hákon made this bridge and it will be called Gunnarrs bridge. This runestone was found in the wall of the church of Kullerstad in 1969 and is raised in the cemetery. It informs that Håkon raised more than one memorial for his son and this runestone is discussed in further detail in the article Viking runestones under Ög Fv1970,310. Hakun + raiþi × kuml × þausi × eftiʀ × kunar + sun × sin × han × uarþ × taurþ × uastr + Hakon ræisþi kumbl þausi æftiʀ Gunnar, Hákon raised these monuments in memory of Gunnarr, his son. Larsson, Mats G. Götarnas Riken, Upptäcktsfärder Till Sveriges Enande, bokförlaget Atlantis AB ISBN 978-91-7486-641-4 Svärdström, Elisabeth. Kulturarv Östergötland, a site maintained by the County Museum of Östergötland, an English Dictionary of Runic Inscriptions of the Younger Futhark, at the university of Nottingham
4. Hagby Runestones – The Hagby Runestones are four runestones that are raised on the courtyard of the farm Hagby in Uppland, Sweden. They are inscribed in Old Norse using the Younger Futhark and they date to the 11th century, three of the runestones are raised in memory of Varangians who died somewhere in the East, probably in Kievan Rus. In 1929/30, they were discovered in the walls of the basement of the farm Litzby, which stood a few hundred metres from Hagby, but which burnt down in the 1880s. The runestones were burnt and fragmented but it was possible to piece 120 fragments together into the four runestones that are found on the courtyard of Hagby today and this runestone is raised by a lady named Holmfríðr who had lost both her husband Björn and their son Sighvatr. The inscription is classified as being in runestone style Pr4, also known as the Urnes style and this runestone style is characterized by slim and stylized animals that are interwoven into tight patterns. The animals heads are seen in profile with slender almond-shaped eyes and upwardly curled appendages on the noses. × hulmfriʀ × -it --isa × istain × þina × iftiʀ × biarn × buanta isin × auk × iftiʀ × isikat un isin × Holmfriðr et isa stæin þenna æftiʀ Biorn, boanda sinn, ok æftiʀ Sighvat, sun sinn. Holmfríðr had this stone raised in memory of Bjôrn, her husbandman and in memory of Sighvatr and this runestone is raised by the same Sveinn and Ulfr as on the U155, below, which is probably the other runestone mentioned in the inscription. They had them made in memory of their brothers Halfdan and Gunnarr who died somewhere in the East and it has been suggested that the words after east may be either in Greece or in Garðar, but a fracture in the runestone prevents any actual reading of these runes. Sveinn and Ulfr had the stones raised in memory of Halfdan and in memory of Gunnarr and they met their end in the east. This runestone is raised in memory of Varangians who died somewhere in the east. U154 is classified as being carved in runestone style Pr3. r × lit × rai. fast * auk × at × aiʀbiarn × bruþ-. i * o as. Let ræi. fast ok at Gæiʀbiorn, brøð. iʀ dou aus. had raised. -fastr and in memory of Geirbjôrn and this runestone is raised by the same Sveinn and Ulfr as U153, above. Þæiʀ vaʀu syniʀ Arnaʀ ok Ragnfriðaʀ, Sveinn and Ulfr had the stones raised in memory of their brothers. They were the sons of Ôrn and Ragnfríðr, rundata The article Hagby gård on the site of the local heritage society of Täby, retrieved June 27,2007
5. Ingvar runestones – The Ingvar Runestones is the name of c.26 Varangian Runestones that were raised in commemoration of those who died in the Swedish Viking expedition to the Caspian Sea of Ingvar the Far-Travelled. The Ingvar expedition was the single Swedish event that is mentioned on most runestones, and in number, they are surpassed by the c.30 Greece Runestones. It was an expedition taking place between 1036 and 1041 with many ships. The Vikings came to the shores of the Caspian Sea. Few returned, as many died in battle, but most of them, including Ingvar, beside the Tillinge Runestone in Uppland and a rune stone on Gotland, the Ingvar Runestones are the only remaining runic inscriptions that mention Serkland. Below follows a presentation of the runestones, but additional runestones that are associated with the expedition are, Sö360, U513, U540, U785, Vs 1-2, Vs 18 and it was located at Steninge Palace, but it is now lost. Johan Bureus, one of the first prominent Swedish runologists, visited Steninge on May 8,1595, only 50 years later it had disappeared and in a letter written in 1645 it was explained that the stone had been used in the construction of a new stone jetty. The inscription contained an Old Norse poem, Ingvar, the leader of the expedition, has a name meaning the god Ings warrior. This runestone is attributed to the runemaster Äskil, latin transliteration, Old Norse transcription, Hærlæif ok Þorgærðr letu ræisa stæin þenna at Sæbiorn, faður sinn. Es styrði austr skipi með Ingvari a Æistaland/Særkland, English translation, Herleif and Þorgerðr had this stone raised in memory of Sæbjôrn, their father, who steered a ship east with Ingvarr to Estonia/Serkland. This runestone in style Fp is located at Ekilla bro and it is raised in memory of the same man as U654, below. The same family also raised the runestone U643 and which reports the death of Andvéttr, omeljan Pritsak suggests that he may have died in Vladimir of Novgorods attack on Constantinople in 1043. The monument is more than 2 metres high, and it was mentioned for the first time in the 17th century during the revision of historic monuments. It was at the time lying under the bridge that crossed the river north of Ekilla. It would remain lying there until 1860, when it was moved with great difficulty by Richard Dybeck, after one failed attempt a crew of 12 men managed to move it out of the water and raise it 25 metres north of the bridge, where it still remains. Next to it, there are two barrows and a monument of raised stones, there were formerly two other runestones at the bridge, but they were moved to Ekolsund in the early 19th century. One of them speaks of the family as U644. The inscription is finished with a Christian prayer, which shows that the family was Christian and it is of note that andinni is in the definite form, as this is a grammatic category that appears in Old Norse at the end of the Viking Age
6. Italy runestones – The Italy Runestones are three or four Varangian Runestones from 11th-century Sweden that talk of warriors who died in Langbarðaland, the Old Norse name for Italy. On these rune stones it is southern Italy that is referred to, the rune stones are engraved in Old Norse with the Younger Futhark, and two of them are found in Uppland and one or two in Södermanland. Many of their brothers-in-arms are remembered on the 28 Greece runestones most of which are found in the part of Sweden. They were the kind of warriors who were welcome as the troops of the Byzantine Emperor. Johan Peringskiöld considered the Fittja stone and the Djulefors stone to refer to the Lombard migration from Sweden and he noted that the name Longobardia was not applied to Italy until after the destruction of the Kingdom of the Lombards in 774. He claimed that the kingdom had been taken over by Varangians from Byzantium in the 11th and 12th centuries, the stones would have commemorated Swedish warriors who died in Barbarossas war. This view was espoused by Brocman who considered Holmi to have died in the 12th century for either the Byzantine Emperor or ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. Von Friesen noted that it is not Lombardy in northern Italy that is intended but Langobardia in southern Italy, the Greeks had to fight several battles against the Normans in Southern Italy during the mid-11th century. Below follows a presentation of the Italy Runestones, organised according to location, there is a long-standing practice to write transliterations of the runes into Latin characters with boldface and transcribe the text into a normalized form of the language with italic type. This practice exists because the two forms of rendering a runic text have to be kept distinct, every step presents challenges, but most Younger Futhark inscriptions are considered easy to interpret. In transliterations, *, ×, and + represent common word dividers, a short hyphen, -, indicates that there is a rune or other sign that cannot be identified. A series of three full stops, shows that runes are assumed to have existed in the position, but have disappeared. The two dividing signs | | divide a rune into two Latin letters, because runemasters often carved a single instead of two consecutive ones. Angle brackets, < >, indicate there is a sequence of runes that cannot be interpreted with certainty. Other special signs are þ and ð, where the first one is the letter which represents a voiceless dental fricative as th in English thing. The second letter is eth which stands for a dental fricative as th in English them. The ʀ sign represents the yr rune, every runic inscription is shown with its ID code that is used in scholarly literature to refer to the inscription, and it is only obligatory to give the first two parts of it. The first part is one or two letters that represent the area where the inscription appears, e. g. U for the Uppland, Sö for Södermanland
7. Orkesta Runestones – The Orkesta Runestones are 11th century runestones engraved in Old Norse with the younger futhark that are located at the church of Orkesta north-east of Stockholm in Sweden. Several of the stones are raised by, or in memory of, the leaders of the three expeditions were Skagul Toste, Thorkell the Tall and Canute the Great. This Ulfr also made the Risbyle Runestones in the same region, there are two other runestones that mention the danegeld and both of them are found in the vicinity. This runestone is in runestone style Pr3, which is known as Urnes style. This runestone style is characterized by slim and stylized animals that are interwoven into tight patterns, the animals heads are typically seen in profile with slender almond-shaped eyes and upwardly curled appendages on the noses and the necks. Usnekin uk siknet uk sihuiþ lata reis siin eft bs faþur sin Osnikinn ok Signiutr ok Sigviðr lata ræisa stæin æftiʀ Brusa, Ósníkinn and Signjótr and Sigviðr have raised the stone in memory of Brúsi, their father. This runestone is in runestone style Pr4, which is known as Urnes style. Iaorn * u moþur * siena. -. -bi sialu, stæin æftiʀ faðu nn Biorn ok moður sina. The stone in memory of his father Bjôrn and his mother, the runestone U335 was raised to commemorate the building of a new bridge by Holmi. He dedicated the bridge and the runestone to his father Hæra, the reference to bridge-building in the runic text is fairly common in rune stones during this time period. Some are Christian references related to passing the bridge into the afterlife, at this time, the Catholic Church sponsored the building of roads and bridges through the use of indulgences in return for intercession for the soul. There are many examples of bridge stones dated from the eleventh century, including runic inscriptions Sö101, U489. Like many other runestones, it was discovered in the walls of a church, where it still remains. Ulmi × lit × risa × stin × þina × uk × bru þisi × itiʀ × iru × faþur sin × uskarl × sifruþaʀ Holmi let ræisa stæin þenna ok bro þessi æftiʀ Hæru, faður sinn, huskarl Sigrøðaʀ. Holmi had this stone raised and this bridge in memory of Hæra, his father, Sigrøðrs housecarl The runestone U336 is raised by Ulf of Borresta, Ulf adds that they both lived at Borresta. The name Ónæmr, which means slow learner, is mentioned on two nearby runestones, U112 and U328, and so the three runestones are held to refer to the same person. Ulfr had this stone raised in memory of Ónæmr, his fathers brother and this runestone was possibly in style Pr3. It formed a monument together with U344, below in Yttergärde, although it has disappeared, the inscription was recorded during a survey of runestones in the 1700s
8. Runestones at Aspa – The Runestones at Aspa are four runestones located at Aspa, which is about six kilometers north of Runtuna, Södermanland, Sweden, where a road has passed a creek since prehistoric times. One of the stones Sö Fv1948,289, below is the oldest surviving native Scandinavian source that mentions the kingdom of Sweden beside the runestones DR344, another stone Sö137 is raised in memory of a Viking who had spent time in the west. Aspa was the location of the assembly called the Tingshögen for the Rönö Hundred administrative area until 1600. The Eriksgata was the journey of the newly elected medieval Swedish kings through the important provinces to have their election confirmed by the local assemblies. The actual election took place at the Stone of Mora in Uppland, Runestones at other locations that tradition holds were associated with the Eriksgata include U793 at Ulunda and Vg 4 at Stora Ek. This granite runestone, which is 2.07 meters in height, is classified as being carved in runestone style Fp and it was raised in memory of a two men who died in Denmark. The runic text says that they were the ablest men in Sweden, the runestone was found in 1937 during trench work near a bridge and was moved adjacent to Sö141. Originally, the stone was located at the Tingshögen. The Rundata designation for this Södermanland inscription, Sö Fv1948,289, refers to the year and page number of the issue of Fornvännen in which the runestone was first described. Ostriþ, lit, -ira, ku. usi ÷ at, anunt ÷ auk, raknualt, sun, sin ÷, urþu, ta. ʀ, - an. -. u, ua-u, rikiʀ, o rauniki, ak, snialastiʀ, i, suiþiuþu Astrið let æra kumusi at Anund ok Ragnvald, sun sinn. Urðu daʀ Danku, vau rikiʀ a Rauningi ok sniallastiʀ i Sveþiuðu, astrid had this memorial made after Anund and Ragnvald, her son. Died in Denmark, were powerful in Rauningi and the ablest in Sweden, runestone Sö136 was documented during the surveys of runestones conducted in the late 17th century, but has since been lost. The inscription, however, is known from records and it is classified as having been carved in runestone style Pr1. Svæinn ok Sloði þæiʀ ræisþu. at faður sinn, hærsi hugsniallan, in memory of their father, an able-minded chieftain He was the best under heaven. It was engraved with both long-branch runes and staveless runes, in the last row all the words but the last one were written with staveless runes. Sö137 is also considered to be one of the Viking runestones, the runic inscription emphasizes that the stone was originally located at the Tingshögen. B Stæinn saʀsi standr at Øpi a þingstaði at Þoru ver, hann vestarla væknti karla, sa þaʀ sunʀ það. A Þóra raised this stone in memory of Œpir, her husbandman, B This stone stands in memory of Œpir, on the Assembly-place in memory of Þóras husband