Category:Runestones in memory of Viking warriors
Pages in category "Runestones in memory of Viking warriors"
The following 27 pages are in this category, out of 27 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 27 pages are in this category, out of 27 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Ballstorp Runestone – The runestone was discovered in a bridge in 1900. Before the historic significance of runestones was understood, they were reused as materials in the construction of bridges, walls. The stone was raised near the ruins of an old church in 1901. The runic text states that the stone was raised by Útlagi in memory of Øyvind. The relationship between men is not described. The text describes the deceased man Øyvind as being a good thegn or þegn. The term thegn was used in the late Viking Age in Sweden, about fifty memorial runestones described the deceased as being a thegn. In addition, four inscriptions use a different word order, þegn harða goðan, include Vg 74 in Skolgården, Vg 152 in Håkansgården, Vg 157 in Storegården, and Vg 158 in Fänneslunda. Utlaki, risþi, stin, þn- iftiʀ, uuit, harþa, kuþon, þikn, Utlagi ræisti stæin þenn æftiʀ Øyvind, Útlagi raised this stone in memory of Eyvindr, a very good Þegn. Ballstorp - Photographs of both sides of the runestone
2. Baltic area runestones – The Baltic area runestones are Varangian runestones in memory of men who took part in peaceful or warlike expeditions across the Baltic Sea, where Finland and the Baltic states are presently located. Other runestones that deal with Varangian expeditions include the Ingvar runestones, in addition, there were also voyages to Western Europe mentioned on runestones that are treated in the articles Viking runestones, England runestones and Hakon Jarl runestones. Below follows a presentation of the based on the Rundata project. It was made by the runemaster Visäte, the stone commemorates a man who either died in Viborg, Jutland, or in Vyborg, Karelia. English translation, Sighvatr and Þorbjǫrn and Þorgrímr and Erinmundr had the stone raised in memory of their brother Sigsteinn and this runestone from c.1100 is in the style RAK. It is in the wall of the porch of the church of Vallentuna, the U215 contains the first part of the message. The stones were carved in memory of a man who drowned in Holmrs sea, one interpretation proposed by Jansson is that it means the Novgorodian sea and refers to the Gulf of Finland. The runestone provides the earliest Swedish attestation of an end rhyme, uk × inkiber × eftiʀ × buanta × sin han troknaþi ÷ a holms hafi skreþ knar hans i kaf þriʀ eniʀ kamo af Old Norse transcription. Hann drunknaði a Holms hafi, skræið knarr hans i kaf, and Ingibjǫrg in memory of her husbandman. He drowned in Holmrs sea - his cargo-ship drifted to the sea-bottom - only three came out, han drunknade på Holms hav, skred knarr hans i kvav, tre endast kommo av. This runestone has disappeared but it was located at the church of Frösunda and it was made by the runemaster Åsmund Kåresson in style Pr3-Pr4, and it was raised in memory of a man who died in Virland. It contains the message as U356. Latin transliteration, Old Norse transcription, Ragnfriðr let retta stæin þenna æftiʀ Biorn, guð hialpi hans and ok Guðs moðiʀ. English translation, Ragnfríðr had this stone erected in memory of Bjǫrn, her son, may God and Gods mother help his spirit. This runestone in style Pr3 is located in Ängby and it was made by the runemaster Åsmund Kåresson for a lady in memory of her son who died in Virland. It contains the message as U346. Guð hialpi hans and ok Guðs moðiʀ, English translation, Ragnfríðr had this stone raised in memory of Bjǫrn, her son and Ketilmundrs. May God and Gods mother help his spirit and this runestone in style Fp is one of the Ingvar Runestones and due to uncertainties as to the decipherment also one of the Serkland Runestones
3. Danish Runic Inscription 66 – Danish Runic Inscription 66 or DR66, also known as the Mask stone, is a granite Viking Age memorial runestone that was discovered in Aarhus, Denmark. The inscription features a mask and memorializes a man who died in a battle. The runestone is famous for bearing a depiction of a facial mask, there is insufficient evidence to establish which battle the inscription refers to, but the Battle of Svolder and the Battle of Helgeån have been proposed as candidates. The mask depicted has been explained by the Moesgård Museum as probably intended to be protection against evil spirits. The stone may have originally been located along the important road into Aarhus from the west, in the Mask Stones case, it was discovered beneath Aarhus Mill in 1850, where the city park Mølleparken now exists. The stone is currently on exhibition at the Moesgård Museum, the logo of which was inspired by the stones mask, the runic text indicates that the stone was raised as a memorial by four men in memory of a man named Fúl. The relationship between the men is described as a being a félag, which was a joint financial venture between partners during the Viking Age. A Gunnulfr and Eygautr/Auðgautr and Áslakr and Hrólfr raised B this stone in memory of Fúl, their partner, in Stoklund, Marie, Nielsen, Michael Lerche, et al. Runes and Their Secrets, Studies in Runology, Volume 2000, ships and Men in the Late Viking Age, The Vocabulary of Runic Inscriptions and Skaldic Verse. Maskesten - Billedsten fra Vikingtiden - Arild Hauge webpage on mask stones
4. England runestones – The England runestones is a group of about 30 runestones that refer to Viking Age voyages to England. They were engraved in Old Norse with the Younger Futhark, the Anglo-Saxon rulers paid large sums, Danegelds, to Vikings, who mostly came from Denmark and who arrived to the English shores during the 990s and the first decades of the 11th century. Canute sent home most of the Vikings who had helped him conquer England, but he kept a strong bodyguard, the Þingalið, the vast majority of the runestones,27, were raised in modern-day Sweden and 17 in the oldest Swedish provinces around lake Mälaren. In contrast, modern-day Denmark has no such runestones, but there is a Danish runestone in Scania that mentions London, there is also a runestone in Norway and a Swedish one in Schleswig, Germany. There are eight runestones in Uppland that mention voyages to England, several of them were raised in memory of men who had partaken in the Danegeld in England. This secluded runestone is located in a grove near Väsby, Uppland and it was raised by a Viking in commemoration of his receiving one danegeld in England. It is classified as being carved in runestone style Pr3 and, together with U344, it has been said to be the earliest example of an Urnes style inscription in Uppland. The runic text follows a rule to only carve a single rune for two consecutive letters, even when the letters were at the end of one word and the beginning of a second word. When the text shown as Latin characters, the runes are doubled. For U194 has three examples where this occurred, þinoftiʀ is transliterated as þino| |oftiʀ, tuknuts as tuk| |knuts, hann tok Knuts giald a Ænglandi. English translation, Áli/Alli had this stone raised in memory of himself and he took Knútrs payment in England. This runestone is one of the Lingsberg Runestones and was part of a monument with U240. It is located on the courtyard of the estate Lingsberg in Uppland and it was raised by the grandchildren of Ulfríkr in commemoration of his receiving two danegelds in England. It is carved in runestone style Pr3, hann hafði a Ænglandi tu giald takit. Guð hialpi þæiʀa fæðga salu ok Guðs moðiʀ, English translation, And Danr and Húskarl and Sveinn had the stone erected in memory of Ulfríkr, their fathers father. He had taken two payments in England, may God and Gods mother help the souls of the father and son. The runestone U344, in the style Pr3, was found in 1868, at Yttergärde, by Richard Dybeck, together with U194, it is considered to be the earliest example of the Urnes style in Uppland. The runes are written right to left with the orientation of the runes going in the same direction
5. Greece runestones – The Greece runestones are about 30 runestones containing information related to voyages made by Norsemen to the Byzantine Empire. They were made during the Viking Age until about 1100 and were engraved in the Old Norse language with Scandinavian runes, all the stones have been found in modern-day Sweden, the majority in Uppland and Södermanland. On these runestones the word Grikkland appears in three inscriptions, the word Grikkar appears in 25 inscriptions, two stones refer to men as grikkfari and one refers to Grikkhafnir. The stones vary in size from the small whetstone from Timans which measures 8.5 cm ×4.5 cm ×3.3 cm to the boulder in Ed which is 18 m in circumference. Most of them are adorned with various styles that were in use during the 11th century, and especially styles that were part of the Ringerike style. Several stones were documented by Richard Dybeck in the 19th century, the latest stone to be found was in Nolinge, near Stockholm, in 1952. Swedish Viking ships were common on the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea, Greece was home to the Varangian Guard, the elite bodyguard of the Byzantine Emperor, and until the Komnenos dynasty in the late 11th century, most members of the Varangian Guard were Swedes. As late as 1195, Emperor Alexios Angelos sent emissaries to Denmark, Norway, stationed in Constantinople, which the Scandinavians referred to as Miklagarðr, the Guard attracted young Scandinavians of the sort that had composed it since its creation in the late 10th century. The later version, which was written down from 1250 to 1300, also the old Norwegian Gulaþingslög contains a similar law, but if goes to Greece, then he who is next in line to inherit shall hold his property. About 3,000 runestones from the Viking Age have been discovered in Scandinavia of which c.2,700 were raised within what today is Sweden, as many as 1,277 of them were raised in the province of Uppland alone. The Viking Age coincided with the Christianisation of Scandinavia, and in many districts c. 50% of the inscriptions have traces of Christianity. In Uppland, c. 70% of the inscriptions are explicitly Christian, the runestone tradition probably died out before 1100, and at the latest by 1125. Among the runestones of the Viking Age,9. 1–10% report that they were raised in memory of people who went abroad, and the runestones that mention Greece constitute the largest group of them. In addition, there is a group of three or four runestones that commemorate men who died in southern Italy, and who were members of the Varangian Guard. These two provinces are those that have the greatest concentrations of runic inscriptions, still, some runestones tell of men who returned with increased wealth, and an inscription on a boulder in Ed was commissioned by a former captain of the Guard, Ragnvaldr. The reasons for the tradition are a matter of debate but they include inheritance issues, status. Several runestones explicitly commemorate inheritance such as the Ulunda stone and the Hansta stone, a common view held by scholars such as Erik Moltke and Sven B. F. They may be called the monuments of the Viking voyages, Sawyer, on the other hand, reacts against this commonly held view and comments that the vast majority of the runestones were raised in memory of people who are not reported to have died abroad
6. Gunnar's bridge runestones – The second stone was discovered in a church only 500 metres away and is raised in the cemetery. The second stone informs that Håkon raised more than one stone in memory of his son, the inscription on this stone, which is 1.6 metres in height, consists of a Christian cross above an arching runic text band and a second partial interior band. The design of the inscription is similar to that of Ög Fv1970,310, the runic text on both stones indicates that Hákon constructed a bridge as a memorial to his son Gunnarr, who died vestr or in the West. Although the messages of most runestones are formulaic, some of them convey the sadness of those who raised them in memory of lost family members, Hákon made this bridge and it will be called Gunnarrs bridge. This runestone was found in the wall of the church of Kullerstad in 1969 and is raised in the cemetery. It informs that Håkon raised more than one memorial for his son and this runestone is discussed in further detail in the article Viking runestones under Ög Fv1970,310. Hakun + raiþi × kuml × þausi × eftiʀ × kunar + sun × sin × han × uarþ × taurþ × uastr + Hakon ræisþi kumbl þausi æftiʀ Gunnar, Hákon raised these monuments in memory of Gunnarr, his son. Larsson, Mats G. Götarnas Riken, Upptäcktsfärder Till Sveriges Enande, bokförlaget Atlantis AB ISBN 978-91-7486-641-4 Svärdström, Elisabeth. Kulturarv Östergötland, a site maintained by the County Museum of Östergötland, an English Dictionary of Runic Inscriptions of the Younger Futhark, at the university of Nottingham
7. Hagby Runestones – The Hagby Runestones are four runestones that are raised on the courtyard of the farm Hagby in Uppland, Sweden. They are inscribed in Old Norse using the Younger Futhark and they date to the 11th century, three of the runestones are raised in memory of Varangians who died somewhere in the East, probably in Kievan Rus. In 1929/30, they were discovered in the walls of the basement of the farm Litzby, which stood a few hundred metres from Hagby, but which burnt down in the 1880s. The runestones were burnt and fragmented but it was possible to piece 120 fragments together into the four runestones that are found on the courtyard of Hagby today and this runestone is raised by a lady named Holmfríðr who had lost both her husband Björn and their son Sighvatr. The inscription is classified as being in runestone style Pr4, also known as the Urnes style and this runestone style is characterized by slim and stylized animals that are interwoven into tight patterns. The animals heads are seen in profile with slender almond-shaped eyes and upwardly curled appendages on the noses. × hulmfriʀ × -it --isa × istain × þina × iftiʀ × biarn × buanta isin × auk × iftiʀ × isikat un isin × Holmfriðr et isa stæin þenna æftiʀ Biorn, boanda sinn, ok æftiʀ Sighvat, sun sinn. Holmfríðr had this stone raised in memory of Bjôrn, her husbandman and in memory of Sighvatr and this runestone is raised by the same Sveinn and Ulfr as on the U155, below, which is probably the other runestone mentioned in the inscription. They had them made in memory of their brothers Halfdan and Gunnarr who died somewhere in the East and it has been suggested that the words after east may be either in Greece or in Garðar, but a fracture in the runestone prevents any actual reading of these runes. Sveinn and Ulfr had the stones raised in memory of Halfdan and in memory of Gunnarr and they met their end in the east. This runestone is raised in memory of Varangians who died somewhere in the east. U154 is classified as being carved in runestone style Pr3. r × lit × rai. fast * auk × at × aiʀbiarn × bruþ-. i * o as. Let ræi. fast ok at Gæiʀbiorn, brøð. iʀ dou aus. had raised. -fastr and in memory of Geirbjôrn and this runestone is raised by the same Sveinn and Ulfr as U153, above. Þæiʀ vaʀu syniʀ Arnaʀ ok Ragnfriðaʀ, Sveinn and Ulfr had the stones raised in memory of their brothers. They were the sons of Ôrn and Ragnfríðr, rundata The article Hagby gård on the site of the local heritage society of Täby, retrieved June 27,2007
8. Hakon Jarl runestones – The Hakon Jarl Runestones are Swedish runestones from the time of Canute the Great. Two of the runestones, one in Uppland and one in Småland mention a Hakon Jarl, moreover, all known Hakon Jarls have been involved in the debate, Hákon Sigurðarson, his grandson Hákon Eiríksson, Hákon Ívarsson and Hákon Pálsson. The most common view among runologists is that the two refer to different Hakon Jarls and that one of them was Swedish and the other one Norwegian. This runestone was located in Nibble on the island of Ekerö, in scholarly literature it was first described by Johannes Bureus, and it was depicted by Leitz in 1678. Johan Hadorph noted in 1680 that the name of the deceased in the inscription had been bitten off by locals who believed that doing so would help against tooth ache, latin transliteration, Old Norse transcription, Gunni ok Kari ræisþu stæin æftiʀ. Hann vas bonda bæstr i roði Hakonaʀ, english translation, Gunni and Kári raised the stone in memory of. He was the best husbandman in Hákons dominion and this runestone is also called the Bro Runestone after the church by which it is located. It is raised by the aristocratic family as the Ramsund carving and the Kjula Runestone. He is considered to have been Swedish and his son Özurr may have been responsible for organizing the defense organization against raiders on the shores of lake Mälaren. However, the only recorded organization of such a defence is from England, omeljan Pritsak argues that this Hakon is the same as the one who is mentioned on the Södra Betby Runestone and whose son Ulf was in the west, i. e. in England. This Swedish Hakon Jarl would then actually be the Norwegian Hákon Eiríksson, like the Norwegian jarl Hákon Eiríksson, this Swedish Hakon Jarl has been identified with the Varangian chieftain Yakun who is mentioned in the Primary Chronicle. The reference to bridge-building in the text is fairly common in rune stones during this time period. Some are Christian references related to passing the bridge into the afterlife, at this time, the Catholic Church sponsored the building of roads and bridges through the use of indulgences in return for intercession for the soul. There are many examples of bridge stones dated from the eleventh century, including runic inscriptions Sö101. Saʀ vaʀ vikinga vorðr með Gæiti, guð hialpi hans nu and ok salu. English translation, Ginnlaug, Holmgeirrs daughter, Sigrøðr and Gautrs sister, she had this bridge made and he was the viking watch with Geitir. May God now help his spirit and soul, only a fragment remains of this runestone, but before it was destroyed, the text had been read by runologists. The fragment is located in the garden of the inn of Komstad in Småland and it was originally raised by a lady in memory of Vrái who had been the marshall of an earl Hakon, who was probably the earl Håkon Eiriksson
9. Ingvar runestones – The Ingvar Runestones is the name of c.26 Varangian Runestones that were raised in commemoration of those who died in the Swedish Viking expedition to the Caspian Sea of Ingvar the Far-Travelled. The Ingvar expedition was the single Swedish event that is mentioned on most runestones, and in number, they are surpassed by the c.30 Greece Runestones. It was an expedition taking place between 1036 and 1041 with many ships. The Vikings came to the shores of the Caspian Sea. Few returned, as many died in battle, but most of them, including Ingvar, beside the Tillinge Runestone in Uppland and a rune stone on Gotland, the Ingvar Runestones are the only remaining runic inscriptions that mention Serkland. Below follows a presentation of the runestones, but additional runestones that are associated with the expedition are, Sö360, U513, U540, U785, Vs 1-2, Vs 18 and it was located at Steninge Palace, but it is now lost. Johan Bureus, one of the first prominent Swedish runologists, visited Steninge on May 8,1595, only 50 years later it had disappeared and in a letter written in 1645 it was explained that the stone had been used in the construction of a new stone jetty. The inscription contained an Old Norse poem, Ingvar, the leader of the expedition, has a name meaning the god Ings warrior. This runestone is attributed to the runemaster Äskil, latin transliteration, Old Norse transcription, Hærlæif ok Þorgærðr letu ræisa stæin þenna at Sæbiorn, faður sinn. Es styrði austr skipi með Ingvari a Æistaland/Særkland, English translation, Herleif and Þorgerðr had this stone raised in memory of Sæbjôrn, their father, who steered a ship east with Ingvarr to Estonia/Serkland. This runestone in style Fp is located at Ekilla bro and it is raised in memory of the same man as U654, below. The same family also raised the runestone U643 and which reports the death of Andvéttr, omeljan Pritsak suggests that he may have died in Vladimir of Novgorods attack on Constantinople in 1043. The monument is more than 2 metres high, and it was mentioned for the first time in the 17th century during the revision of historic monuments. It was at the time lying under the bridge that crossed the river north of Ekilla. It would remain lying there until 1860, when it was moved with great difficulty by Richard Dybeck, after one failed attempt a crew of 12 men managed to move it out of the water and raise it 25 metres north of the bridge, where it still remains. Next to it, there are two barrows and a monument of raised stones, there were formerly two other runestones at the bridge, but they were moved to Ekolsund in the early 19th century. One of them speaks of the family as U644. The inscription is finished with a Christian prayer, which shows that the family was Christian and it is of note that andinni is in the definite form, as this is a grammatic category that appears in Old Norse at the end of the Viking Age
10. Italy runestones – The Italy Runestones are three or four Varangian Runestones from 11th-century Sweden that talk of warriors who died in Langbarðaland, the Old Norse name for Italy. On these rune stones it is southern Italy that is referred to, the rune stones are engraved in Old Norse with the Younger Futhark, and two of them are found in Uppland and one or two in Södermanland. Many of their brothers-in-arms are remembered on the 28 Greece runestones most of which are found in the part of Sweden. They were the kind of warriors who were welcome as the troops of the Byzantine Emperor. Johan Peringskiöld considered the Fittja stone and the Djulefors stone to refer to the Lombard migration from Sweden and he noted that the name Longobardia was not applied to Italy until after the destruction of the Kingdom of the Lombards in 774. He claimed that the kingdom had been taken over by Varangians from Byzantium in the 11th and 12th centuries, the stones would have commemorated Swedish warriors who died in Barbarossas war. This view was espoused by Brocman who considered Holmi to have died in the 12th century for either the Byzantine Emperor or ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. Von Friesen noted that it is not Lombardy in northern Italy that is intended but Langobardia in southern Italy, the Greeks had to fight several battles against the Normans in Southern Italy during the mid-11th century. Below follows a presentation of the Italy Runestones, organised according to location, there is a long-standing practice to write transliterations of the runes into Latin characters with boldface and transcribe the text into a normalized form of the language with italic type. This practice exists because the two forms of rendering a runic text have to be kept distinct, every step presents challenges, but most Younger Futhark inscriptions are considered easy to interpret. In transliterations, *, ×, and + represent common word dividers, a short hyphen, -, indicates that there is a rune or other sign that cannot be identified. A series of three full stops, shows that runes are assumed to have existed in the position, but have disappeared. The two dividing signs | | divide a rune into two Latin letters, because runemasters often carved a single instead of two consecutive ones. Angle brackets, < >, indicate there is a sequence of runes that cannot be interpreted with certainty. Other special signs are þ and ð, where the first one is the letter which represents a voiceless dental fricative as th in English thing. The second letter is eth which stands for a dental fricative as th in English them. The ʀ sign represents the yr rune, every runic inscription is shown with its ID code that is used in scholarly literature to refer to the inscription, and it is only obligatory to give the first two parts of it. The first part is one or two letters that represent the area where the inscription appears, e. g. U for the Uppland, Sö for Södermanland
11. Karlevi Runestone – The Karlevi Runestone, designated as Öl 1 by Rundata, is commonly dated to the late 10th century and located near the Kalmarsund straight in Karlevi on the island of Öland, Sweden. It is one of the most notable and prominent runestones and constitutes the oldest record of a stanza of skaldic verse, the runic inscription on the Karlevi Runestone is partly in prose, partly in verse. It is the example of a complete scaldic stanza preserved on a runestone and is composed in the lordly meter the dróttkvætt. It is notable for mentioning Thors daughter Þrúðr and Viðurr, one of the names for Odin, in kennings for chieftain, in the second half of the stanza a reference is made to Denmark, but it is not clear what exactly this means in this poetic context. The stone is contemporary with the Battle of the Fýrisvellir and it is possible that the stone was raised by warriors who partook in it. The inscription, which is on a stone that is 1.4 meters in height, is classified as being in runestone style RAK. This is the classification with inscriptions with text in bands that have no attached dragon or serpent heads. The non-runic inscription on the side appears to be accompanied by a small Christian cross. Transliteration of the runes into Latin characters, + s-a. --- is * satr * aiftir * si * kuþa * sun * fultars * in hons ** liþi * sati * at * u * -ausa-þ-. The reverse side of the stone also has a non-runic inscription In nomin Ie which may mean In the name of Jesus, a presentation with pictures at the Foteviken Museum website. Foote, Peter & Wilson, David M, jansson Sven B. F. Runinskrifter i Sverige. Salberger, Evert, Dedikationen på Karlevi-Stenen, Mansnamn och Versform
12. Lingsberg Runestones – The two intact runestones were raised by members of the same family, and on U241 they engraved for posterity that a grandfather had taken two Danegelds in England. Because the receipt of the Danegeld indicates likely service with the Scandinavian troops in the Thingmen from 1018 to 1066 and this runestone is known locally as the Lingsbergsstenen 1 and was raised at the end of a causeway facing U241. Today, the causeway is only seen as traces in a field, the area was much more marshy in the past and difficult to traverse until the water level in a local lake, named Angarn, in Angarnsjöängen Nature Reserve was lowered in the 19th century. The inscription consists of text on two serpents or lindworms that bracket a Christian cross and some beasts. The final portion of the text translates as and Holmfríðr in memory of her husbandman is carved on the outside of the serpent to the right. U240 is classified as being carved in runestone style Pr3, which is known as Urnes style. This runestone style is characterized by slim and stylized animals that are interwoven into tight patterns, the animal heads are typically seen in profile with slender almond-shaped eyes and upwardly curled appendages on the noses and the necks. The runic text on U240 was intended to be together with that on U241 to form a unified message. Based on stylistic analysis, the inscription has been attributed to the runemaster Åsmund and this runestone, known locally as the Lingsbergsstenen 2, was originally located at the end of a causeway facing U240. It was discovered in 1909 when plowing a field and it has been moved and is currently in the courtyard of the main building of Lingsberg. The inscription consists of runic text carved on a serpent that is under a cross. Similar to U240, U241 is classified as being carved in runestone style Pr3 and is attributed to the runemaster Åsmund. The runic text mentions Húskarl and Sveinn like U241, except for Holmfríðr, and it adds Halfdans father Ulfríkr, who had taken two danegelds in England. Unfortunately, it not mention which leaders paid the danegelds. As noted above, the text of U240 and U241 were intended to be read together to form a unified message, with the text on U241 beginning with the Old Norse word en meaning. It was common to only carve a single rune for two letters, even when the letters were at the end of one word and the beginning of a second word. When the text shown as Latin characters, the runes are doubled. U241 has three examples in its runic text where this occurred, the runes onklanti are transliterated as o| |onklanti, kialtakit as kialt| |takit, and salukuþs as salu| |uk| |kuþs
13. Orkesta Runestones – The Orkesta Runestones are 11th century runestones engraved in Old Norse with the younger futhark that are located at the church of Orkesta north-east of Stockholm in Sweden. Several of the stones are raised by, or in memory of, the leaders of the three expeditions were Skagul Toste, Thorkell the Tall and Canute the Great. This Ulfr also made the Risbyle Runestones in the same region, there are two other runestones that mention the danegeld and both of them are found in the vicinity. This runestone is in runestone style Pr3, which is known as Urnes style. This runestone style is characterized by slim and stylized animals that are interwoven into tight patterns, the animals heads are typically seen in profile with slender almond-shaped eyes and upwardly curled appendages on the noses and the necks. Usnekin uk siknet uk sihuiþ lata reis siin eft bs faþur sin Osnikinn ok Signiutr ok Sigviðr lata ræisa stæin æftiʀ Brusa, Ósníkinn and Signjótr and Sigviðr have raised the stone in memory of Brúsi, their father. This runestone is in runestone style Pr4, which is known as Urnes style. Iaorn * u moþur * siena. -. -bi sialu, stæin æftiʀ faðu nn Biorn ok moður sina. The stone in memory of his father Bjôrn and his mother, the runestone U335 was raised to commemorate the building of a new bridge by Holmi. He dedicated the bridge and the runestone to his father Hæra, the reference to bridge-building in the runic text is fairly common in rune stones during this time period. Some are Christian references related to passing the bridge into the afterlife, at this time, the Catholic Church sponsored the building of roads and bridges through the use of indulgences in return for intercession for the soul. There are many examples of bridge stones dated from the eleventh century, including runic inscriptions Sö101, U489. Like many other runestones, it was discovered in the walls of a church, where it still remains. Ulmi × lit × risa × stin × þina × uk × bru þisi × itiʀ × iru × faþur sin × uskarl × sifruþaʀ Holmi let ræisa stæin þenna ok bro þessi æftiʀ Hæru, faður sinn, huskarl Sigrøðaʀ. Holmi had this stone raised and this bridge in memory of Hæra, his father, Sigrøðrs housecarl The runestone U336 is raised by Ulf of Borresta, Ulf adds that they both lived at Borresta. The name Ónæmr, which means slow learner, is mentioned on two nearby runestones, U112 and U328, and so the three runestones are held to refer to the same person. Ulfr had this stone raised in memory of Ónæmr, his fathers brother and this runestone was possibly in style Pr3. It formed a monument together with U344, below in Yttergärde, although it has disappeared, the inscription was recorded during a survey of runestones in the 1700s
14. Runestones at Aspa – The Runestones at Aspa are four runestones located at Aspa, which is about six kilometers north of Runtuna, Södermanland, Sweden, where a road has passed a creek since prehistoric times. One of the stones Sö Fv1948,289, below is the oldest surviving native Scandinavian source that mentions the kingdom of Sweden beside the runestones DR344, another stone Sö137 is raised in memory of a Viking who had spent time in the west. Aspa was the location of the assembly called the Tingshögen for the Rönö Hundred administrative area until 1600. The Eriksgata was the journey of the newly elected medieval Swedish kings through the important provinces to have their election confirmed by the local assemblies. The actual election took place at the Stone of Mora in Uppland, Runestones at other locations that tradition holds were associated with the Eriksgata include U793 at Ulunda and Vg 4 at Stora Ek. This granite runestone, which is 2.07 meters in height, is classified as being carved in runestone style Fp and it was raised in memory of a two men who died in Denmark. The runic text says that they were the ablest men in Sweden, the runestone was found in 1937 during trench work near a bridge and was moved adjacent to Sö141. Originally, the stone was located at the Tingshögen. The Rundata designation for this Södermanland inscription, Sö Fv1948,289, refers to the year and page number of the issue of Fornvännen in which the runestone was first described. Ostriþ, lit, -ira, ku. usi ÷ at, anunt ÷ auk, raknualt, sun, sin ÷, urþu, ta. ʀ, - an. -. u, ua-u, rikiʀ, o rauniki, ak, snialastiʀ, i, suiþiuþu Astrið let æra kumusi at Anund ok Ragnvald, sun sinn. Urðu daʀ Danku, vau rikiʀ a Rauningi ok sniallastiʀ i Sveþiuðu, astrid had this memorial made after Anund and Ragnvald, her son. Died in Denmark, were powerful in Rauningi and the ablest in Sweden, runestone Sö136 was documented during the surveys of runestones conducted in the late 17th century, but has since been lost. The inscription, however, is known from records and it is classified as having been carved in runestone style Pr1. Svæinn ok Sloði þæiʀ ræisþu. at faður sinn, hærsi hugsniallan, in memory of their father, an able-minded chieftain He was the best under heaven. It was engraved with both long-branch runes and staveless runes, in the last row all the words but the last one were written with staveless runes. Sö137 is also considered to be one of the Viking runestones, the runic inscription emphasizes that the stone was originally located at the Tingshögen. B Stæinn saʀsi standr at Øpi a þingstaði at Þoru ver, hann vestarla væknti karla, sa þaʀ sunʀ það. A Þóra raised this stone in memory of Œpir, her husbandman, B This stone stands in memory of Œpir, on the Assembly-place in memory of Þóras husband
15. Sigtrygg Runestones – The runestones were raised after the Danish king Sigtrygg Gnupasson by his mother Ásfriðr. Together with the account of Adam of Bremen, the two inscriptions constitute evidence for the House of Olaf on the Danish throne, DR2 was found at Haddeby in Schleswig-Holstein in 1797. For example, although both DR2 and DR4 use the Younger Futhark, DR2 uses short twig style runes for the n- and a-runes. A osfriþr, karþi, kum bl þaun oft, siktriku, B sun in, oui, knubu A Asfriþr gærþi kumbl þøn æft Sigtryg, B sun sin ok Gnupu. A Ásfriðr made the memorial after Sigtrygg B her son together with Gnupa DR4 was discovered in 1887 on the ramports of Gottorf Castle, prior to the recognition of the historical significance of runestones, they were often used as construction materials for roads, walls, and buildings. A Ásfriðr made the memorial, the daughter of Odinkar, after King Sigtrygg, B her son together with Gnupa
16. Simris Runestones – The Simris Runestones are two 11th-century runestones located at the vicarage of Simris, near Simrishamn, in southeasternmost Scania, Sweden. They were rediscovered in a wall in 1716 during a restoration of the church. Although the territory was Danish at the time, they were made in the Swedish style of Uppland, one of the stones is notable in being one of the earliest native Scandinavian documents that mention Sweden. Based on stylistic, linguistic, and rune-selection grounds, it has long considered to have been made by a Swedish runemaster. It is made of sandstone and is 1.7 meters in height and this runestone was raised by Bjôrngeirr in memory of a brother called Hrafn who served a lord named Gunnulfr in Sweden. This runestone, together with the runestones Sö Fv1948,289, * biarngaiʀ × lit raisa * stain * þina * eftiʀ * rafn * broþur * sin * sun * kun--s * a suiþiuþu Biarngeʀ let resa sten þænna æftiʀ Rafn, broþur sin, swen Gunus a Sweþiuþu. Bjôrngeirr had this stone raised in memory of Hrafn, his brother and this runestone is dated to the first half of the 11th century and it is runestone style Fp and features text within a serpent with its head depicted as seen from overhead. The stone is made of sandstone and is 1.5 meters in height, similar to DR344, the runic inscription has long been considered to have been carved by a Swedish runemaster. It is believed to one of Canute the Greats warriors. Canute was king in Denmark from 1018 to 1035. × sigrif¶r, let * resa * sten, þensa, aiftiʀ * forkun, if--r * faþur, osulfs, triks, knus ¶ * hilbi, kuþ, on, hans Sigrefʀ let resa sten þænsa æftiʀ Forkun <if--r>, /æfʀ faþur Asulfs, drængs Knuts. Sigreifr had this stone raised in memory of Forkunn <if--r>, / in memory of the father of Ásulfr, Swedish Influence in Danic Runic Inscriptions
17. Stone of Eric – The Stone of Eric, listed as DR1 in the Rundata catalog, is a memorial runestone that was found in northern Germany. This area was part of Denmark during the Viking Age, the Stone of Eric is one of the Hedeby stones. It was found in 1796 at Danevirke and moved to a park in Schleswig, like the Skarthi Rune stone, DR3, it is believed to have been raised in about 995 C. E. Its inscription describes an attack from the Swedish king Eric the Victorious on Hedeby, the inscription refers to King Sweyns hemþægi or heimþegi, meaning home-receiver. A total of six runestones in Denmark refer to a person with title, the others being DR3 in Haddeby, the now-lost DR154 in Torup, DR155 in Sjørind. The use of the term in the inscriptions suggest a strong similarity between heimþegar and the Old Norse term húskarl, or housecarl, like housecarls, heimþegar are in the service of a king or lord, of whom they receive gifts for their service. Some, like Johannes Brøndsted, have interpreted heimþegi as being nothing more than a local Danish variant of húskarl. The runic text also describes Erik as being a styrimann, a title translated as captain. This term is used in inscriptions on Sö161 in Råby, U1011 in Örby, U1016 in Fjuckby. Thorulf describes the relationship between himself and Erik using the term félag, which refers to a joint financial venture between partners, Erik at the end of the text is described as being drængʀ harþa goþan meaning a very good valiant man. A drengr in Denmark was a term associated with members of a warrior group. The stone is known locally as the Eriksten
18. Varangian runestones – Other runestones that deal with Varangian expeditions include the Serkland Runestones and the Ingvar Runestones. There is also an article for the Baltic expeditions runestones. In addition, there were also voyages to Western Europe mentioned on runestones that are treated in the articles Viking Runestones, England Runestones and this vast area was a rich source of pelts, hides and people, and it was an important component in the contemporary Swedish economy. All of the stones were engraved in Old Norse with the Younger Futhark, ISBN 91-7156-015-7 Jansson, Sven B. F. Runes in Sweden. Swedish Institute for Linguistics and Heritage, the Origin of Rus, Old Scandinavian Sources Other than the Sagas. Project Samnordisk Runtextdatabas Svensk - Rundata