Category:Runestones in memory of Viking warriors
Pages in category "Runestones in memory of Viking warriors"
The following 27 pages are in this category, out of 27 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 27 pages are in this category, out of 27 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The Baltic area runestones are Varangian runestones in memory of men who took part in peaceful or warlike expeditions across the Baltic Sea, where Finland and the Baltic states are presently located. Other runestones that deal with Varangian expeditions include the Ingvar runestones, in addition, there were voyages to Western Europe mentioned on runestones that are treated in the articles Viking runestones, England runestones and Hakon Jarl runestones. Below follows a presentation of the based on the Rundata project. It was made by the runemaster Visäte, the stone commemorates a man who either died in Viborg, Jutland, or in Vyborg, Karelia. English translation, Sighvatr and Þorbjǫrn and Þorgrímr and Erinmundr had the stone raised in memory of their brother Sigsteinn and this runestone from c.1100 is in the style RAK. It is in the wall of the porch of the church of Vallentuna, the U215 contains the first part of the message. The stones were carved in memory of a man who drowned in Holmrs sea, one interpretation proposed by Jansson is that it means the Novgorodian sea and refers to the Gulf of Finland.
The runestone provides the earliest Swedish attestation of an end rhyme, uk × inkiber × eftiʀ × buanta × sin han troknaþi ÷ a holms hafi skreþ knar hans i kaf þriʀ eniʀ kamo af Old Norse transcription. Hann drunknaði a Holms hafi, skræið knarr hans i kaf, and Ingibjǫrg in memory of her husbandman. He drowned in Holmrs sea - his cargo-ship drifted to the sea-bottom - only three came out, han drunknade på Holms hav, skred knarr hans i kvav, tre endast kommo av. This runestone has disappeared but it was located at the church of Frösunda and it was made by the runemaster Åsmund Kåresson in style Pr3-Pr4, and it was raised in memory of a man who died in Virland. It contains the message as U356. Latin transliteration, Old Norse transcription, Ragnfriðr let retta stæin þenna æftiʀ Biorn, guð hialpi hans and ok Guðs moðiʀ. English translation, Ragnfríðr had this stone erected in memory of Bjǫrn, her son, may God and Gods mother help his spirit. This runestone in style Pr3 is located in Ängby and it was made by the runemaster Åsmund Kåresson for a lady in memory of her son who died in Virland.
It contains the message as U346. Guð hialpi hans and ok Guðs moðiʀ, English translation, Ragnfríðr had this stone raised in memory of Bjǫrn, her son and Ketilmundrs. May God and Gods mother help his spirit and this runestone in style Fp is one of the Ingvar Runestones and due to uncertainties as to the decipherment one of the Serkland Runestones
The Italy Runestones are three or four Varangian Runestones from 11th-century Sweden that talk of warriors who died in Langbarðaland, the Old Norse name for Italy. On these rune stones it is southern Italy that is referred to, the rune stones are engraved in Old Norse with the Younger Futhark, and two of them are found in Uppland and one or two in Södermanland. Many of their brothers-in-arms are remembered on the 28 Greece runestones most of which are found in the part of Sweden. They were the kind of warriors who were welcome as the troops of the Byzantine Emperor. Johan Peringskiöld considered the Fittja stone and the Djulefors stone to refer to the Lombard migration from Sweden and he noted that the name Longobardia was not applied to Italy until after the destruction of the Kingdom of the Lombards in 774. He claimed that the kingdom had been taken over by Varangians from Byzantium in the 11th and 12th centuries, the stones would have commemorated Swedish warriors who died in Barbarossas war.
This view was espoused by Brocman who considered Holmi to have died in the 12th century for either the Byzantine Emperor or ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. Von Friesen noted that it is not Lombardy in northern Italy that is intended but Langobardia in southern Italy, the Greeks had to fight several battles against the Normans in Southern Italy during the mid-11th century. Below follows a presentation of the Italy Runestones, organised according to location, there is a long-standing practice to write transliterations of the runes into Latin characters with boldface and transcribe the text into a normalized form of the language with italic type. This practice exists because the two forms of rendering a runic text have to be kept distinct, every step presents challenges, but most Younger Futhark inscriptions are considered easy to interpret. In transliterations, *, ×, and + represent common word dividers, a short hyphen, -, indicates that there is a rune or other sign that cannot be identified. A series of three full stops, shows that runes are assumed to have existed in the position, but have disappeared.
The two dividing signs | | divide a rune into two Latin letters, because runemasters often carved a single instead of two consecutive ones. Angle brackets, < >, indicate there is a sequence of runes that cannot be interpreted with certainty. Other special signs are þ and ð, where the first one is the letter which represents a voiceless dental fricative as th in English thing. The second letter is eth which stands for a dental fricative as th in English them. The ʀ sign represents the yr rune, every runic inscription is shown with its ID code that is used in scholarly literature to refer to the inscription, and it is only obligatory to give the first two parts of it. The first part is one or two letters that represent the area where the inscription appears, e. g. U for the Uppland, Sö for Södermanland
The Karlevi Runestone, designated as Öl 1 by Rundata, is commonly dated to the late 10th century and located near the Kalmarsund straight in Karlevi on the island of Öland, Sweden. It is one of the most notable and prominent runestones and constitutes the oldest record of a stanza of skaldic verse, the runic inscription on the Karlevi Runestone is partly in prose, partly in verse. It is the example of a complete scaldic stanza preserved on a runestone and is composed in the lordly meter the dróttkvætt. It is notable for mentioning Thors daughter Þrúðr and Viðurr, one of the names for Odin, in kennings for chieftain, in the second half of the stanza a reference is made to Denmark, but it is not clear what exactly this means in this poetic context. The stone is contemporary with the Battle of the Fýrisvellir and it is possible that the stone was raised by warriors who partook in it. The inscription, which is on a stone that is 1.4 meters in height, is classified as being in runestone style RAK.
This is the classification with inscriptions with text in bands that have no attached dragon or serpent heads. The non-runic inscription on the side appears to be accompanied by a small Christian cross. Transliteration of the runes into Latin characters, + s-a. --- is * satr * aiftir * si * kuþa * sun * fultars * in hons ** liþi * sati * at * u * -ausa-þ-. The reverse side of the stone has a non-runic inscription In nomin Ie which may mean In the name of Jesus, a presentation with pictures at the Foteviken Museum website. Foote, Peter & Wilson, David M, jansson Sven B. F. Runinskrifter i Sverige. Salberger, Dedikationen på Karlevi-Stenen, Mansnamn och Versform
The Viking runestones are runestones that mention Scandinavians who participated in Viking expeditions. However, it is likely all of them do not mention men who took part in pillaging. The inscriptions were all engraved in Old Norse with the Younger Futhark, the largest group consists of 30 stones that mention England, and they are treated separately in the article England runestones. The runestones that talk of voyages to eastern Europe, the Byzantine Empire and it is classified as being carved in runestone style RAK. This is considered to be the oldest style, and is used for inscriptions with text bands that have straight ends without any attached serpent or beast heads. Latin transliteration, Old Norse transcription, Vikætill ok Ossurr u ræisa stæin þenna æftiʀ Øystæin, Hann fors uti með alla skipan. English translation, Véketill and Ôzurr had this stone raised in memory of Eysteinn and he perished abroad with all the seamen. This runestone was a boulder which was located at Gådersta, and it was possibly in runestone style Pr4, which is known as Urnes style.
In this style the bands end in serpert or beast heads depicted in profile. Latin transliteration, Old Norse transcription, Gislaug let haggva at sun sinn, Spiallbuði, Ulfʀ, Holmfastr, Gæiʀi, þæiʀ at broður sinn Þiagn, fors uti, ok at Biorn, faður sinn. This runestone is an inscription carved in runestone style RAK with a cross above the text bands. It is located in Ubby and it was raised in memory of a father and this man had participated in Viking expeditions both in the west and in the east. English translation, Ketilfastr raised this stone in memory of Ásgautr and he was in the west and in the east. This runestone carved in runestone style Pr1 is located at Tibble and it appears to be raised in memory of a man who died in the retinue of the Viking chieftain Freygeirr. Latin transliteration, auk, stnfriþ, arisa s--n, kisila, uti, fial, i liþi, frekis * Old Norse transcription, Hann uti fioll i liði Frøygæiʀs. English translation, Bjôrn and Steinfríðr had the stone raised in memory of Gísli and he fell abroad in Freygeirrs retinue.
This runestone is found in Kolsta, in the 17th century this stone was found by one of Johannes Bureus assistants and it was part of the wall of a manor house. After having been lost for 100 years it was rediscovered in the mid-19th century and this elite unit existed between 1016 and 1066
The Ingvar Runestones is the name of c.26 Varangian Runestones that were raised in commemoration of those who died in the Swedish Viking expedition to the Caspian Sea of Ingvar the Far-Travelled. The Ingvar expedition was the single Swedish event that is mentioned on most runestones, and in number, they are surpassed by the c.30 Greece Runestones. It was an expedition taking place between 1036 and 1041 with many ships. The Vikings came to the shores of the Caspian Sea. Few returned, as many died in battle, but most of them, including Ingvar, beside the Tillinge Runestone in Uppland and a rune stone on Gotland, the Ingvar Runestones are the only remaining runic inscriptions that mention Serkland. Below follows a presentation of the runestones, but additional runestones that are associated with the expedition are, Sö360, U513, U540, U785, Vs 1-2, Vs 18 and it was located at Steninge Palace, but it is now lost. Johan Bureus, one of the first prominent Swedish runologists, visited Steninge on May 8,1595, only 50 years it had disappeared and in a letter written in 1645 it was explained that the stone had been used in the construction of a new stone jetty.
The inscription contained an Old Norse poem, the leader of the expedition, has a name meaning the god Ings warrior. This runestone is attributed to the runemaster Äskil, latin transliteration, Old Norse transcription, Hærlæif ok Þorgærðr letu ræisa stæin þenna at Sæbiorn, faður sinn. Es styrði austr skipi með Ingvari a Æistaland/Særkland, English translation, Herleif and Þorgerðr had this stone raised in memory of Sæbjôrn, their father, who steered a ship east with Ingvarr to Estonia/Serkland. This runestone in style Fp is located at Ekilla bro and it is raised in memory of the same man as U654, below. The same family raised the runestone U643 and which reports the death of Andvéttr, omeljan Pritsak suggests that he may have died in Vladimir of Novgorods attack on Constantinople in 1043. The monument is more than 2 metres high, and it was mentioned for the first time in the 17th century during the revision of historic monuments. It was at the time lying under the bridge that crossed the river north of Ekilla.
It would remain lying there until 1860, when it was moved with great difficulty by Richard Dybeck, after one failed attempt a crew of 12 men managed to move it out of the water and raise it 25 metres north of the bridge, where it still remains. Next to it, there are two barrows and a monument of raised stones, there were formerly two other runestones at the bridge, but they were moved to Ekolsund in the early 19th century. One of them speaks of the family as U644. The inscription is finished with a Christian prayer, which shows that the family was Christian and it is of note that andinni is in the definite form, as this is a grammatic category that appears in Old Norse at the end of the Viking Age
The Orkesta Runestones are 11th century runestones engraved in Old Norse with the younger futhark that are located at the church of Orkesta north-east of Stockholm in Sweden. Several of the stones are raised by, or in memory of, the leaders of the three expeditions were Skagul Toste, Thorkell the Tall and Canute the Great. This Ulfr made the Risbyle Runestones in the same region, there are two other runestones that mention the danegeld and both of them are found in the vicinity. This runestone is in runestone style Pr3, which is known as Urnes style. This runestone style is characterized by slim and stylized animals that are interwoven into tight patterns, the animals heads are typically seen in profile with slender almond-shaped eyes and upwardly curled appendages on the noses and the necks. Usnekin uk siknet uk sihuiþ lata reis siin eft bs faþur sin Osnikinn ok Signiutr ok Sigviðr lata ræisa stæin æftiʀ Brusa, Ósníkinn and Signjótr and Sigviðr have raised the stone in memory of Brúsi, their father.
This runestone is in runestone style Pr4, which is known as Urnes style. Iaorn * u moþur * siena. -. -bi sialu, stæin æftiʀ faðu nn Biorn ok moður sina. The stone in memory of his father Bjôrn and his mother, the runestone U335 was raised to commemorate the building of a new bridge by Holmi. He dedicated the bridge and the runestone to his father Hæra, the reference to bridge-building in the runic text is fairly common in rune stones during this time period. Some are Christian references related to passing the bridge into the afterlife, at this time, the Catholic Church sponsored the building of roads and bridges through the use of indulgences in return for intercession for the soul. There are many examples of bridge stones dated from the eleventh century, including runic inscriptions Sö101, U489. Like many other runestones, it was discovered in the walls of a church, where it still remains. Ulmi × lit × risa × stin × þina × uk × bru þisi × itiʀ × iru × faþur sin × uskarl × sifruþaʀ Holmi let ræisa stæin þenna ok bro þessi æftiʀ Hæru, faður sinn, huskarl Sigrøðaʀ.
Holmi had this stone raised and this bridge in memory of Hæra, his father, Sigrøðrs housecarl The runestone U336 is raised by Ulf of Borresta, Ulf adds that they both lived at Borresta. The name Ónæmr, which means slow learner, is mentioned on two nearby runestones, U112 and U328, and so the three runestones are held to refer to the same person. Ulfr had this stone raised in memory of Ónæmr, his fathers brother and this runestone was possibly in style Pr3. It formed a monument together with U344, below in Yttergärde, although it has disappeared, the inscription was recorded during a survey of runestones in the 1700s
Danish Runic Inscription 66 or DR66, known as the Mask stone, is a granite Viking Age memorial runestone that was discovered in Aarhus, Denmark. The inscription features a mask and memorializes a man who died in a battle. The runestone is famous for bearing a depiction of a facial mask, there is insufficient evidence to establish which battle the inscription refers to, but the Battle of Svolder and the Battle of Helgeån have been proposed as candidates. The mask depicted has been explained by the Moesgård Museum as probably intended to be protection against evil spirits. The stone may have originally been located along the important road into Aarhus from the west, in the Mask Stones case, it was discovered beneath Aarhus Mill in 1850, where the city park Mølleparken now exists. The stone is currently on exhibition at the Moesgård Museum, the logo of which was inspired by the stones mask, the runic text indicates that the stone was raised as a memorial by four men in memory of a man named Fúl.
The relationship between the men is described as a being a félag, which was a joint financial venture between partners during the Viking Age. A Gunnulfr and Eygautr/Auðgautr and Áslakr and Hrólfr raised B this stone in memory of Fúl, their partner, in Stoklund, Nielsen, Michael Lerche, et al. Runes and Their Secrets, Studies in Runology, Volume 2000, ships and Men in the Late Viking Age, The Vocabulary of Runic Inscriptions and Skaldic Verse. Maskesten - Billedsten fra Vikingtiden - Arild Hauge webpage on mask stones
The Hakon Jarl Runestones are Swedish runestones from the time of Canute the Great. Two of the runestones, one in Uppland and one in Småland mention a Hakon Jarl, all known Hakon Jarls have been involved in the debate, Hákon Sigurðarson, his grandson Hákon Eiríksson, Hákon Ívarsson and Hákon Pálsson. The most common view among runologists is that the two refer to different Hakon Jarls and that one of them was Swedish and the other one Norwegian. This runestone was located in Nibble on the island of Ekerö, in scholarly literature it was first described by Johannes Bureus, and it was depicted by Leitz in 1678. Johan Hadorph noted in 1680 that the name of the deceased in the inscription had been bitten off by locals who believed that doing so would help against tooth ache, latin transliteration, Old Norse transcription, Gunni ok Kari ræisþu stæin æftiʀ. Hann vas bonda bæstr i roði Hakonaʀ, english translation, Gunni and Kári raised the stone in memory of. He was the best husbandman in Hákons dominion and this runestone is called the Bro Runestone after the church by which it is located.
It is raised by the aristocratic family as the Ramsund carving and the Kjula Runestone. He is considered to have been Swedish and his son Özurr may have been responsible for organizing the defense organization against raiders on the shores of lake Mälaren. However, the only recorded organization of such a defence is from England, omeljan Pritsak argues that this Hakon is the same as the one who is mentioned on the Södra Betby Runestone and whose son Ulf was in the west, i. e. in England. This Swedish Hakon Jarl would actually be the Norwegian Hákon Eiríksson, like the Norwegian jarl Hákon Eiríksson, this Swedish Hakon Jarl has been identified with the Varangian chieftain Yakun who is mentioned in the Primary Chronicle. The reference to bridge-building in the text is fairly common in rune stones during this time period. Some are Christian references related to passing the bridge into the afterlife, at this time, the Catholic Church sponsored the building of roads and bridges through the use of indulgences in return for intercession for the soul.
There are many examples of bridge stones dated from the eleventh century, including runic inscriptions Sö101. Saʀ vaʀ vikinga vorðr með Gæiti, guð hialpi hans nu and ok salu. English translation, Holmgeirrs daughter, Sigrøðr and Gautrs sister, she had this bridge made and he was the viking watch with Geitir. May God now help his spirit and soul, only a fragment remains of this runestone, but before it was destroyed, the text had been read by runologists. The fragment is located in the garden of the inn of Komstad in Småland and it was originally raised by a lady in memory of Vrái who had been the marshall of an earl Hakon, who was probably the earl Håkon Eiriksson
The Hagby Runestones are four runestones that are raised on the courtyard of the farm Hagby in Uppland, Sweden. They are inscribed in Old Norse using the Younger Futhark and they date to the 11th century, three of the runestones are raised in memory of Varangians who died somewhere in the East, probably in Kievan Rus. In 1929/30, they were discovered in the walls of the basement of the farm Litzby, which stood a few hundred metres from Hagby, but which burnt down in the 1880s. The runestones were burnt and fragmented but it was possible to piece 120 fragments together into the four runestones that are found on the courtyard of Hagby today and this runestone is raised by a lady named Holmfríðr who had lost both her husband Björn and their son Sighvatr. The inscription is classified as being in runestone style Pr4, known as the Urnes style and this runestone style is characterized by slim and stylized animals that are interwoven into tight patterns. The animals heads are seen in profile with slender almond-shaped eyes and upwardly curled appendages on the noses.
× hulmfriʀ × -it --isa × istain × þina × iftiʀ × biarn × buanta isin × auk × iftiʀ × isikat un isin × Holmfriðr et isa stæin þenna æftiʀ Biorn, boanda sinn, ok æftiʀ Sighvat, sun sinn. Holmfríðr had this stone raised in memory of Bjôrn, her husbandman and in memory of Sighvatr and this runestone is raised by the same Sveinn and Ulfr as on the U155, which is probably the other runestone mentioned in the inscription. They had them made in memory of their brothers Halfdan and Gunnarr who died somewhere in the East and it has been suggested that the words after east may be either in Greece or in Garðar, but a fracture in the runestone prevents any actual reading of these runes. Sveinn and Ulfr had the stones raised in memory of Halfdan and in memory of Gunnarr and they met their end in the east. This runestone is raised in memory of Varangians who died somewhere in the east. U154 is classified as being carved in runestone style Pr3. r × lit × rai. fast * auk × at × aiʀbiarn × bruþ-. i * o as. Let ræi. fast ok at Gæiʀbiorn, brøð. iʀ dou aus. had raised.
-fastr and in memory of Geirbjôrn and this runestone is raised by the same Sveinn and Ulfr as U153, above. Þæiʀ vaʀu syniʀ Arnaʀ ok Ragnfriðaʀ, Sveinn and Ulfr had the stones raised in memory of their brothers. They were the sons of Ôrn and Ragnfríðr, rundata The article Hagby gård on the site of the local heritage society of Täby, retrieved June 27,2007