Amur Cart Road
The road was built during 1898–1909 with nearly exclusive usage of katorga prison labor. It was praised as a success in its use of penal labor, in 1905 over 700 convicts were simultaneously at work on the road. In this respect it was unsurpassed in the Gulag system of the Soviet Union, siberian Route Kolyma Highway Amur Highway Andrey Sobol, Kолесуха,1925, memoirs, in Russian
History of Russia
The History of Russia begins with that of the Eastern Slavs. The traditional beginning of Russian history is 862 A. D. Kievan Rus, the state adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988, beginning with the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Kievan Rus ultimately disintegrated as a state because of the Mongol invasion of Rus in 1237–1240, after the 13th century, Moscow became a cultural center. By the 18th century, the Tsardom of Russia had become the huge Russian Empire, expansion in the western direction sharpened Russias awareness of its separation from much of the rest of Europe and shattered the isolation in which the initial stages of expansion had occurred. Successive regimes of the 19th century responded to such pressures with a combination of halfhearted reform, peasant revolts were common, and all were fiercely suppressed. Russian serfdom was abolished in 1861, but the peasant fared poorly, from its first years, government in the Soviet Union was based on the one-party rule of the Communists, as the Bolsheviks called themselves, beginning in March 1918.
The Russian Federation began in January 1992 as the successor to the USSR. Russia retained its nuclear arsenal but lost its superpower status, Russias treatment of Ukraine led to severe economic sanctions imposed by the United States and the European Union. In 2006,1. 5-million-year-old Oldowan flint tools were discovered in the Dagestan Akusha region of the north Caucasus, arctic Russia was reached by 40,000 years ago. During the prehistoric eras the vast steppes of Southern Russia were home to tribes of nomadic pastoralists, in classical antiquity, the Pontic Steppe was known as Scythia. Remnants of these long gone steppe cultures were discovered in the course of the 20th century in places as Ipatovo, Arkaim. In the latter part of the 8th century BCE, Greek merchants brought classical civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais, gelonus was described by Herodotos as a huge earth- and wood-fortified grad inhabited around 500 BCE by Heloni and Budini. At about the 2nd century CE Goths migrated to the Black Sea, and in the 3rd and 4th centuries CE, a Turkic people, the Khazars, ruled the lower Volga basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seas through to the 8th century.
Noted for their laws and cosmopolitanism, the Khazars were the commercial link between the Baltic and the Muslim Abbasid empire centered in Baghdad. They were important allies of the Byzantine Empire, and waged a series of wars against the Arab Caliphates. In the 8th century, the Khazars embraced Judaism, some of the ancestors of the modern Russians were the Slavic tribes, whose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pripet Marshes. The Early East Slavs gradually settled Western Russia in two waves, one moving from Kiev towards present-day Suzdal and Murom and another from Polotsk towards Novgorod, scandinavian Norsemen, known as Vikings in Western Europe and Varangians in the East, combined piracy and trade throughout Northern Europe. In the mid-9th century, they began to venture along the waterways from the eastern Baltic to the Black, the first East Slavic state, emerged in the 9th century along the Dnieper River valley
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, with 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and that connection by 1914 led to Russias entry into the First World War on the side of France and Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires.
The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of 1905. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War. Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the 1790-1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation
Armorial of Little Russia
Armorial of Little Russia is an armorial of noble Ukrainian families from the Russian Empire. It was published in 1914, in Saint Petersburg, by the nobility of Chernigov Governorate, the Armorial was edited by Russian historian Vladislav Lukomski and Ukrainian historian Vadym Modzalevski, and illustrated by Ukrainian artist Heorhiy Narbut. It contains images and description of 700 coat of arms of Ukrainian, Тройницкого Сириус, изданїε Черниговскаго дворѧнства,1914
House of Romanov
The Romanovs achieved prominence as boyars of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Tsardom of Russia. In 1613, following years of interregnum, the zemsky sobor offered the Russian crown to Mikhail Romanov and he acceded to the throne as Michael I, becoming the first Tsar of Russia from the House of Romanov. His grandson Peter I established the Russian Empire and transformed the country into a continental power through a series of wars, the direct male line of the Romanovs came to an end when Elizabeth of Russia died in 1762. After an era of crisis, the House of Holstein-Gottorp, a cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg which reigned in Denmark, ascended the throne in 1762 with Peter III. All rulers from the middle of the 18th century to the revolution of 1917 were descended from that branch, though officially known as the House of Romanov, these descendants of the Romanov and Oldenburg dynasties are sometimes referred to as Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov. In early 1917 the Romanov dynasty had 65 members,18 of whom were killed by the Bolsheviks, the remaining 47 members went into exile abroad.
In 1924, Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich, the senior, surviving male-line descendant of Alexander II of Russia by primogeniture, since 1991, the succession to the former Russian throne has been in dispute, largely due to disagreements over the validity of dynasts marriages. Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna of Russia claims to hold the title of empress in pretense with her child, George Mikhailovich. There is a rival non-Romanov claim put forth by Prince Karl Emich of the House of Leiningen supported by the Monarchist Party, according to the Almanach de Gotha, the name of Russias ruling dynasty from the time of Peter III was Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov. However, the name Romanov and House of Romanov were often used in references to the Russian imperial family. The coat of arms of the Romanov boyars was included in legislation on the imperial dynasty, after the February Revolution all members of the imperial family were given the surname Romanov by special decree of the Provisional Government of Russia.
Their earliest common ancestor is one Andrei Kobyla, attested around 1347 as a boyar in the service of Semyon I of Moscow, generations assigned to Kobyla an illustrious pedigree. An 18th-century genealogy claimed that he was the son of the Prussian prince Glanda Kambila, one of the leaders of the Old Prussian rebellion of 1260–1274 against the Teutonic order was named Glande. His actual origin may have been less spectacular, not only is Kobyla Russian for mare, some of his relatives had as nicknames the terms for horses and other domestic animals, thus suggesting descent from one of the royal equerries. One of Kobylas sons, Feodor, a member of the boyar Duma of Dmitri Donskoi, was nicknamed Koshka and his descendants took the surname Koshkin, changed it to Zakharin, which family split into two branches, Zakharin-Yakovlev and Zakharin-Yuriev. During the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the family became known as Yakovlev. The family fortunes soared when Romans daughter, Anastasia Zakharyina, married Ivan IV, since her husband had assumed the title of tsar, which literally means Caesar, on 16 January 1547, she was crowned the very first tsaritsa of Russia.
Her mysterious death in 1560 changed Ivans character for the worse, suspecting the boyars of having poisoned his beloved, Tsar Ivan started a reign of terror against them
The Amur Annexation refers to the incorporation of the southeast corner of Siberia into Russia in 1858–60. The territory of Outer Manchuria was formerly under the control of the Qing dynasty, in the modern-day geography of Russia, Priamurye roughly corresponds to the Amur Oblast and the southern half of the Khabarovsk Krai, while Primorye corresponds to the Primorsky Krai. Hydrologically, the Stanovoy Mountains separate the rivers flow north into the Arctic from those that flow south into the Amur River. Ecologically, the area is the edge of the Siberian boreal forest with some areas good for agriculture along the middle Amur. Socially and politically, from about 600 AD, it was the fringe of the Chinese-Korean-Manchu world. For a Chinese view of this, see Outer Manchuria and Hulun, in 1643 Russian adventurers spilled over the Stanovoys, but by 1689 they were driven back by the Manchus. For this, see Sino-Russian border conflicts, by the Treaty of Nerchinsk the two empires recognized the Stanovoys and the Argun River as their border.
This remained stable until the 1840s, following the voyages of Captain James Cook significant numbers of British and American vessels began entering the Pacific. They were followed by Russians like Grigory Shelikhov and Nikolai Rezanov who were concerned with the new Russian colonies in Alaska. This raised the problem of naval defense of the east coast of Siberia, in 1845 Alexander von Middendorf entered the Amur country and wrote a report. In 1847 Aleksandr Gavrilov reached the mouth of the Amur but could not find a deep-water entrance, in 1848 Gennady Nevelskoy was sent in the Baikal to explore the Pacific coast. In 1849 he sailed part way up the Amur and sailed south through the Tatar Strait, thereby proving that Sakhalin was an island, in 1850 he founded Nikolayevsk-on-Amur on what was alleged Chinese territory. Karl Nesselrode, the minister, tried to overrule this. In the next three years, Nevelskoy established other forts on the alleged Chinese territory around the mouth of the Amur, in 1847 Nikolay Muravyov was appointed governor-general of East Siberia.
Before leaving for Irkutsk he arranged for the creation of an Amur Committee to coordinate work in the area, in 1849 he made an overland trip to Okhotsk and to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. One result of this was the removal of the naval center from Okhotsk to Petropavlovsk. To give himself a force he created a new Cossack host. In May–June 1854 he and 1,000 men sailed down the Amur to Nikolayevsk, the Manchu governor at Aigun had no choice but to let them pass
The bride-show was a custom of Byzantine emperors and Russian tsars to choose a wife from among the most beautiful maidens of the country. Notable marriages resulting from a bride-show and Theodora, possibly Irene of Athens to Leo IV the Khazar, beauty pageant Book of Esther Maria of Amnia Afinogenov, D. The Bride-show of Theophilos, Some notes on the Sources, Eranos 95, the Bride-shows at the Byzantine Court - History or Fiction. The Bride-shows of the Byzantine Emperors, Byzantion 49, Photeine, “The Bride-Show Custom and the Fairy-Story of Cinderella. ”In P. P. Bourboulis, Studies in the History of Modern Greek Story-Motives
Burkhanism or Ak Jang is a new religious movement that flourished among the indigenous people of Russias Gorno Altai region between 1904 and the 1930s. Czarist Russia was suspicious of the potential to stir up native unrest. The Soviet authorities ultimately suppressed it for fear of its potential to unify Siberian Turkic peoples under a common nationalism and it exists today in several revival forms. On the whole, the Burkhanist movement was shown to be a syncretistic phenomenon combining elements of ancient pre-Shamanist, Lamaist, according to a Professor of Tomsk State University L. Burkhanism is the usual English-language scholarly name, which has its origin in the Russian academic usage. One of the Burkhanist deities is Ak-Burkhan, or White Burkhan, Burkhan means god or buddha in Mongolic languages, yet Burkhanism is not considered Buddhist, as the term is used in shamanistic nomenclature. For example, in Mongolian Shamanism, the name of the most sacred mountain, Ak-Burkhan is only one of a pantheon of deities worshiped by Burkhanists, but Ak-Burkhan nevertheless provides the name of the religion in Russian, and thence into other languages.
The Altaian name for the religion is Ak Jang, White refers to its emphasis on the upper world. Alternatively, the name may allude to Ak Jangs rejection of animal sacrifices in favor of offerings of horse milk or horse-milk alcohol. Jang means authority, custom, law or principle, in more colloquial settings, the term may be used as a way of doing things and is used in reference to religions as well as political systems. In April 1904 Chet Chelpan and his adopted daughter Chugul Sarok Chandyk reported visions of a rider dressed in white and this figure, whom they called Ak-Burkhan, announced the imminent arrival of the mythical messianic hero Oirat Khan who was actually a real historical figure—Khoit-Oirat prince Amursana. The central figure in the research of Burkhanism in the past forty years and Chugul gathered thousands of Altaians for prayer meetings, initially in the Tereng Valley. Chet and Chugul were arrested, Chugul was released, and after a prolonged trial Chet was fully exonerated by court and released in 1906.
Researcher Andrei A. Znamenski compares the Burkanist movement to other indigenous revitalizing movements around the world, Znamenski says, the prime motivating factor was Altaians fear of displacement by Russian colonists and subjection to taxation and conscription on the same basis as Russian peasants. Andrei Vinogradov sees Burkhanism as a typical nomadic Turko-Mongolian mobilization pattern—aiming to link families, the Burkhanists veneration of heroes from oral epics, he says, serves much the same cultural centralizing function as the veneration of other divine heroes such as Gesar, Manas, or Genghis Khan. As such it constitutes a major aspect of Turko-Mongolic religion, distinct from shamanism, after the arrest of Chet and Chugul, Tyryi Akemchi arose to become the most prominent iarlikchi, and helped organize the movement. Having been exposed to Buddhism through his years as a translator in Mongolia, Tyryi added a number of Buddhist trappings to Burkhanist ritual, within a decade, most of the Altaian population had joined the new faith.
In 1918 Gregorii Choros-Gurkin and other Altaian leaders declared the formation of something called the Karakorum Regional Committee and this was intended to include not only Altai but neighboring republics of Tuva and Khakassia. It was forcibly dissolved with arrival of Bolshevik power in 1921, Burkhanism accepts the three worlds of Mongolic and Turkic tradition