Pages in category "Russian Trotskyists"
The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Adolph Joffe – Adolph Abramovich Joffe was a Communist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and a Soviet diplomat of Karaite descent. Adolf Abramovich Joffe was born in Simferopol, Crimea, Russian Empire in a wealthy Karaite family and he became a social democrat in 1900 while still in high school, formally joining the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party in 1903. In 1904 Joffe was sent to Baku, which he had to flee to avoid arrest and he was then sent to Moscow, but had to flee again, this time abroad. After the events of Bloody Sunday on January 9,1905, Joffe returned to Russia, in early 1906 he was forced to emigrate and lived in Berlin until his expulsion from Germany in May 1906. In Russia, Joffe was close to the Menshevik faction within the Russian Social Democratic Party. However, after moving to Vienna in May 1906, he became close to Leon Trotskys position and helped Trotsky edit Pravda from 1908 to 1912 while studying medicine and with Alfred Adler and he also used his familys fortune to support Pravda financially. During the course of his revolutionary activity Joffe adopted the party name V. Krymsky. In 1912 Joffe was arrested while visiting Odessa, imprisoned for 10 months, in 1917, Joffe, freed from the Siberian exile by the February Revolution, returned to the Crimea. Instead, he joined forces with Trotsky, who had just returned from abroad, in May 1917, Joffe and Trotsky temporarily joined Mezhraiontsy who merged with the Bolsheviks at the VIth Bolshevik Party Congress held between 26 July and 3 August 1917. Joffe headed the Bolshevik faction in the Petrograd Duma in the fall of 1917 and was one of the Dumas delegates to the Democratic Conference between September 14 and 22. Two weeks later, on October 7, once the more radical Bolshevik faction gained the hand, Joffe. Joffe served as the Chairman of the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee which overthrew the Russian Provisional Government on October 25–26,1917. From November 30,1917 until January 1918, Joffe was the head of the Soviet delegation that was sent to Brest-Litovsk to negotiate an end to the hostilities with Germany, grigori Yakovlovich Sokolnikov, leader of the signatory team, signed on behalf of Russia. His whole theory is based on the universal application of the right of self-governance of nations in the broadest form. If he continued to hold on his utopic viewpoints the peace would not be possible, mr. Joffe looked astonishedly at me with his gentle eyes and was silent for a while. Then he continued in a - for me, ever unforgettable - friendly, or I would even nearly say suppliant, tone, I very much hope that we will also be able to raise the revolution in your country. At the VIIth Extraordinary Congress of the Bolshevik Party between March 6 and March 8,1918, Joffe was re-elected to the Central Committee and he signed the Soviet-German Supplementary Treaty on August 27,1918. In 1919–1920, Joffe was a member of the Council of Labor and Defense and he wasnt re-elected to the Central Committee at the VIII Party Congress in March 1919 and would never again occupy a major leadership position
2. Mikhail Okhitovich – Mikhail Aleksandrovich Okhitovich was a Bolshevik sociologist, town planner and Constructivist architectural theorist, most famous for his Disurbanist proposals of 1929-30. Okhitovich, born in Saint Petersburg, joined the Bolshevik Party in 1917 and he became a supporter of the Left Opposition of Leon Trotsky, leading to his expulsion in 1928. He was readmitted to the Party in 1930, at which time his theories were garnering a great deal of attention and his proposals were, along with other OSA members, the basis of the rejected Magnitogorsk plan of 1930 and a Green City competition of the same year. Le Corbusiers riposte to Okhitovichs proposals would become the Ville Radieuse, a campaign led by Karo Alabyan and Arkady Mordvinov led to his arrest the same year. He was sent to the Gulag, where he was shot in 1937, terror in Soviet Architecture, The Murder of Mikhail Okhitovich Slavic Review Vol.51, No
3. Yevgeni Preobrazhensky – Yevgeni Alekseyevich Preobrazhensky was a Russian revolutionary and economist. Yevgeni Alekseyevich Preobrazhensky was born in Bolkhov, Oryol Governorate, Russia on 15 February 1886 and his father was the son of a Orthodox priest who taught for seven years in a zemstvo school before his ordination in 1883. Following his appointment as a parish priest in Bolkhov in the summer of 1883 and it was in that school that Yevgeni was first educated. In an autobiography written for the Great Russian Encyclopedia, he recalled both a religious and an intellectually oriented upbringing, as well as an early loathing of inequality and he was an early and active reader. After leaving his fathers school, Preobrazhensky spent two years attending the state-operated Bolkhov public school. He subsequently left the town to attend the classically oriented gymnasium in the capital of Oryol. Preobrazhenskys philosophical rebelliousness brought him conflict with his priestly father. The estrangement between father and son would last for decades, influenced by the Communist Manifesto and another work by Frederick Engels, Preobrazhensky cast his lot with the latter organisation, believing its approach to be scientifically based. Together with two friends, Preobrazhensky declared his allegiance to the RSDLP late in 1903 and was accepted into the illegal organisation two or three months later. During the summer prior to his eighth and final year at the Orël gymnasium, periodic meetings were held in the neighboring forest. In the middle of October 1905, Preobrazhensky traveled to Moscow with the approval of the Moscow Committee of the RSDLP, there he was promoted to the position of chief propagandist for the urban Presnensky raion, thereby entering national politics as a party activist. From autumn 1909 Preobrazhensky was a member of the Bolshevik Party bureau in Irkutsk, from March 1917 he was a delegate on the Chita Soviet. At the 6th Congress of the Bolshevik Party, beginning near the end of July 1917, from January 1918, a candidate member of the Ural Provincial Committee of the Bolshevik Party. As President of the Presidium of the Ural Regional Committee from May 1918, in 1918, Preobrazhensky joined the Left Communists faction opposing the draconian peace with Germany established by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. It was at time that Preobrazhensky became closely affiliated with Nikolai Bukharin. Preobrazhensky was elected a member of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party at its 9th Congress. He was at the time elected to the RKPs three member secretariat. Through the 1920s he was a leading Soviet Economist, developing the plan for industrialisation of the country and he co-wrote the book The ABC of Communism with Nikolai Bukharin, who would strongly disagree with him on the industrialization issue
4. Christian Rakovsky – Christian Rakovsky was a Bulgarian socialist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and Soviet diplomat, he was also noted as a journalist, physician, and essayist. Rakovskys political career took him throughout the Balkans and into France and Imperial Russia, for part of his life, subsequently, he was a founding member of the Comintern, served as head of government in the Ukrainian SSR, and took part in negotiations at the Genoa Conference. He was ultimately recalled from France in autumn 1927, after signing his name to a controversial Trotskyist platform which endorsed world revolution, credited with having developed the Trotskyist critique of Stalinism as bureaucratic centrism, Rakovsky was subject to internal exile. Submitting to Stalins leadership in 1934 and being reinstated, he was nonetheless implicated in the Trial of the Twenty One, imprisoned. He was rehabilitated in 1988, during the Soviet Glasnost period, Rakovskys original Bulgarian name was Krastyo Georgiev Stanchev, which he himself changed to Krastyo Rakovski. The usual form his first name took in Romanian was Cristian, while his last name was spelled Racovski, Racovschi and his given name was occasionally rendered as Ristache, an antiquated hypocoristic—he was known as such to his acquaintance, the writer Ion Luca Caragiale. In Russian, his name, including patronymic, was Khristian Georgievich Rakovsky. Christian is a rendition of Krastyo, as used by Rakovsky himself. In Ukrainian, Rakovskys name is rendered as Християн Георгійович Раковський, during his lifetime, he was also known under the pseudonyms H. Insarov and Grigoriev, which he used in signing several articles for the Russian-language press. Christian Rakovsky was born to a wealthy Bulgarian family in Gradets—near Kotel—at the time part of Ottoman-ruled Rumelia. Rakovskys father was a merchant who belonged to the Democratic Party, although his parents moved to the Kingdom of Romania in 1880, settling in Gherengic, he completed his education in newly emancipated Bulgaria. Rakovsky was expelled from the gymnasium in Gabrovo for his political activities and it was around that time that he became a Marxist, and began collaborating with the socialist journalist Evtim Dabev, whom he aided in printing works by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. While in Switzerland, he joined the Socialist Student Circle at the University of Geneva, a polyglot, Rakovsky became close to Georgy Plekhanov, the founder of Russian Marxism, and his circle, eventually writing a number of articles and a book in Russian. He also briefly worked with Rosa Luxemburg, Pavel Axelrod and Vera Zasulich, unable to attend the First International Congress of Socialist Students in Brussels, he became involved in organizing the Second Congress, held in Geneva during the fall of 1893. He was an editor of the Geneva-based Bulgarian-language magazine Sotsial-Demokrat and later a major contributor to the Bulgarian Marxist publications Den, Rabotnik. He soon became involved in distributing socialist propaganda inside Bulgaria, at a time when Stefan Stambolov organized a crackdown on political opposition, later in 1893, Rakovsky enrolled in a medical school in Berlin, contributing articles for Vorwärts and becoming close to Wilhelm Liebknecht. As a Bulgarian delegate to the Second International Congress in Zürich, he met with Engels. Six months later, he was arrested and expelled from the German Empire for maintaining contacts with the Russian revolutionaries there
5. Lev Sedov – Lev Lvovich Sedov was the son of the Russian Communist leader Leon Trotsky and his second wife Natalia Sedova. He was born when his father was in facing life imprisonment for having participated in the first Soviet Revolution of 1905. He lived separately from his parents after the October Revolution in order not to be seen as privileged and he married in 1925 at the age of 19, and had a son, Lev, the following year. In 1935-1939, while in Paris, Sedov and his partner, Jeanne Martin, also took in and cared for his nephew, Vsevolod Volkov, called Sieva by the family. Sedov supported his father in the struggle against Joseph Stalin and became a leader of the Trotskyist movement in his own right and he accompanied his parents into exile in 1929, and then moved to Berlin in 1931. Just before Hitler came to power in 1933, Sedov was able to move to Paris where he went to work as a Parisian laborer and he was frequently followed by agents of the Soviet NKVD. Complications set in after the operation, but Sedov apparently received no further treatment and he was later taken to a Paris hospital, where he died. Some historians who have analyzed the matter believe Sedov was murdered by agents of Stalin who were in Paris watching him, either while in hospital or by poisoning him causing his condition. However, in 1956, Zborowski himself had testified before a United States Senate subcommittee that he had contacted the NKVD to report that Sedov had entered the clinic, Sedovs grave is in Cimetière de Thiais, south of Paris. Lev Sedovs major political work is The Red Book on the Moscow Trials, at a time when a leftist consensus accepted the verdicts of the Moscow trials, this book analyzed them with the aim of discrediting them. It was the first thorough-going exposé of the frame-ups upon which the trials were based, Trotsky himself described it as a priceless gift. The first crushing reply to the Kremlin falsifiers, the Red Book on the Moscow Trial Obituary
6. Varlam Shalamov – Varlam Tikhonovich Shalamov, baptized as Varlaam, was a Russian writer, journalist, poet and Gulag survivor. At first young Shalamov was named and baptized after the patron of Vologda, Saint Varlaam Khutinskiy, Shalamovs mother, Nadezhda Aleksandrovna, was a teacher as well. She also enjoyed poetry, and Varlam speculated that she could have become a poet if not for her family. His father worked as a missionary in Alaska for 12 years from 1892, in 1914, Varlam entered the gymnasium of St. Alexanders and graduated in 1923. After the October Revolution the Soviet regime confiscated Shalamovs house that stands right behind the church to this day. Upon his graduation it became clear that the Regional Department of Peoples Education would not support his education because Varlam was a son of a priest. Therefore, he found a job as a tanner at the factory in the settlement of Kuntsevo. In 1926, after having worked for two years, he was accepted into the department of Soviet Law at Moscow State University through open competition, while studying there Varlam was intrigued by the oratory skills displayed during the debates between Anatoly Lunacharsky and Metropolitan Alexander Vvedensky. At that time Shalamov was convinced that he would become a literature specialist, Shalamov joined a Trotskyist-leaning group and on February 19,1929, was arrested and sent to Butyrskaya prison for solitary confinement. Courageously he refused to sign the sentence branding him a criminal, by train he was taken to the former Solikamsk monastery, which was transformed into a militsiya headquarters of the Vishera department of Solovki ITL OGPU. Shalamov was released in 1931 and worked in the new town of Berezniki and he was given the opportunity to travel to Kolyma for colonization. Sarcastically, Shalamov said that he would go there only under enforced escort and he returned to Moscow in 1932, where he worked as a journalist and managed to see some of his essays and articles published, including his first short story The three deaths of Doctor Austino. He was already in jail awaiting sentencing when one of his stories was published in the literary journal Literary Contemporary. In 1943 he was sentenced to another term, this time for 10 years, under Article 58, the conditions he endured were extreme, first in gold mining operations, and then in coal mining. He was repeatedly sent to punishment zones, both for his crimes and for his attempt to escape. There he managed to survive while sick with typhus of which Shalamov was not aware until he became well, at that time, as he recollects in his writings, he did not care much about his survival. In 1946, while becoming a dokhodyaga, his life was saved by a doctor-inmate A. I, pantyukhov, who risked his own life to get Shalamov a place as a camp hospital attendant. The new career allowed Shalamov to survive and concentrate on writing poetry, in 1951, Shalamov was released from the camp, and continued working as a medical assistant for the forced labor camps of Sevvostlag while still writing
7. Ivan Smirnov (politician) – Ivan Nikitich Smirnov was a Communist Party activist. He was born in January 1881 in Gorodishche, Moscow Governorate in a family of Russian ethnicity, in 1899, Smirnov joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party and became a Bolshevik. He led his party activity in Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Vyshniy Volochok, Rostov, Kharkov, Smirnov was subject to repeated arrests. In 1916, he was called up for the service in a reserve regiment in Tomsk. In 1917, he became a member of the committee of the Tomsk Soviet. In August of the year, Smirnov was one of the organizers and upkeepers of the Bolshevist publishing house Volna in Moscow. He was a deputy of the Constituent Assembly, during the Russian Civil War, Smirnov was a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Eastern Front, and the 5th Army. Smirnov played a role in defeating the army of Alexander Kolchak during the war. In 1920-1923, Smirnov was a member of the Executive Committee of the Russian Communist Party, at the same time, he chaired the Siberian Revolutionary Committee and was a member of the Siberian bureau of the Russian Communist Party. Smirnov is known to have had ties with the Cheka and administered massacres of the rebellious peasants in Tyumen. He was the one to organize the capture of General Roman Ungern, in 1921-1922, Smirnov was a secretary of the Petrograd Committee and Northwestern Bureau of the Executive Committee of the Russian Communist Party. He was the closest associate of Grigory Zinoviev, Smirnov took part in mass executions and deportations from Petersburg of representatives of the exploiter class. In April–September 1922 and May–July 1923, Smirnov was a member of the Presidium of Supreme Soviet of the National Economy of the RSFSR, in July 1923, Smirnov was appointed Peoples Commissar for Soviet Postal Services and Telegraph. In 1923, Smirnov became a member of the Trotskyist opposition. After Lenins death, Smirnov publicly insisted on deposition of Joseph Stalin from the post of the secretary general, on November 11,1927, Smirnov was removed from his Peoples Commissar post. A month later, he was expelled from the Communist Party by the decision of the 15th Congress, on December 31,1927, Smirnov was sentenced to three years of exile by the decision of the Special meeting of the OGPU Board. In October 1929, Smirnov broke with Trotskyism and was reinstalled in the Communist Party in May 1930, in 1929-1932, he headed the Saratovkombainstroy trust. In 1932, Smirnov was appointed head of the Department of Erection of New Buildings at the Peoples Commissariat for Heavy Industry of the USSR
8. Zinaida Volkova – Zinaida Lvovna Volkova was a Russian Marxist. She was Leon Trotskys first daughter by his first wife, Aleksandra Sokolovskaya and she was raised by her aunt Yelizaveta, sister of Trotsky, after their parents divorced. Her younger sister, Niña, stayed with her mother and she married twice, and had a daughter by her first husband and a son by her second. Both husbands died during the Great Purges, in 1931, Volkova was allowed to leave Russia to visit her father in his exile in Turkey, taking only her younger child, her son. She left her daughter in the care of the father, her first husband. Suffering from tuberculosis, then incurable, and depression, Volkova committed suicide in Berlin in January 1933, Zinaida Lvovna Bronsteina was born in Siberia, where her parents were living in exile at the time. Her sister Nina was born the next year, as a child, she and her younger sister Nina were raised mostly by her paternal grandparents, David and Anna Bronstein. The girls parents parted ways in 1902 and as revolutionaries, were often traveling or living in hiding, after the Russian Revolution of 1917, Zinaida married Zakhar Borisovich Moglin. They had a daughter, Alexandra Moglina, Zakhar Moglin died during the Great Purges. Soon after her divorce, Zinaida married her husband, Platon Ivanovich Volkov. The couple had a son, Vsevolod Volkov, who was born in 1926, Platon Volkov was exiled to Siberia in 1928, but returned in January 1931. Zinaida was about leave Russia for Turkey with their son by that time, Platon was re-arrested in 1935 during the Great Purges and disappeared in the Gulag in 1936. For three months in 1928, Zinaida had taken care of her younger sister Nina, while the latter was dying of tuberculosis, Nina had married a man with the surname of Nevelson. In January 1931, Joseph Stalin allowed Zinaida Volkova to leave the Soviet Union to join her father, Leon Trotsky, in exile. She was allowed to take one family member with her, and she took her son Vsevolod with her, shortly after their arrival in Turkey, the Soviet citizenship of Zinaida and Vsevolod was revoked by Stalin, preventing their return to the Soviet Union. Suffering from TB and depression, Volkova committed suicide in Berlin on 5 January 1933 and she had been under the care of Arthur Kronfeld, a noted Berlin psychotherapist. She was married to Franz Pfemfert, the founder of Die Aktion, a journal of expressionism, ken McMullen, in his film Zina, suggests that the relationship between Volkova and her father Trotsky mirrors the Greek tragedy of Antigone. This idea was first substantially developed by the noted historian Isaac Deutscher in his 1963 book on Trotsky, Zinaidas daughter Alexandra remained in the USSR and lived for a year with her father, Zakhar Moglin