Pages in category "Russian anti-capitalists"
The following 49 pages are in this category, out of 49 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 49 pages are in this category, out of 49 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Yakov Agranov – Yakov Saulovich Agranov was the first chief of Soviet Main Directorate of State Security and a deputy of NKVD chief Genrikh Yagoda. He is known as one of organizers of Soviet political repressions. Agranov was born in a Jewish shopkeepers family in Checherskaya, a village in the Mogilev Governorate of the Russian Empire, in 1912 he joined the Socialist-Revolutionary Party while working as a clerk and in 1915 joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. He was arrested by the tsarist police in 1915 and exiled to Yenesei province, in 1918, Agranov became secretary of Sovnarkom. At this time he was taking orders directly from Vladimir Lenin, during this period Agranov was put in charge of compiling the lists of intellectuals for the forced exile of leading figures of Russian sciences and culture that were seen as the anti-Soviet element. Among those expelled were Nikolai Berdyaev and Nikolai Lossky, in 1921, Agranov was the chief investigator who conducted the Petrograd military organization, allegedly headed by Vladimir Tagantsev. Tagantsev was arrested and then tricked into giving names 300 conspirators, in exchange for leniency for himself. The investigation ended with more than 85 persons being sentenced to death, including Tagantsev himself, when asked why he was so merciless, Agranov responded, Seventy percent of Petrograd intellectuals were standing by one leg in the camp of our enemies. We had to burn that leg off, Agranov also investigated the Kronstadt rebellion and the peasant uprising in Tambov region. At the end of his career he led the Trial of the Twenty One against the Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization, Agranov was also implicated in the suspicious suicide of Vladimir Mayakovsky in 1930. The poet shot himself from the gun given to him as a gift by Agranov who had an affair with Lilya Brik, immediately after the assassination of Sergey Kirov in Leningrad on 1 December 1934, Agranov was entrusted with the organization of mass reprisals in the city. In 1935, he was ordered by Yezhov to track down and liquidate an undiscovered centre of Trotskyists in Moscow, in February 1937, he circulated regional NKVD heads demanding names of Trotskyists and other oppositionists employed with the state security apparatus. In April, he was demoted to the post of regional NKVD chief in Saratov and he was arrested on 20 July 1937, and executed by firing squad as an enemy of the people on 1 August,1938. Say a good word for a poor KGB man by Vladimir Voronov Агранов Яков СауловичYakov Agranov – Yakov Agranov in 1934. From left to right: Agranov, Yagoda, unknown, and Redens.
2. Vasily Anisimoff – Vasìly Onisimovich Afanàsiev was a revolutionary and propagandist of Marxism and a prominent activist and supporter of the Russian and international socialist movement. He was among the members of the RSDLP and was a Menshevik. In 1925 Anisimoff became the deputy head of the department of the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy of the RSFSR. Petersburg Seminary, had sent in the early 1870s to serve as the Dean of the local church. Vasily Anisimoff entered the Kazan pedagogical Seminary and in 1898 he successfully passed the examination for the title of magister, then in 1905 he graduated from the Kazan pedagogical Institute. Within the years of study at the Kazan pedagogical Institute, about mid-1902, he adopts a program and is adjacent to the democratic movement spread widely in Saratov. Being a teacher at Kuznetsky mining school he is nominated by the elector on Kuznetsk district and 6 February 1907 became a member of the II State Duma from the Saratov province, Vasily Anisimoff actively worked as a member of the food Commission and Commission on public education. In 1907 he was elected Delegate of the 5th Congress of the RSDLP, Vasily Anisimoff was concluded in St. Petersburg transit prison, then Alexandrov Central unbearable prison in Irkutsk province. Next Vasily Anisimoff takes part in the Siberian legal Social-democratic press, in 1916 in Chita he was elected Secretary of the TRANS-Baikal Association of cooperatives that was under the influence of Social-democratic ideas. After the 1917 February revolution in March 1917, he returned from Siberia to Petrograd, also Vasily Anisimoff actively works in the Temporary Council of the Russian Republic. There he is adjacent to the wing, headed by Lev Kamenev. However, as you know, right wing at the head Leon Trotsky, after these events Vasily Anisimoff returned to Siberia. The whole period of the Russian Civil War he spent in Siberia, in 1918-1919 he takes part in Irkutsk newspaper Business whom fought against the dictatorship of the proletariat. From 1918 to 1924 he worked in Siberia by the employee of the newspaper Our Business, in 1923-1924 Vasily Anisimoff was nominated for the post of Chairman of the state trust Far Eastern forest in Vladivostok. In Moscow he became Deputy head of the economic Department of VSNKh of the RSFSR, in the revelry of Stalinist repression in 1937, as was usual in those days, after a tip-off right at home at night Vasily Anisimoff was arrested and sent to the Stalinist camps. On April 25,1938 by the decision of the notorious triple he was declared an enemy of the people, the sentence was enforced immediately in Kommunarka village of Moscow region. E Chuvash encyclopedia in Russian language The State Duma, P.1907 in Russian language The London Congress of the RSDLP, p.10,82,148,186,451,452 N. Sukhanov. Notes on the revolution, II, Berlin,1922 page 335 in Russian language The Petrograd Soviet P. Parfenov, the Struggle for the far East 1920-22Vasily Anisimoff – Vasily Anisimoff
3. Mikhail Bakunin – Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin was a Russian revolutionary anarchist, and founder of collectivist anarchism. He is considered among the most influential figures of anarchism, Bakunins enormous prestige as an activist made him one of the most famous ideologues in Europe, and he gained substantial influence among radicals throughout Russia and Europe. From Fichte, Bakunin went on to himself in the works of Hegel. That led to his embrace of Hegelianism, bedazzled by Hegels famous maxim, in 1840, Bakunin traveled to St. Petersburg and Berlin with the intention of preparing himself for a professorship in philosophy or history at the University of Moscow. In 1842, Bakunin moved from Berlin to Dresden, eventually he arrived in Paris, where he met Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Karl Marx. He was eventually deported from France for speaking against Russias oppression of Poland, in 1849, Bakunin was apprehended in Dresden for his participation in the Czech rebellion of 1848, and turned over to Russia where he was imprisoned in the Peter-Paul Fortress in Saint Petersburg. He remained there until 1857, when he was exiled to a camp in Siberia. Escaping to Japan, the US and finally ending up in London for a short time, in 1863, he left to join the insurrection in Poland, but he failed to reach his destination and instead spent some time in Switzerland and Italy. The Bakuninist or anarchist trend rapidly expanded in influence, especially in Spain, a showdown loomed with Marx, who was a key figure in the General Council of the International. Bakunin could not attend the congress, as he could not reach the Netherlands, Bakunins faction present at the conference lost, and Bakunin was expelled for supposedly maintaining a secret organisation within the international. However, the anarchists insisted the congress was unrepresentative and exceeded its powers and this repudiated the Hague meeting, including Bakunins supposed expulsion. The great majority of sections of the International affiliated to the St. Imier body, the far larger Bakuninist international outlasted its small Marxist rival, which was isolated in New York, it also greatly facilitated the global spread of anarcho-socialism. In the International, as well as in his writings, Bakunin articulated the basic ideas of syndicalism and of anarchism and he had by this stage abandoned the anti-imperialist nationalism of his youth. From 1870 to 1876, Bakunin wrote some of his works, such as Statism and Anarchy and God. Bakunin remained, however, a participant in struggles. In 1870, he was involved in an insurrection in Lyon, France, the Paris Commune closely corresponded to many elements of Bakunins anarchist programme – self-management, mandates delegates, a militia system with elected officers, and decentralisation. Anarchists like Élisée Reclus, and those in the tradition of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon – who had greatly influenced Bakunin – were key figures in the Commune and he remained active in the workers and peasants movements of Europe and was also a major influence on movements in Egypt and Latin America. His father was a diplomat who, as a young attache, had lived for years in FlorenceMikhail Bakunin – The young Mikhail Bakunin, illustrated in 1843.
4. Matvei Berman – Matvei Davidovich Berman was a Soviet intelligence officer and head of the GULAG Soviet prison camp system from 1932 to 1937. Berman was born in Andiranovka, Chita, Transbaikal Oblast, the son of a Jewish brickyard owner and he joined the Russian army and entered the military school in Irkutsk. He then became a cadet of the 25th Reserve infantry regiment, Berman joined the Bolsheviks in June 1917. In 1918 he joined the Red Army and was stationed in Tomsk, in August 1918 he joined the Cheka and was named chief of state security in the city of Glazov. From 1923 to 1924 he was Peoples Commissar for State Security in the Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and he then led the OGPU in Central Asia. From February 1927 to October 1927 he was the chairman of the OGPU in the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, in November 1929 he helped develop the GULAG system of camps and became deputy chief of the GULAG in 1930. From June 9,1932 to August 17,1937 he was head of the GULAG and he was awarded the Order of Lenin on August 4,1933, soon after the completion of the White Sea – Baltic Canal. By 1935, by his own count, Berman was in charge of over 740,000 prisoners working on 15 major projects in the GULAG, in August 1937, Bermans fall began in the time of the Great Terror. On August 17,1937, he lost his position as head of the GULAG and was appointed Peoples Commissar of Posts and Telecommunications. On December 23,1938, he was expelled from the Soviet Communist Party, arrested the day in the office of Georgi Malenkov. He was found guilty by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR of belonging to a terrorist and sabotage organization, on October 17,1957 Matvei Berman was legally rehabilitated. Matveis younger brother, Boris, also worked for the NKVD, Boris was awarded the Order of Lenin on December 19,1937, arrested on September 24,1938 and executed on February 22,1939, in Kommunarka, Moscow Oblast. Honorary worker of the Cheka-GPU Order of the Red Banner Order of Red Banner of Labor Uzbek SSR Honorary worker of the Cheka-GPU Order of Lenin Order of the Red Star Khlevniuk, from Collectivization to the Great Terror. Биографический энциклопедический словарь veche Моskau-Verlag 2000, ISBN 5-7838-0716-8 Н, Скоркин, Кто руководил НКВД, 1934-1941 - Справочник, Swenja-Verlag 1999, ISBN 5-7870-0032-3Matvei Berman – Berman (center of shaded square) during the construction of the White Sea Canal.
5. Vasily Blokhin – Forced into retirement following the death of Stalin, Blokhin died in 1955, officially reported as a suicide. Blokhin, born into a peasant family on 7 January 1895, served in the Imperial Russian Army during World War I and this branch was a company-sized element created by Stalin specifically for wetwork. He was awarded the Badge of Honor for his service in 1937, Blokhins most infamous act was the April 1940 execution by shooting of more than 9,000 Polish prisoners interned in the Ostashkov prisoner of war camp in the Katyn forest. The majority were military and police officers who had captured following the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939. In 1990, as part of Glasnost, Gorbachev gave the Polish government the files on the massacres at Katyn, Starobelsk and Kalinin, revealing Stalins involvement. The room was designed with padded walls for soundproofing, a sloping concrete floor with a drain and hose. Blokhin would stand waiting behind the door in his executioner garb, a butchers apron, leather hat. He had brought a full of his own Walther pistols, since he did not trust the reliability of the standard-issue Soviet TT-30 for the frequent. The use of a German pocket pistol, which was carried by German police and intelligence agents. In keeping with NKVD policy and the overall wet nature of the operation, each night, 24–25 trenches, measuring eight to 10 meters total, were dug to hold that nights corpses, and each trench was covered up before dawn. Blokhin and his team worked without pause for 10 hours each night, at the end of the night, Blokhin provided vodka to all his men. Blokhin was forcibly retired in 1953 following Stalins death that March, after Berias fall from power in June of the same year, Blokhins rank was stripped from him in the de-Stalinization campaigns of Nikita Khrushchev. He reportedly sank into alcoholism, went insane, and died on 3 February 1955, the Secret File of Joseph Stalin, A Hidden Life. The Worlds Bloodiest History, Massacre, Genocide, and the Scars They Left on Civilization, Stalin, The Court of the Red Tsar. The Lesser Terror, Soviet state security, 1939–1953, Stalin and His Hangmen, The tyrant and those who killed for him. Katyn and the Soviet Massacre of 1940, Truth, Justice and MemoryVasily Blokhin – Blokhin's official photo
6. Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich – Vladimir Dmitriyevich Bonch-Bruyevich was a Soviet politician, historian, writer and Old Bolshevik. He was Vladimir Lenins personal secretary and he was a brother of Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch-Bruyevich. Vladimir Dmitriyevich Bonch-Bruyevich was born in Moscow to a land surveyor family of Polish descent who came from the nobility of the Mogilev province, between 1884–1889 he studied at the Moscow Institute of Surveying and graduated from the school of land surveying. He returned to Moscow in 1892 and entered the Moscow Workers Union, since 1895 he was active in the social-democratic circles. In 1896 he emigrated to Switzerland and organized shipments of Russian revolutionary literature and printing equipment, in the late 1890s, he collaborated with Vladimir Chertkov and Leo Tolstoy, in particular in the arrangement of the Doukhobors emigration to Canada in 1899. Bonch-Bruyevich sailed with the Doukhobors, and spent a year with them in Canada, during that time, he was able to record much of their orally transmitted tradition, in particular the Doukhobor psalms. He published them later as The Doukhobor Book of Life, between 1903–1905 he was the head of the expedition of the Central Committee of the RSDLP and one of the founders of the archive. In 1905 he returned to Russia and worked in the newspaper New Life, in 1905 he participated in the preparation for an armed uprising in Saint Petersburg and organized the underground storage of weapons. Between 1906–1907 he was the secretary and member of the board of a journal. Between 1908–1918 he led the Bolshevik publishing house The Life and Knowledge, since 1912 he was a member of the editorial board of the newspaper Pravda. During this time he was arrested, but did not serve a long prison sentence. In 1917 he was a member of the committee of the Petrograd Soviet. He was managing the affairs of the Council of Peoples Commissars until October 1920, between December 1917 and March 1918 he was the chairman of the Committee against the pograms and in February – March 1918 a member of the Committee for the Revolutionary Defense of Petrograd. From 1918 he was Deputy Chairman of the Board of Medical Colleges, between 1918–1919 he was the head of the publishing house of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party Kommunist. Bonch-Bruevich took a part in the nationalization of the banks in the preparation of the Soviet government moving to Moscow in March 1918. In 1918 as Managing Director of the Council of the Peoples Commissars, in 1918 he was elected a member of the Socialist Academy of Social Sciences. After Lenins death, he did research and authored works on the history of the movement in Russia. Following Lenins death, Bonch-Bruevich he was one of the key people involved in organising the funeral and he personally opposed the mummification of Lenins bodyVladimir Bonch-Bruyevich – Vladimir Dmitriyevich Bonch-Bruyevich in 1919
7. Mikhail Botvinnik – Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik was a Soviet and Russian International Grandmaster and World Chess Champion for most of 1948 to 1963. He was also a pioneer of computer chess, Botvinnik was the first world-class player to develop within the Soviet Union, putting him under political pressure but also giving him considerable influence within Soviet chess. From time to time he was accused of using that influence to his own advantage and his famous pupils include World Champions Anatoly Karpov, Garry Kasparov and Vladimir Kramnik. Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik was born on August 17,1911, in what was then Kuokkala, Vyborg Governorate, Grand Duchy of Finland, as a result, Mikhail Botvinnik grew up in Saint Petersburgs Nevsky Prospekt. His father forbade the speaking of Yiddish at home, and Mikhail, Mikhail Botvinnik later said, I am a Jew by blood, Russian by culture, Soviet by upbringing. On his religious views, Botvinnik called himself an atheist, in 1920, his mother became ill and his father left the family, but maintained contact with the children, even after his second marriage, to a Russian woman. At about the time, Mikhail started reading newspapers. In autumn 1923, at the age of twelve, Mikhail Botvinnik was taught chess by a friend of his older brother, using a home-made set. Botvinnik won his first two organized by the Assembly. To test the strength of Soviet chess masters, Krylenko organized the Moscow 1925 chess tournament, on a rest day during the event, world champion José Raúl Capablanca gave a simultaneous exhibition in Leningrad. Botvinnik was selected as one of his opponents, and won their game, in 1926, he reached the final stage of the Leningrad championship. Later that year, he was selected for Leningrads team in a match against Stockholm, held in Sweden, on his return, he entertained his schoolmates with a vivid account of the rough sea journey back to Russia. Botvinnik was commissioned to annotate two games from the match, and the fact that his analyses were to be published made him aware of the need for objectivity, in December 1926, he became a candidate member of his schools Komsomol branch. Around this time his mother became concerned about his physique, and as a result he started a program of daily exercise. When Botvinnik finished the school curriculum, he was below the age for the entrance examinations for higher education. While waiting, he qualified for his first USSR Championship final stage in 1927 as the youngest player ever at that time, tied for fifth place, after an appeal by a local chess official, he was admitted in 1928 to Leningrad Universitys Mathematics Department. In January 1929, Botvinnik played for Leningrad in the student team chess championship against Moscow, as a result, he had to do a whole years work in five months, and failed one of the examinations. Early in the year he placed joint third in the semi-final stage of the USSR ChampionshipMikhail Botvinnik – Mikhail Botvinnik in 1962
8. Leonid Brezhnev – Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev was the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982. His eighteen-year term as General Secretary was second only to that of Joseph Stalin in duration, during Brezhnevs rule, the global influence of the Soviet Union grew dramatically, in part because of the expansion of the Soviet military during this time. His tenure as leader was marked by the beginning of an era of economic, Brezhnev was born in Kamenskoye into a Russian workers family in 1906. After graduating from the Dniprodzerzhynsk Metallurgical Technicum, he became an engineer in the iron and steel industry. He joined Komsomol in 1923, and in 1929 became a member of the CPSU. He was drafted into military service during World War II. While at the helm of the USSR, Brezhnev pushed for détente between the Eastern and Western countries. However, in December 1981 he decided not to intervene in Poland, instead allowing the countrys government to impose martial law. After years of declining health, Brezhnev died on 10 November 1982 and was succeeded in his post as General Secretary by Yuri Andropov. Brezhnev had fostered a cult of personality, although not nearly to the degree as Stalin. Mikhail Gorbachev, who would lead the USSR from 1985 to 1991, denounced his legacy, in spite of this, opinion polls in Russia show Brezhnev to be the most popular Russian leader of the 20th century. Brezhnev was born on 19 December 1906 in Kamianske in Ukraine, to metalworker Ilya Yakovlevich Brezhnev and his wife and his parents used to live in Brezhnevo before moving to Kamenskoe. Brezhnevs ethnicity was specified as Ukrainian in some documents, including his passport, like many youths in the years after the Russian Revolution of 1917, he received a technical education, at first in land management where he started as a land surveyor and then in metallurgy. He graduated from the Dniprodzerzhynsk Metallurgical Technicum in 1935 and became an engineer in the iron. Brezhnev joined the Communist Party youth organisation, the Komsomol, in 1923, in 1935 and 1936, Brezhnev served his compulsory military service, and after taking courses at a tank school, he served as a political commissar in a tank factory. Later in 1936, he director of the Dniprodzerzhynsk Metallurgical Technicum. In 1936, he was transferred to the center of Dnipropetrovsk and, in 1939, he became Party Secretary in Dnipropetrovsk. As a survivor of Stalins Great Purge of 1937–39, he was able to quickly as the purges created numerous openings in the senior and middle ranks of the PartyLeonid Brezhnev – Brezhnev in East Berlin in 1967
9. Andrei Bubnov – Andrei Sergeyevich Bubnov was a Bolshevik revolutionary leader in Russia, and member of the Left Opposition. Bubnov was born in Ivanovo-Voznesensk in Vladimir Governorate on 23 March 1883 into a local Russian merchants family and he was expelled from Moscow University for revolutionary activities. He studied at the Moscow Agricultural Institute and while a student joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1903. He was a supporter of the Bolshevik faction of the party and attended the 4th and 5th Party Conferences in Stockholm and London, in 1909 Bubnov was made an agent of the Central Committee in Moscow and later sent to organize workers in Nizhny Novgorod. He was arrested a total of thirteen times by the czarist government, on the outbreak of the First World War Bubnov became involved in the anti-war movement. He was arrested in October 1916 and exiled to Siberia, Bubnov returned to Moscow in 1917 after the February Revolution. He joined the Moscow Soviet and, at the 6th Party Conference in July 1917, just before the October Revolution, he was elected as one of the seven members of the first Bolshevik Politburo alongside Lenin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky, Stalin, and Sokolnikov. As a member of the Military Revolutionary Committee he helped organize the October Revolution, during the Russian Civil War Bubnov joined the Red Army and fought on the Ukrainian Front and in the Caucasus. After the war he joined the Moscow Party Committee and became a member of the Left Opposition. He was not always orthodox, The Party noted that he was with the left-wing in 1918, the Democratic-Centralists in 1920–1, and the Trotskyites in 1923, when he signed their Declaration of 46. In January 1924, however, he switched to supporting Joseph Stalin and was rewarded by being appointed as Head of Political Control of the Red Army, from the 13th to 17th Party Conferences, he was elected to the central committee. Under the pseudonym Kisanko, he traveled to Guangzhou, China, to lead a team of Soviet advisors to the Nationalists, following the Canton Coup on 20 March 1926, he worked out an agreement with the new Nationalist strongman Chiang Kai-shek. He was recalled at Chiangs request the next month and he then worked with Grigori Voitinsky and Fedor Raskolnikov on the Preliminary Theses on the Situation in China, which was presented to the ECCI in November and December of that year. In 1929, he replaced Lunacharsky as Peoples Commissar for Education, as Commissar for Education, he ended the period of progressive, experimental educational practices and switched the emphasis to training in practical industrial skills. He was arrested by the NKVD during the Great Purge on 17 October 1937, records from the time, which were not made public until the 1980s and 1990s, show that he was sentenced to death on 1 August 1938 and shot the same day. It encouraged their families and the public to believe that they were probably still alive in a camp or hospital somewhere. Bubnov was posthumously rehabilitated in February 1956 during the de-Stalinization of the Khrushchev thaw, however, even at the time, the Soviet government did not make public the lists of the purged persons who had already long been executed. Thus, their relatives were still searching for them in various psychiatric hospitals in the 1970sAndrei Bubnov – Andrei Bubnov Андрей Бубнов
10. Nikolai Bukharin – Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary, Soviet politician and prolific author on revolutionary theory. As a young man, he spent six years in exile, working closely with fellow exiles Vladimir Lenin, by late 1924, this had positioned Bukharin favourably as Joseph Stalins chief ally, with Bukharin soon elaborating Stalins new theory and policy of Socialism in One Country. Together, Bukharin and Stalin ousted Leon Trotsky, Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev from the party at the XVth Communist Party Congress in December 1927, from 1926 to 1929, Bukharin enjoyed great power as General Secretary of Cominterns executive committee. But Stalin’s decision to proceed with collectivisation drove the two men apart, and Bukharin was expelled from the Politburo in 1929. Arrested in February 1937, he was charged with conspiring to overthrow the Soviet state and executed in March 1938, Nikolai Bukharin was born on September 27,1888 in Moscow. He was the son of two schoolteachers, Ivan Gavrilovich Bukharin and Liubov Ivanovna Bukharina. His childhood is recounted in his mostly autobiographic novel How It All Began. Bukharins political life began at the age of sixteen with his lifelong friend Ilya Ehrenburg when he participated in student activities at Moscow University related to the Russian Revolution of 1905 and he joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1906, becoming a member of the Bolshevik faction. With Grigori Sokolnikov, he convened the 1907 national youth conference in Moscow, by age twenty, he was a member of the Moscow Committee of the party. The committee was heavily infiltrated by the Tsarist secret police, the Okhrana, as one of its leaders, Bukharin quickly became a person of interest to them. They married soon after their exile, in 1911, during the exile, he continued his education and wrote several books that established him as a major Bolshevik theorist in his 20s. His work, Imperialism and World Economy influenced Lenin, who borrowed from it in his larger and better known work, Imperialism. Nevertheless, he and Lenin often had hot disputes on issues and Bukharins closeness with the European Left. Bukharin developed an interest in the works of Austrian Marxists and non-Marxist economic theorists, such as Aleksandr Bogdanov, also while in Vienna in 1913, he helped the Georgian Bolshevik Joseph Stalin write an article, Marxism and the National Question, at Lenins request. In October 1916, while based in New York City, he edited the newspaper Novy Mir with Leon Trotsky, when Trotsky arrived in New York in January 1917, Bukharin was the first to greet him. At the news of the Russian Revolution of February 1917, exiled revolutionaries from around the world began to back to the homeland. Trotsky left New York on March 27,1917, sailing for St. Petersburg, Bukharin left New York in early April and returned to Russia by way of Japan, arriving in Moscow in early May 1917. Politically, the Bolsheviks in Moscow remained a minority to the MensheviksNikolai Bukharin – Nikolai Bukharin Никола́й Буха́рин
11. Nikolai Danielson – Nikolai Frantsevich Danielson was a Russian economist and sociologist. In the 1860s Danielson worked at the St Petersburg Mutual Credit Association, in 1872, Danielson published the first Russian translation of volume 1 of Das Kapital by Karl Marx. The translation had been initiated by Mikhail Bakunin before Bakunins break with Marx and had been continued by German Lopatin, while completing the translation, Danielson initiated a correspondence with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, which continued for the rest of their lives. Danielson also translated volumes 2 and 3 of Das Kapital, which were published in 1885 and 1896, in 1880 Danielson published the article Studies of Our Post-Reform Economy in issue 10 of the journal Slovo. Marx, who had taught himself Russian, commended it and encouraged Danielson to expand it into a book and that book, bearing the same title, appeared in 1893. The book and the article on which it was based contained extensive statistical material on Russias economic development, Danielson regarded himself as a Marxist, but was sharply criticized by the self-proclaimed orthodox Marxists Georgi Plekhanov, Vladimir Lenin and Peter Struve, among others. Danielsons critics grouped him with populist writers like Vasily Vorontsov and Nikolay Mikhaylovsky, the orthodox Marxists agreed with him in this. However, in the 1890s, Plekhanov, Lenin and their associates argued that capitalism in Russia must follow essentially the course as capitalist development in Western Europe. This theory went back to A. I, chernyshevsky and strongly influenced the theoreticians of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, such as Victor Chernov. It also anticipated Leon Trotskys theory of uneven and combined development, Danielson argued that capitalism was essentially dispensable for further economic development, and that industrialisation could continue on the basis of a socialist economy. Like the narodniks, he saw the peasant village communes as potential nuclei for a socialist organisation of the Russian economy. Plekhanov and Lenin denounced this as dangerous utopianism, in the early 1900s, Danielson was briefly involved with the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party, but he did not play a very active role in it, and he withdrew after the Azef affair of 1908. Danielson seems to have played no role in the Russian Revolution of 1917, Vorontsov, Dva portreta na fone russkogo kapitalizma. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition, Moscow, 1970–1979 Von Laue, the Fate of Capitalism in Russia, the Narodnik Version. American Slavic and East European Reviev XIII, 11-28, the Controversy over Capitalism, Studies in the Social Philosophy of the Russian Populists. Eaton, Henry, Marx and the Russians, journal of the History of Ideas, p.89. Humane Modernization as a Liberal Ideal, Late Imperial Russia on the Pages of theHerald of Europe, the Historian Vol.71,2009, pp. 780–804. “Po povodu tak nazyvaemogo voprosa o rynkakh. ”“Ekonomicheskoe soderzhanie narodnichestva i kritika ego v knige g, “Chto takoe ’druz’ia naroda’ i kak oni voiuiut protiv sotsial-demokratov. ”I, pp. 218–19,243,280, 282–83, 320–21Nikolai Danielson – N.F. Danielson
12. Sergei Eisenstein – Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein was a Soviet film director and film theorist, a pioneer in the theory and practice of montage. He is noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and October, as well as the historical epics Alexander Nevsky and Ivan the Terrible. Eisenstein was born to a family in Riga, Latvia. His father, Mikhail Osipovich Eisenstein was born to a German Jewish father who had converted to Christianity, Osip Eisenstein, and his mother, Julia Ivanovna Konetskaya, was from a Russian Orthodox family. According to other sources, both of his grandparents were of Baltic German descent. His father was an architect and his mother was the daughter of a prosperous merchant, Julia left Riga the same year as the Russian Revolution of 1905, taking Sergei with her to St. Petersburg. Her son would return at times to see his father, who joined them around 1910, divorce followed and Julia left the family to live in France. Eisenstein was raised as an Orthodox Christian, but became an atheist later on, at the Petrograd Institute of Civil Engineering, Sergei studied architecture and engineering, the profession of his father. In 1918 Sergei left school and joined the Red Army to serve the Bolshevik Revolution and this brought his father to Germany after the defeat of the Tsarist government, and Sergei to Petrograd, Vologda, and Dvinsk. In 1920, Sergei was transferred to a position in Minsk. At this time, he was exposed to Kabuki theatre and studied Japanese, learning some 300 kanji characters and these studies would lead him to travel to Japan. In 1920 Eisenstein moved to Moscow, and began his career in working for Proletkult. His productions there were entitled Gas Masks, Listen Moscow, Eisenstein would then work as a designer for Vsevolod Meyerhold. In 1923 Eisenstein began his career as a theorist, by writing The Montage of Attractions for LEF, Eisensteins first film, Glumovs Diary, was also made in that same year with Dziga Vertov hired initially as an instructor. Strike was Eisensteins first full-length feature film, the Battleship Potemkin was acclaimed critically worldwide. Officially, the trip was supposed to allow Eisenstein and company to learn about sound motion pictures, for Eisenstein, however, it was also an opportunity to see landscapes and cultures outside those found within the Soviet Union. He spent the two years touring and lecturing in Berlin, Zürich, London, and Paris. In 1929, in Switzerland, Eisenstein supervised an educational documentary about abortion directed by Tissé entitled Frauennot - Frauenglück, in late April 1930, Jesse L. Lasky, on behalf of Paramount Pictures, offered Eisenstein the opportunity to make a film in the United StatesSergei Eisenstein – Eisenstein in St. Petersburg, 1910s
13. Mikhail Frinovsky – Mikhail Petrovich Frinovsky served as a deputy head of the NKVD in the years of the Great Purge and, along with Nikolai Yezhov was responsible for setting in motion the Great Purge. Mikhail Petrovich Frinovsky was born in 1898 to a teacher in the village of Narovchat, prior to World War I, he studied in a religious school. In January 1916, Frinovsky volunteered for the army and he served as a sergeant in the cavalry until his desertion in August of the same year. He joined an anarchist group and took part in the assassination of Major-General M, in March 1917, Frinovsky began working as an accountant in Moscow. In September, he volunteered for the Red Guard, the unit under his command participated in the storming of the Kremlin, during which Frinovsky was severely wounded. Between March and July 1918, Frinovsky again returned to civilian life, in July 1918, he joined the RKP and volunteered for the Red Army. Frinovsky was made a commissar of a unit and also head of the Special Section of the 1st Cavalry Army. In 1919, Frinovsky was transferred to the VChK, later in the year, he became a deputy of the Special Section for the Moscow ChK. From December 1919 until April 1920, Frinovsky served in the Special Section for the Southern Front. In 1920, he was transferred to the South-Western Front, where he served as chief of the Special Section, between 1921-1922, he was the deputy to the Chief of the Ukrainian ChK. From 1922 to 1923, Frinovsky headed the division of the Kiev GPU. From the June 23 he was head of the OGPU of the South-East. In November 1923, Mikhail Frinovsky was transferred to the Northern Caucasus, in January 1926, he became head of GPU forces. In July 1927, Frinovsky was again transferred to Moscow, this time as aide to the commander of the Special Section for the region, in 1927, he completed high-command courses at the Frunze Military Academy. From November 28,1928 until September 1,1930, he served as the commissar of the Special Forces division assigned to the Dzerjinsky College of the OGPU USSR, on September 1,1930, Mikhail Frinovsky was promoted and made chairman of the GPU of Azerbaijan. In April 1933, he was promoted and became the commander of OGPU Border Guard. On July 10,1934, Frinovsky became head of Border, Frinovsky was one of the major beneficiaries of the first purge of the NKVD that followed the dismissal of its head, Genrikh Yagoda. He had had some kind of falling out with Yagoda, but was on terms with Nikolai YezhovMikhail Frinovsky – Mikhail Frinovsky
14. Mikhail Gorbachev – Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is a former Soviet statesman. He was the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union, having been General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991 and he was the countrys head of state from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991. Gorbachev was born in Stavropol Krai into a peasant Ukrainian–Russian family and he graduated from Moscow State University in 1955 with a degree in law. While he was at the university, he joined the Communist Party, in 1970, he was appointed the First Party Secretary of the Stavropol Regional Committee, First Secretary to the Supreme Soviet in 1974, and appointed a member of the Politburo in 1979. Within three years of the death of Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, following the brief interregna of Andropov and Chernenko, before he reached the post, he had occasionally been mentioned in Western newspapers as a likely next leader and a man of the younger generation at the top level. Gorbachevs policies of glasnost and perestroika and his reorientation of Soviet strategic aims contributed to the end of the Cold War. He was awarded the Otto Hahn Peace Medal in 1989, the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990 and this was Gorbachevs third attempt to establish a political party, having started the Social Democratic Party of Russia in 2001 and the Union of Social Democrats in 2007. Gorbachev was born on 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye, Stavropol Krai, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, into a mixed Russian-Ukrainian family of migrants from Voronezh, as a child, Gorbachev experienced the Soviet famine of 1932–1933. He recalled in a memoir that In that terrible year nearly half the population of my village, Privolnoye, starved to death. Both of his grandfathers were arrested on charges in the 1930s. His father was a combine harvester operator and World War II veteran and his mother, Maria Panteleyevna Gorbacheva, was a kolkhoz worker. He was brought up mainly by his Ukrainian maternal grandparents, in his teens, he operated combine harvesters on collective farms. He graduated from Moscow State University in 1955 with a degree in law, in 1967 he qualified as an agricultural economist via a correspondence masters degree at the Stavropol Institute of Agriculture. While at the university, he joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and soon very active within the party. Gorbachev met his wife, Raisa Titarenko, daughter of a Ukrainian railway engineer. They married in September 1953 and moved to Stavropol upon graduation and she gave birth to their only child, daughter Irina Mikhailovna Virganskaya, in 1957. Raisa Gorbacheva died of leukemia in 1999, Gorbachev has two granddaughters and one great granddaughter. Gorbachev attended the important twenty-second Party Congress in October 1961, where Nikita Khrushchev announced a plan to surpass the U. S. in per capita production within twenty years, Gorbachev rose in the Communist League hierarchy and worked his way up through territorial leagues of the partyMikhail Gorbachev – Gorbachev in 1987
15. Maxim Gorky – Alexei Maximovich Peshkov, primarily known as Maxim Gorky, was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist. He was also a nominee for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Around fifteen years before success as a writer, he changed jobs and roamed across the Russian Empire. Gorkys most famous works were The Lower Depths, Twenty-six Men and he had an association with fellow Russian writers Leo Tolstoy and Anton Chekhov, Gorky would later mention them in his memoirs. Gorky was active with the emerging Marxist social-democratic movement and he publicly opposed the Tsarist regime, and for a time closely associated himself with Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanovs Bolshevik wing of the party. For a significant part of his life, he was exiled from Russia, in 1932, he returned to Russia on Joseph Stalins personal invitation and died there in June 1936. Born as Alexei Maximovich Peshkov on 28 March 1868, in Nizhny Novgorod and he was brought up by his grandmother and ran away from home at the age of twelve in 1880. After an attempt at suicide in December 1887, he travelled on foot across the Russian Empire for five years, changing jobs, as a journalist working for provincial newspapers, he wrote under the pseudonym Иегудиил Хламида. He began using the pseudonym Gorky in 1892, while working in Tiflis for the newspaper Кавказ, the name reflected his simmering anger about life in Russia and a determination to speak the bitter truth. Gorkys first book Очерки и рассказы in 1898 enjoyed a sensational success, Gorky wrote incessantly, viewing literature less as an aesthetic practice than as a moral and political act that could change the world. He described the lives of people in the lowest strata and on the margins of society, revealing their hardships, humiliations, and brutalisation, but also their inward spark of humanity. Gorkys reputation grew as a literary voice from the bottom strata of society and as a fervent advocate of Russias social, political. By 1899, he was associating with the emerging Marxist social-democratic movement. At the heart of all his work was a belief in the inherent worth, in his writing, he counterposed individuals, aware of their natural dignity, and inspired by energy and will, with people who succumb to the degrading conditions of life around them. But if thou art for thyself alone, wherefore art thou and he publicly opposed the Tsarist regime and was arrested many times. Gorky befriended many revolutionaries and became a friend of Vladimir Lenin after they met in 1902. He exposed governmental control of the press, in 1902, Gorky was elected an honorary Academician of Literature, but Tsar Nicholas II ordered this annulled. In protest, Anton Chekhov and Vladimir Korolenko left the Academy, from 1900 to 1905, Gorkys writings became more optimisticMaxim Gorky – Portrait of Gorky, c. 1906
16. Nikita Khrushchev – Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev was a politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War. He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, Khrushchevs party colleagues removed him from power in 1964, replacing him with Leonid Brezhnev as First Secretary and Alexei Kosygin as Premier. Khrushchev was born in the village of Kalinovka in 1894, close to the border between Russia and Ukraine. He was employed as a metalworker in his youth, and during the Russian Civil War was a political commissar, with the help of Lazar Kaganovich, he worked his way up the Soviet hierarchy. He supported Joseph Stalins purges, and approved thousands of arrests, in 1938, Stalin sent him to govern Ukraine, and he continued the purges there. During what was known in the Soviet Union as the Great Patriotic War, Khrushchev was again a commissar, Khrushchev was present at the bloody defense of Stalingrad, a fact he took great pride in throughout his life. After the war, he returned to Ukraine before being recalled to Moscow as one of Stalins close advisers, in the power struggle triggered by Stalins death in 1953, Khrushchev, after several years, emerged victorious. On 25 February 1956, at the 20th Party Congress, he delivered the Secret Speech, denouncing Stalins purges and his domestic policies, aimed at bettering the lives of ordinary citizens, were often ineffective, especially in agriculture. Hoping eventually to rely on missiles for defense, Khrushchev ordered major cuts in conventional forces. Despite the cuts, Khrushchevs rule saw the most tense years of the Cold War, flaws in Khrushchevs policies eroded his popularity and emboldened potential opponents, who quietly rose in strength and deposed the premier in October 1964. However, he did not suffer the fate of previous losers of Soviet power struggles, and was pensioned off with an apartment in Moscow. His lengthy memoirs were smuggled to the West and published in part in 1970, Khrushchev died in 1971 of heart disease. Khrushchev was born on 15 April 1894, in Kalinovka, a village in what is now Russias Kursk Oblast and his parents, Sergei Khrushchev and Ksenia Khrushcheva, were poor peasants of Russian origin, and had a daughter two years Nikitas junior, Irina. Sergei Khrushchev was employed in a number of positions in the Donbas area of far eastern Ukraine, working as a railwayman, as a miner, and laboring in a brick factory. Wages were much higher in the Donbas than in the Kursk region, Kalinovka was a peasant village, Khrushchevs teacher, Lydia Shevchenko, later stated that she had never seen a village as poor as Kalinovka had been. Nikita worked as a herdsboy from an early age and he was schooled for a total of four years, part in the village parochial school and part under Shevchenkos tutelage in Kalinovkas state school. She urged Nikita to seek education, but family finances did not permit this. In 1908, Sergei Khrushchev moved to the Donbas city of Yuzovka, fourteen-year-old Nikita followed later that year, while Ksenia Khrushcheva and her daughter came afterNikita Khrushchev – Khrushchev in East Berlin, 1963
17. Nikolai Kondratiev – Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kondratiev was a Russian economist, who was a proponent of the New Economic Policy, which promoted small private, free market enterprises in the Soviet Union. He is best known for proposing the theory that Western capitalist economies have long term cycles of boom followed by depression and these business cycles are now called Kondratiev waves. Nikolai Dimitrievich Kondratiev was born on 4 March 1892 in the province of Kostroma, north of Moscow and he was tutored at the University of St. Petersburg before the 1917 Russian Revolution by Mikhail Tugan-Baranovsky. A member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, his professional work was in the area of agricultural economics and statistics. On 5 October 1917, at the age of 25, he was appointed Deputy Minister of Supply of the last Alexander Kerensky government, after the revolution, Kondratiev pursued academic research. In 1919, he was appointed to a teaching post at the Agricultural Academy of Peter the Great, in October 1920 he founded the Institute of Conjuncture, in Moscow. As its first director, he developed it into a large, in 1922, he published his first writing on long cycles. The World Economy and its Conjunctures During and After the War and his writing that capitalist economies were characterized by successions of expansion and decline contradicted the Marxist idea of the imminent collapse of capitalism. In 1923, Kondratiev intervened in the debate about the Scissors Crisis, in 1923–25, he worked on a five-year plan for the development of Soviet agriculture. In 1925 he published his book The Major Economic Cycles which quickly was translated into German, a short form was published in 1935 in the Review of Economic Statistics and for a time his ideas became popular in the west, until eclipsed by those of John Maynard Keynes. Kondratievs economic cycle theory held that there were cycles of about fifty years. In the beginning of the cycle economies produce high cost capital goods and infrastructure investments creating new employment and income, unemployment and a long economic crisis ensue as economies contract. He proposed a plan for agriculture and forestry from 1924 to 1928, however, after the death of Lenin in 1924, Joseph Stalin, who favored complete government control of the economy, took control of the Communist Party. According to the late Harvard sociologist Carle C, a number of prominent American scientists were pro-communist at the time. One was a forester at the Ag campus where I had an office and he upbraided me for associating with Sorokin and Kondratieff and told me he was going to send a report about Kondratieff back to Russia. Later I learned that Kondratieff was arrested immediately after returning to Russia from the trip to see American universities, however, he was not given the final treatment until the Stalinist purges of 1931. Kondratiev was removed from the directorship of the Institute of Conjuncture in 1928 and arrested in July 1930, convicted as a kulak-professor and sentenced to 8 years in prison, Kondratiev served his sentence, from February 1932 onwards, at Suzdal, near Moscow. Although his health deteriorated under poor conditions, Kondratiev continued his research and decided to prepare five new books, some of these texts were indeed completed and were publishedNikolai Kondratiev – Nikolai Kondratiev
18. Peter Kropotkin – Prince Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin was a Russian activist, scientist, and philosopher, who advocated anarchism. Born into an aristocratic land-owning family, he attended a school and later served as an officer in Siberia. He was imprisoned for his activism in 1874 and managed to escape two years later and he spent the next 41 years in exile in Switzerland, France and in England. He returned to Russia after the Russian Revolution in 1917 but was disappointed by the Bolshevik form of state socialism, Kropotkin was a proponent of a decentralised communist society free from central government and based on voluntary associations of self-governing communities and worker-run enterprises. He also contributed the article on anarchism to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Kropotkin was born in Moscow, into the second-highest level of the Russian aristocracy. His mother was the daughter of a Cossack general and his father, Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin, was a prince in Smolensk, of the Rurik dynasty which had ruled Russia before the rise of the Romanovs. Kropotkins father owned large tracts of land and nearly 1,200 male serfs in three provinces, nder the influence of republican teachings, Kropotkin dropped his princely title at age 12, and even rebuked his friends, when they so referred to him. In 1857, at age 14, Kropotkin enrolled in the Corps of Pages at St. Petersburg, Kropotkins memoirs detail the hazing and other abuse of pages for which the Corps had become notorious. In Moscow, Kropotkin developed an interest in the condition of the peasantry, although his work as a page for Tsar Alexander II made Kropotkin skeptical about the tsars liberal reputation, Kropotkin was greatly pleased by the tsars decision to emancipate the serfs in 1861. In St. Petersburg, he read widely on his own account, in 1862, Kropotkin was promoted from the Corps of Pages to the army. The members of the corps had the right to choose the regiment to which they would be attached. For some time, he was aide de camp to the governor of Transbaikalia at Chita, later he was appointed attaché for Cossack affairs to the governor-general of East Siberia at Irkutsk. The expeditions yielded valuable geographical results, in 1866, Kropotkin began reading the works of the French anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, and other political thinkers such as John Stuart Mill and Alexander Herzen. These readings, along with his experiences among peasants in Siberia and his departure from a family tradition of military service prompted his father to disinherit him, leaving him a prince with no visible means of support. In 1871, he explored the glacial deposits of Finland and Sweden for the Society, accordingly, he refused the offer and returned to St. Petersburg, where he joined the revolutionary party. Kropotkin visited Switzerland in 1872 and became a member of the International Workingmens Association at Geneva, however, he found that he did not like IWAs style of socialism. Instead, he studied the programme of the more radical Jura federation at Neuchâtel and spent time in the company of the leading members, on returning to Russia, Kropotkins friend Dmitri Klements introduced him to the Circle of Tchaikovsky, a socialist/populist group created in 1872. Kropotkin worked to spread propaganda among peasants and workersPeter Kropotkin – Kropotkin c. 1900 (aged 57)
19. Igor Kurchatov – Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov, was a Soviet nuclear physicist who is widely known as the director of the Soviet atomic bomb project. After nine years of development, the Soviet Union successfully tested its first nuclear weapon. In 1954 he was awarded the USSR State Prize in physics, from 1940 onward, Kurchatov worked on and contributed to the advancement of the nuclear weapons program, and later advocated for the peaceful development of nuclear technology. In 1950, Kurchatov contributed in the development of the Hydrogen bomb with Andrei Sakharov who originated this development as Sakharovs Third Idea, Kurchatov was born in Simsky Zavod, Ufa Governorate in the family of a chartered surveyor. Kurchatov also studied at the Polytechnical Institute in Petrograd where he earned his degrees in naval engineering, Kurchatov’s talent for experimenting and organization was recognized there. His early work was consumed with physics of crystals like dielectric and ferroelectric materials, Kurchatov felt at home with these studies. One of his important results was the discovery of properties of Seignette’s salt. This discovery earned a degree of doctor of physics and mathematics for him and he was awarded this degree without a dissertation in 1934. In 1932, he received funding for his own nuclear science research team, then to 1943 he worked at the Ioffe Institute with Anatoly Petrovich Alexandrov. In that period they devised a method of demagnetizing ships to protect them from German mines, Kurchatovs laboratory separated from the Ioffe Institute and moved to Moscow in 1943 for the work on the Soviet atomic bomb project. In 1932, George Gamow and Lev Mysovskii submitted a draft for consideration by the Academic Council of Radium Institute, khlopin, under the guidance and direct participation of Igor Kurchatov, Lev Mysovskii and George Gamow, installed the Europes first cyclotron particle accelerator. Installation was finished in 1937, and the research began to place on 21 September 1939. Kurchatov and his apprentice Georgy Flyorov discovered the basic ideas of the chain reaction. In 1942 Kurchatov declared, At breaking up of kernels in a kilogram of uranium and this announcement was practically verified during the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. I. V. Kurchatov took part in scientific experiments through 1933-1940. Sinel’nikov started working on the first proton accelerator at the Ukrainian Institute for Physics, also that year he headed organizing the committee of the First All- Union Conference on the Atomic Nucleus. Kurchatov studied neutron absorption by the nuclei and discovered nuclear isomerism in two later in 1935. Later in 1935 till 1941 he held a seminar on neutron physics while also working with L. V, Mysovskii at the State Radium InstituteIgor Kurchatov – I. Kurchatov – Officer Radium Institute. Mid-1930s.
20. Vladimir Lenin – Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin, was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as head of government of the Russian Republic from 1917 to 1918, of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1918 to 1924, under his administration, Russia and then the wider Soviet Union became a one-party socialist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a Marxist, he developed political theories known as Leninism, born to a wealthy middle-class family in Simbirsk, Lenin embraced revolutionary socialist politics following his brothers execution in 1887. Expelled from Kazan Imperial University for participating in protests against the Russian Empires Tsarist regime and he moved to Saint Petersburg in 1893 and became a senior figure in the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. In 1897, he was arrested for sedition and exiled to Shushenskoye for three years, where he married Nadezhda Krupskaya, after his exile, he moved to Western Europe, where he became a prominent party theorist through his publications. In 1903, he took a key role in a RSDLP ideological split, Lenins government was led by the Bolsheviks—now renamed the Communist Party—with some powers initially also held by elected soviets. It redistributed land among the peasantry and nationalised banks and large-scale industry, opponents were suppressed in the Red Terror, a violent campaign orchestrated by the state security services, tens of thousands were killed and others interned in concentration camps. Anti-Bolshevik armies, established by both right and left-wing groups, were defeated in the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1922, responding to wartime devastation, famine, and popular uprisings, in 1921 Lenin promoted economic growth through a mixed economic system. Seeking to promote world revolution, Lenins government created the Communist International, waged the Polish–Soviet War, in increasingly poor health, Lenin expressed opposition to the growing power of his successor, Joseph Stalin, before dying at his Gorki mansion. He became a figurehead behind Marxism-Leninism and thus a prominent influence over the international communist movement. Lenins father, Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, was from a family of serfs, his origins remain unclear, with suggestions being made that he was Russian, Chuvash, Mordvin. Despite this lower-class background he had risen to middle-class status, studying physics and mathematics at Kazan Imperial University before teaching at the Penza Institute for the Nobility, Ilya married Maria Alexandrovna Blank in mid-1863. Well educated and from a prosperous background, she was the daughter of a German–Swedish woman. Soon after their wedding, Ilya obtained a job in Nizhny Novgorod, five years after that, he was promoted to Director of Public Schools for the province, overseeing the foundation of over 450 schools as a part of the governments plans for modernisation. His dedication to education earned him the Order of St. Vladimir, the couple had two children, Anna and Alexander, before Lenin—who would gain the childhood nickname of Volodya—was born in Simbirsk on 10 April 1870, and baptised several days later. They were followed by three children, Olga, Dmitry, and Maria. Two later siblings died in infancy, Ilya was a devout member of the Russian Orthodox Church and baptised his children into it, although Maria – a Lutheran – was largely indifferent to Christianity, a view that influenced her children. Every summer they holidayed at a manor in KokushkinoVladimir Lenin – Lenin in 1920
21. Isabel Magkoeva – Isabel Magkoeva is a Russian political activist. She is an alumnus of Russian State University for the Humanities in 2010, a specialist in oriental studies and Japanese literature, and a prominent member of the Russian Socialist Movement. A former teenage model, Magkoeva became interested in left wing literature when she was in her late teens and she also participated in numerous debates, some of which were aired on Rain TV. During the Opposition Coordination Council elections, she ran as a candidate from the New Left block, some journalists and political activists have compared her to the well-known Chilean activist Camila Vallejo. With Moi Raion newspaper, she described her views as socialist and it is inaccurate to portray us all as seeking a return to the past. We are for a new modernized form of socialism and she also considers herself a feminist, but admits that in the highly patriarchal Russian society such views are quite unpopular, Im all for gender equality and therefore a feminist, but. The root cause of patriarchy is employment inequality, and thats what should be uprooted in the first place, statistically, women in Russia earn 40% less on average than men, every third woman is subject to domestic violence, and so on. According to her, she chose to join the RSD because of its democratic, non-authoritarian operational structure, isabel Magkoevas page at Opposition Coordination Council site. Official Facebook page Official Twitter accountIsabel Magkoeva – Isabel Magkoeva in 2012
22. Ludwig Martens – Ludwig Christian Alexander Karl Martens was a Russian revolutionary, Soviet politician and engineer. Ludwig Martens was born on 1 January 1875 n. s. in Bachmut, Ukraine, ludwigs father, a German-born industrialist named Karl Gustav Adolf Martens, was the owner of a steel mill in Kursk, Russia. There were five sons and two daughters in the family, two of them, Ludwig and Olga, became professional revolutionaries. In 1893 Martens graduated from a Kursk Realschule and entered Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology, while at the State Institute of Technology, Martens became acquainted Vladimir Lenin and Julius Martov. Soon he became a member of an illegal Marxist group League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class, in 1896 he was arrested, and in 1899 as a German national was deported to Germany where he became a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. In 1902 he graduated from the Technical College of Charlottenburg, in 1906, following the failure of the 1905 Russian Revolution, Martens emigrated to Great Britain. In emigration Martens worked as a procurement agent for the Demidov Iron and Steel Works, purchasing machinery for the industrial works. In 1915, with the onset of World War I, the Kursk steel mill owned by Martens family was confiscated by the Russian government because the Martens family were considered German nationals. In 1916 Martens emigrated to the United States where he worked as a president of the engineering firm Weinberg & Posner. In 1917, after the February Revolution, Martens – together with Leon Trotsky and 278 other Russian Social Democrats – returned from the United States to Russia on a steamship. In March 1919 Martens returned to the United States and founded the Russian Soviet Government Bureau and he established commercial contacts with more than one thousand American firms including such as Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of J. P. Morgan. He negotiated a loan with the then Irish Emissary to the United States, T. D. Harry Boland, after returning to Russia, Martens became a member of the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy and the Chairman of Glavmetal. On that position Martens started works on developing the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, in 1924−26 Martens worked as the first Chairman of the Committee on Invention of the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy. In 1925 he published a monograph, On the vibration of piston engines, in 1926−36 Martens worked as the Head of the Research and Development Institutes for Diesel Manufacturing in Leningrad. He was the author of the N-2 diesel intended as an aviation engine, the novel element of the diesel was that the 12-cylinder piston engine was aspired by a 6-cylinder piston air compressor. The diesel was tested in 1932, in 1927−41 he was the Chief Editor of the Technical Encyclopedia. In 1933 Martens wrote a letter to OGPU in support of the arrested Pavel Florensky, he took care of Florenskys sons, Vasily. He died in Moscow on 19 October 1948 and was buried in Novodevichy Cemetery, the committee was organized in Krasnogorsk in 1943Ludwig Martens – Martens engine
23. Vyacheslav Molotov – Molotov served as Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars from 1930 to 1941, and as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1939 to 1949 and from 1953 to 1956. He served as First Deputy Premier from 1942 to 1957, when he was dismissed from the Presidium of the Central Committee by Nikita Khrushchev, Molotov retired in 1961 after several years of obscurity. He was aware of the Katyn massacre committed by the Soviet authorities during this period, after World War II, Molotov was involved in negotiations with the Western allies, in which he became noted for his diplomatic skills. He retained his place as a leading Soviet diplomat and politician until March 1949, Molotovs relationship with Stalin deteriorated further, with Stalin criticising Molotov in a speech to the 19th Party Congress. However, after Stalins death in 1953, Molotov was staunchly opposed to Khrushchevs de-Stalinisation policy, Molotov defended Stalins policies and legacy until his death in 1986, and harshly criticised Stalins successors, especially Khrushchev. Molotov was born Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Skryabin in the village of Kukarka, Yaransk Uyezd, Vyatka Governorate, contrary to a commonly repeated error, he was not related to the composer Alexander Scriabin. Throughout his teen years, he was described as shy and quiet and he was educated at a secondary school in Kazan, and joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1906, soon gravitating toward that organisations radical Bolshevik faction, headed by V. I. Skryabin took the pseudonym Molotov, derived from the Russian word молот molot for his political work owing to the names vaguely industrial ring and he was arrested in 1909 and spent two years in exile in Vologda. In 1911 he enrolled at St Petersburg Polytechnic, Molotov joined the editorial staff of a new underground Bolshevik newspaper called Pravda, meeting Joseph Stalin for the first time in association with the project. This first association between the two future Soviet leaders proved to be brief, however, and did not lead to a close political association. Molotov worked as a professional revolutionary for the next several years, writing for the party press. He moved from St. Petersburg to Moscow in 1914 at the time of the outbreak of World War I and it was in Moscow the following year that Molotov was again arrested for his party activity, this time being deported to Irkutsk in eastern Siberia. In 1916 he escaped from his Siberian exile and returned to the city, now called Petrograd by the Tsarist regime. Molotov became a member of the Bolshevik Partys committee in Petrograd in 1916, when the February Revolution occurred in 1917, he was one of the few Bolsheviks of any standing in the capital. Under his direction Pravda took to the left to oppose the Provisional Government formed after the revolution, when Joseph Stalin returned to the capital, he reversed Molotovs line, but when the party leader Lenin arrived, he overruled Stalin. Despite this, Molotov became a protégé of and close adherent to Stalin, Molotov became a member of the Military Revolutionary Committee which planned the October Revolution, which effectively brought the Bolsheviks to power. In 1918, Molotov was sent to Ukraine to take part in the war then breaking out. Since he was not a man, he took no part in the fightingVyacheslav Molotov – Vyacheslav Molotov Вячеслав Молотов
24. Matvei Muranov – Matvei Konstantinovich Muranov was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician. Born in a peasant family in Rybtsy near Poltava, Muranov moved to Kharkov in 1900 and he joined the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party in 1904 and became a member of the local party committee in 1907. In 1912 Muranov was elected to the 4th State Duma from the city of Kharkov, Muranov was the only Bolshevik deputy who voted to break away from the rival Menshevik faction of the RSDLP on 15 December 1912. Bolshevik deputies traveled around the country using their immunity to foster revolutionary activities. They were arrested in November 1914, expelled from the Duma, facing the death penalty, some Bolshevik deputies and Lev Kamenev, who had been sent to Russia to direct their work in January 1914, wavered and moderated their position. Muranov, however, took an approach, which enhanced his reputation within the Bolshevik party. Muranov and other Duma deputies were exiled to the remote Turukhansk region of Siberia for life, after the overthrow of the Romanov dynasty by the February Revolution of 1917, Muranov returned to the capital, Petrograd, with other Bolshevik exiles including Lev Kamenev and Joseph Stalin. On 12 March, he joined the Russian Bureau of the Bolshevik Central Committee, Muranov and Stalin were also made members of the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet. Together, they took over Pravda and ousted its previous editors, Vyacheslav Molotov, once in control, they advocated conditional support of the newly formed liberal Russian Provisional Government insofar as it struggles against reaction or counter-revolution. Kamenev, Stalin and Muranov also suggested that Bolsheviks should unite with the internationalist wing of the rival Menshevik faction of the RSDLP and these positions were adopted by the All-Russian Conference of the Bolshevik Party on 28 March-4 April 1917. When Lenin and Grigory Zinoviev returned to Russia on 3 April, they opposed the Kamenev-Stalin-Muranov line and called for a socialist revolution and a complete break with the Mensheviks instead. Once Lenin emerged victorious at the next All-Russian Bolshevik conference in late April 1917, Muranov was sent back to Kharkov to run the local Bolshevik newspaper, Proletarian. At the 6th Bolshevik Party Congress in late July and early August 1917, Muranov was elected to the partys Central Committee, on 5 August, the Central Committee elected Muranov to its permanent bureau. As a member of the Bolshevik Central Committee, he supported Lenin during the intra-party debate over the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in early 1918. Muranov was not re-elected to the Central Committee at the 7th Bolshevik party Congress in March 1918 and he remained a member of the Central Committee until 1923. Between March 1919 and April 1920, he was a member of the Central Committees Orgburo. During the intra-party struggles of the 1920s, Muranov was an ally of Joseph Stalin, at the 11th Party Congress in 1922 he was elected to the Central Control Commission, a member of which he remained until 1934. In 1923-1934 he was also a member of the Soviet Supreme Court, in 1934 he moved to the All-Russian Central Executive CommitteeMatvei Muranov – Matvei Muranov Матвей Муранов
25. Gavril Myasnikov – Tsarist police arrested him and he spent over seven years at hard labor in Siberia. In 1917, Myasnikov was active in committees, the soviet. Gabriel Myasnikov is known as the initiator and killer of the Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia. Myasnikov was a Left Communist in 1918, opposed to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and he was dissatisfied with elements of Party policy toward workers, but he did not support the Workers Opposition in 1920-21. Myasnikov disagreed with the Workers Oppositions call for unions to manage the economy, instead, in a 1921 manifesto, Myasnikov called for “producers’ soviets” to administer industry and for freedom of the press for all workers. Leaders of the Workers Opposition Alexander Shlyapnikov and Sergei Medvedev feared that Myasnikovs proposals would give too much power to peasants, despite their disagreements, however, they supported Myasnikovs right to voice criticisms of Party policy. In February 1922, Myasnikov was expelled from the Russian Communist Party, in 1923, he formed an opposition faction called “Workers Group of the Russian Communist Party” that opposed the New Economic Policy. The group included former members of the Workers Opposition. Party leaders arrested Myasnikov in May 1923, but then released him, there Myasnikov formed ties to the Communist Workers Party of Germany, a group at odds with the Russian Communist Party. These groups helped him publish the Manifesto of the Workers Group, Workers Group was suppressed and later in 1923 Myasnikov was persuaded to return to Russia, where he was arrested and imprisoned. In 1927, his sentence was changed to exile in Yerevan. In 1928, he fled the USSR for Iran and he was arrested in Iran and then deported to Turkey. In 1930, he immigrated to France, where he worked in factories until 1945, in 1945, the Soviet secret police returned Myasnikov to the USSR, where he was executed. Bolshevik Opposition to Lenin, G. T. Miasnikov and the Workers Group, Miasnikov, G. Filosofiia ubiistva, ili pochemu i kak ia ubil Mikhaila Romanova. Michel Olivier, Le Groupe ouvrier du Parti communiste russe - G. Miasnikov, Paris, Gabriel Miasnikov, The same, only in a different way Gabriel Miasnikov, The latest deception V. I. Lenin, A Letter to G. Myasnikov,5 August 1921Gavril Myasnikov – Gavril Myasnikov.
26. Georgi Plekhanov – Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician. He was a founder of the movement in Russia and was one of the first Russians to identify himself as Marxist. Facing political persecution, Plekhanov emigrated to Switzerland in 1880, where he continued in his political activity attempting to overthrow the Tsarist regime in Russia. During World War I Plekhanov rallied to the cause of the Entente powers against Germany, Plekhanov was an opponent of the Soviet regime which came to power in the autumn of 1917. Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov was born 29 November 1856 in the Russian village of Gudalovka in Tambov Governorate, georgis father, Valentin Plekhanov, was a member of the hereditary nobility. Valentin was a member of the stratum of the Russian nobility. Georgis mother, Maria Feodorovna, was a distant relative of the literary critic Vissarion Belinsky and was married to Valentin in 1855. Georgi was the first-born of the five children. Georgis formal education began in 1866, when the 10-year-old was entered into the Konstantinov Military Academy in Voronezh and he remained a student at the military academy, where he was well taught by his teachers and well liked by his classmates, until 1873. His mother later attributed her sons life as a revolutionary to liberal ideas to which he was exposed in the course of his education at the school. In 1871, Valentine Plekhanov gave up his effort to maintain his family as a small-scale landlord and he died two years later but his body has been on display in the center of the commons ever since. After the death of his father, Plekhanov resigned at the military academy, one perceived in him a love for knowledge, a habit of reading, thinking, working. He dreamed at the time of going abroad to complete his training in chemistry, if you take so long to complete your studies in chemistry, when will you begin to work for the revolution. Under Axelrods influence, Plekhanov was drawn into the populist movement as an activist in the revolutionary organization of the day. Plekhanov was one of the organizers of the first political demonstrations in Russia, thereafter, Plekhanov was forced by the fear of retribution to lead an underground life. He was arrested twice for his activities, in 1877 and again in 1878. When the question of terrorism became a matter of heated debate in the populist movement in 1879, Plekhanov was so certain of the correctness of his views that he determined to leave the revolutionary movement altogether rather than to compromise on the matter. Plekhanov founded a tiny populist splinter group called Chërnyi Peredel, which attempted to wage a battle of ideas against the new organization of the growing terrorist movement, Plekhanov was manifestly unsuccessful in this effortGeorgi Plekhanov – Georgi Plekhanov
27. Mikhail Pokrovsky – Mikhail Nikolayevich Pokrovsky was a Russian Marxist historian. One of the earliest professionally trained historians to join the Russian revolutionary movement, Pokrovsky was harshly critical of the nature of the multi-national Tsarist empire and deemphasized the personal role played by individuals such as the modernizing Tsar Peter the Great. An official campaign of denunciation of Pokrovskys alleged errors was initiated in January 1936, mikhail Pokrovsky was born August 29,1868 in Moscow into the family of a state official who had gained hereditary nobility from the Tsar. He would graduate from that institution in 1891, going on to pursue a Masters degree with Klyuchevsky, undeterred by his lack of an advanced academic degree, Pokrovsky began teaching in secondary schools and university extension programs, pursuing his ambition of becoming a professional historian. A young man of progressive sympathies, Prokrovsky was finally prohibited from giving lectures in 1902 owing to his radical views. Pokrovsky became a Marxist during the Russian Revolution of 1905, joining the Bolshevik Party, jackson was invited by party leader V. I. Ulianov to contribute to the official newspaper published in exile. Inside the Bolshevik organization, Pokrovsky was close to the radical faction surrounding Alexander Bogdanov, other key members of this faction included future Bolshevik education chief Anatoly Lunacharsky and prominent writer Maxim Gorky. The failure of the 1905 revolution caused Pokrovsky to emigrate, first to Finland before making his way to France in 1908, Pokrovsky would remain in French exile until the coming of the October Revolution in 1917. It was in French exile that Pokrovsky wrote his first major work, The History of Russia from Earliest Times. Pokrovsky was called upon as a party academic to lecture at the Capri school on the topic of Russian history, after Bogdanovs expulsion from the Bolshevik Party in 1909, Pokrovsky followed him out of that organization. He would remain a non-Bolshevik radical until the year of 1917. Pokrovsky again participated in this project as a lecturer, being joined by Lunacharsky, Bogdanov. Chief factional leaders Lenin and Georgy Plekhanov were hostile to the project, however, Pokrovsky returned to Russia in August 1917, following the February Revolution which overthrew Tsar Nicholas Romanov II. He was formally readmitted to the Bolshevik Party the following month and was soon in a position of trust and authority, editing the newspaper of the Moscow Soviet. Following the October Revolution which brought the Bolshevik Party to power and he was also chosen for the commission which drafted the first Constitution of Soviet Russia in 1918 and in March 1918 was elected Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars for the Moscow region. Pokrovsky would become Deputy Commissar of the educational ministry in May 1918. Several Soviet educational entities are credited in some measure to Pokrovskys influence and he was head of the IKP from 1921 to 1931Mikhail Pokrovsky – M.N. Pokrovsky (1868-1932), Soviet historian.
28. Ilya Ponomarev – Ilya Vladimirovich Ponomarev is a Russian politician, former member of the State Duma and a technology entrepreneur. He was the member of the State Duma to vote against Russias annexation of Crimea during the 2014 Russian invasion of Ukraine. Ponomaryov lives in self-imposed exile in Kiev, Ukraine and he holds a BSc in Physics from Moscow State University and a Master of Public Administration from the Russian State Social University. He started his career when he was 14 years old at the Institute for Nuclear Safety, later Ponomarev was among the founders of two successful high technology start-ups in Russia, the first one when he was 16 years old. His first job position was at the Institute for Nuclear Safety, in 1995/1996 Ponomarev acted as a representative of the networking software company Banyan Systems in Russia. At that time he created one of the largest distributed networks in Russia for now-defunct oil company Yukos, afterwards he worked at Schlumberger in 1996–1998 and at Yukos from 1998–2001. He went on to earn a living as a technology entrepreneur, in 2002–2007 Ponomarev worked as the chief information officer of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. Ponomarev is known to be standing on unorthodox left, best described as progressive libertarian position, some people call him neo-communist, although critics inside Communist Party of Russia has identified him as neotrotskyist. He himself identifies his approach as social globalism and he is also skeptical about the Russian model of privatization, and blames its neoliberal architects for failed democracy in Russia. Ponomarev usually stresses that leftists should protect political and social freedoms and stand on behalf all oppressed groups of population, justifying his position on LGBT and he is always critical of nationalism and clericalism, although known to maintain good personal relations with their prominent activists. Ponomarev was, Vice president of Yukos Oil Company, largest Russian oil, siberian Internet Company, which was founded by Ponomarev, was the cradle of prominent Internet projects in Russia, like Gazeta. Private-public project to develop a network of settlements across the country for fostering innovation. In December 2007 Ponomarev was elected to the State Duma, representing Novosibirsk, in Duma Ilya Ponomarev chairs Innovation and Venture capital subcommittee of Committee for Economical Development and Entrepreneurship. He was responsible for creating SkolTech – a joint university between Russia and MIT, in May 2014, following the elections, Ponomarev was appointed Counselor for Strategic Development and Investments for Novosibirsk city. He is member of Society of Petroleum Engineers, Council for Foreign and Defense Policies, Council for National Strategy, Ponomarev is supervising innovation policies research at Institute of Contemporary Development, and political studies at Institute of Globalization Studies. In 2010 Ponomarev became co-founder of Korean-Russian Business Council, Ponomarev is a member of Global Science and Innovations Council, chaired by Prime Minister of Malaysia. He is an author of papers and magazine articles about new economy development, regional policies, education. In 2014 Ponomarev became founder of the Institute of Siberia – an analytical center focused on the development of SiberiaIlya Ponomarev – Ponomarev at the 2012 Horasis Global Russia Business Meeting
29. Dmitri Shostakovich – Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich was a Russian pianist and composer of the Soviet period. He is regarded as one of the composers of the 20th century. Shostakovich achieved fame in the Soviet Union under the patronage of Soviet chief of staff Mikhail Tukhachevsky, nevertheless, he received accolades and state awards and served in the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. A polystylist, Shostakovich developed a voice, combining a variety of different musical techniques into his works. Shostakovichs orchestral works include 15 symphonies and six concerti and his chamber output includes 15 string quartets, a piano quintet, two piano trios, and two pieces for string octet. His solo piano works include two sonatas, an set of preludes, and a later set of 24 preludes and fugues. Born at Podolskaya street in Saint Petersburg, Russia, Shostakovich was the second of three children of Dmitri Boleslavovich Shostakovich and Sofiya Vasilievna Kokoulina, Shostakovichs paternal grandfather, originally surnamed Szostakowicz, was of Polish Roman Catholic descent, but his immediate forebears came from Siberia. When his term of exile ended, Szostakowicz decided to remain in Siberia and he eventually became a successful banker in Irkutsk and raised a large family. His son, Dmitri Boleslavovich Shostakovich, the father, was born in exile in Narim in 1875 and studied physics and mathematics in Saint Petersburg University. He then went to work as an engineer under Dmitri Mendeleev at the Bureau of Weights, in 1903 he married another Siberian transplant to the capital, Sofiya Vasilievna Kokoulina, one of six children born to a Russian Siberian native. Their son, Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich, displayed significant musical talent after he began lessons with his mother at the age of nine. In 1918 he wrote a march in memory of two leaders of the Kadet party, murdered by Bolshevik sailors. In 1919, at the age of thirteen, he was allowed to enter the Petrograd Conservatory, then headed by Alexander Glazunov, Shostakovich also attended Alexander Ossovskys history of music classes. Steinberg tried to guide Shostakovich in the path of the great Russian composers and he also suffered for his perceived lack of political zeal, and initially failed his exam in Marxist methodology in 1926. His first major achievement was the First Symphony, written as his graduation piece at the age of nineteen. After graduation, Shostakovich initially embarked on a career as concert pianist and composer. He nevertheless won a mention at the First International Chopin Piano Competition in Warsaw in 1927. He explained the disappointment at the competition to suffering from appendicitis and he later had his appendix removed in April 1927Dmitri Shostakovich – Dmitri Shostakovich in 1950
30. Joseph Stalin – Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953. Holding the post of the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, he was effectively the dictator of the state. Stalin was one of the seven members of the first Politburo, founded in 1917 in order to manage the Bolshevik Revolution, alongside Lenin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky, Sokolnikov, and Bubnov. Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who took part in the Russian Revolution of 1917 and he managed to consolidate power following the 1924 death of Vladimir Lenin by suppressing Lenins criticisms and expanding the functions of his role, all the while eliminating any opposition. He remained General Secretary until the post was abolished in 1952, the economic changes coincided with the imprisonment of millions of people in Gulag labour camps. The initial upheaval in agriculture disrupted food production and contributed to the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932–33, major figures in the Communist Party and government, and many Red Army high commanders, were arrested and shot after being convicted of treason in show trials. Stalins invasion of Bukovina in 1940 violated the pact, as it went beyond the Soviet sphere of influence agreed with the Axis, Germany ended the pact when Hitler launched a massive invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. Despite heavy human and territorial losses, Soviet forces managed to halt the Nazi incursion after the decisive Battles of Moscow, after defeating the Axis powers on the Eastern Front, the Red Army captured Berlin in May 1945, effectively ending the war in Europe for the Allies. The Soviet Union subsequently emerged as one of two recognized world superpowers, the other being the United States, Communist governments loyal to the Soviet Union were established in most countries freed from German occupation by the Red Army, which later constituted the Eastern Bloc. Stalin also had relations with Mao Zedong in China and Kim Il-sung in North Korea. On February 9,1946, Stalin delivered a public speech in which he explained the fundamental incompatibility of communism and capitalism. He stressed that the system needed war for raw materials. The Second World War was but the latest in a chain of conflicts which could be broken only when the economy made the transformation into communism. Stalin led the Soviet Union through its post-war reconstruction phase, which saw a significant rise in tension with the Western world that would later be known as the Cold War, Stalin remains a controversial figure today, with many regarding him as a tyrant. However, popular opinion within the Russian Federation is mixed, the exact number of deaths caused by Stalins regime is still a subject of debate, but it is widely agreed to be in the order of millions. Joseph Stalin was born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili, the Russian-language version of his birth name is Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili. Ioseb was born on 18 December 1878 in the town of Gori, Georgia and his father was Besarion Jughashvili, a cobbler, while his mother was Ekaterine Keke Geladze, a housemaid. As a child, Ioseb was plagued with health issuesJoseph Stalin – Stalin at the Tehran Conference in 1943.