Fish fur is a Russian language ironic expression used to describe poor quality of coats and other clothes worn for warmth. In modern times it is used for fake fur, especially of poor quality. The term traces back to a Russian proverb A poor mans fur coat is of fish fur, the expression has often been used to describe the uniform of the Soviet Army. In particular, elements of winter uniform of ordinary soldiers and lower ranks were made of wool pile, which has been a popular cheap material for civilian clothing as well
A sailor cap is a round, flat visorless hat worn by sailors in many of the worlds navies. A tally, a black silk ribbon, is tied around the base which usually bears the name of a ship or a navy. Many navies tie the tally at the rear of the cap, in wartime, as a security measure, many navies replace the name of the ship with a generic title. The cap may be embellished with a badge, cockade or other accessory. Visorless caps of this began to be worn in the mid 19th century. The more rigid type of hat with a wide, flat peak is known as square rig cap or pork pie. Until after World War II it was customary in most navies to wear a white cover over the dark blue cap in tropical or summer conditions only. This has been retained but as the cap is now generally a formal or dress item the white cover is all year around. The German Navy version of the cap has a raised front in contrast to the flat top favored by the Royal Navy. The sailor cap was first introduced in September 1811 as a part of the uniform of the Russian Navy, all ranks of the Russian navy of this period wore military style uniforms and the bezkozyrka was a useful development of the peaked cap in practical application to marine conditions.
The French Navys version of the cap, with its distinctive red pompom on top, was adopted about 1848. Worn initially as an ordinary duty alternative for the formal leather hat with turned up side, the Belgian Navy adopted the same pattern of cap, but with light-blue pompom and trailing ribbons, on 29 March 1939. This hat was worn by Polish Navy sailors before 1939—it was called the amerykanka or nejwihetka
The boyar hat was a fur hat worn by Russian nobility between the 15th and 17th centuries, most notably by boyars, for whom it was a sign of their social status. The higher hat indicated the higher status, in average, it was one ell in height, having the form of a cylinder with more broad upper part, velvet or brocade top and the main body made of fox, marten or sable fur. When taken off, the hat was often held above the forearm, today the hats of this type are sometimes used in the Russian fashion. Европейский костюм от античности до XX века. » Москва, european costume from Antiquity into the 20th century
Gymnastyorka was a Russian military shirt-tunic comprising a pullover style garment with a standing collar having double button closure. Additionally one or two upper chest pockets, with or without flaps, may have been worn and it had provision for shoulder boards and sometimes reinforced elbows and cuffs. The Tsarist version had the standing collar while the M35 version had a collar which was replaced with the standing collar in the M43 version. The Soviet Army M35 version usually had hidden buttons, a double breasted version for officers of all ranks existed during the Tsarist period. The gymnastyorka was originally introduced into the Imperial Russian Army in about 1870 for wear by regiments stationed in Turkestan during the hot summers. It took the form of a loose fitting white linen shirt-tunic, the gymnastjorka was taken into use by all branches of the Imperial Army at the time of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. Originally intended for working dress during peace-time and patterned on the traditional Russian peasant smock and it was worn as such by non-commissioned ranks in summer during the 1890s and early 1900s.
The officers equivalent was a double breasted tunic or kitel. The smartness and comfort of the white gymnastyorka enabled it to survive for a few years of peacetime wear until a light khaki version was adopted in 1907-09. The Bolshevik Red Army wore both original Imperial pattern shirt-tunics and ones of a new model, with or without the coloured stripes, the wide variety of uniforms worn by both sides during the Civil War arose from supply and production difficulties in the chaotic conditions of the time. In 1924 the shoulder straps were abolished, and in 1935 the gymnastyorka was modified to accommodate the reintroduction of personal ranks in the Red Army. The M35 version was modified on 1 August 1941 after the experience of the Winter War, replacing the colorful rank collar tabs, with duller. In 1943 the traditional Tsarist version with stand collar and shoulder-boards was reintroduced, the M43 remained in service until the gymnastyorka was finally abolished in 1969. The gymnastyorka was adopted by several Soviet satellite states such as Bulgaria, Albania, enlisted soldiers in the North Korean Army continues to wear the gymnastyorka as part of their field uniform.
The Tsarist police wore the white gymnastyorka as a summer garment until 1917 and their successors, the Soviet Militsiya, continued to wear this traditional garment until the 1950s. Pilotka Kosovorotka Military uniform List of Russian inventions
Podvorotnichok is a narrow piece of white fabric sewed onto the flip side of the collar of the kittel in the Russian Armed Forces as well as in some of the former Soviet republics militaries. Podvorotnichok is used in order to prevent a collar from quick drabbling, undercollars are only used with field uniforms. Sewing on an undercollar is somewhat of an old tradition in Russian military, usually, it takes no less than an hour to do it for the first time and most often its done in a wrong way. After some time a soldier is able to sew his undercollar on within 2 or 3 minutes. As usual, this takes place in the evening before taps. Before sewing on, an undercollar and a collar itself should be ironed, a 70–100 cm long white thread is used for sewing. The stitches should not be seen from the side of the collar. A correctly sewed undercollar visibly overhangs a collar for 1-1.5 millimeters, senior conscripts might sometimes pile an undercollar up 2,4,6 or even 8 times. Right before discharge from the army they often use black threads, there are traditional weaves for conscripts with different length of service, senior conscripts weave is more complex and snazzy, while junior conscripts one is simple.
Undercollars are being checked every day during a morning inspection, in case if a soldiers undercollar is not snow-white or sewed on incorrectly, hell receive penalty and will have to re-sew it on. Soviet Uniforms and Militaria 1917-1991 by Laszlo Bekesi Inside the Soviet Army Today, osprey Elite Military History Series No.12 by Stephen J Zaloga Afghanka Panamanka
It derives its name from its short visor, which was historically made of polished leather but increasingly is made of a synthetic substitute. Other principal components are the crown and insignia, typically a cap badge, piping is often found, typically in contrast to the crown colour, which is usually white for navy, blue for air force and green for army. The band is typically a dark, contrasting colour, often black, in the British Army, each regiment and corps has a different badge. In the American armed forces, the cap device is uniform throughout service branch, the peaked cap originated in early 19th-century Northern Europe, usually worn by working-class men. In 1846, the United States Army adopted the cap during the Mexican-American war due to the unsuitability of the shako in the hot Mexican climate. In 1856, a form of peaked cap was adopted by petty officers of Britains Royal Navy, the British Army adopted peaked caps in 1902 for both the new khaki field dress and as part of the walking out or off-duty wear for other ranks. A dark blue version was worn with dress blues by all ranks of the U. S.
Army between 1902 and 1917, throughout the 19th century, the Austro-Hungarian army were issued with shakos, originally in black leather and in pike grey wool. Gradually, the height of the shako decreased and the cardboard stiffening removed until, by 1908, it had evolved into the ski cap. The cap was used in the stages of the First World War as the primary headgear. In the Canadian Forces, the cap is the primary headgear for mens Royal Canadian Navy service dress. It has been abandoned in the Royal Canadian Air Force in favour of the wedge cap and it has been eliminated from the Canadian Army in favour of the beret, with two exceptions. General officers wearing army uniform can wear either a beret or a cap with service dress. Royal Canadian Infantry Corps members of foot guards units such as the Canadian Grenadier Guards wear the cap with full dress but the peaked cap with undress. On navy caps, the peak and chinstrap of the cap are always black. The cap band is black with the exception of military police, who wear a scarlet cap band, and members of Canadian Special Operations Forces Command.
The peak of the cap of non-commissioned members and subordinate officers is left plain, the same oak leaves are worn by the Governor General of Canada as Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces. The service cap is theoretically unisex, although there exists a service hat for women, the service hat does not have a crown top and has a stiff brim all around. The front of the brim is formed into a visor and the sides, the Canadian Coast Guard shares a similar cap and colours with the Royal Canadian Navy
The dense fur offers some protection against blunt impacts to the head. The word ushanka derives from ushi, ears in Russian, ushankas are often made from expensive sheepskin, rabbit or muskrat fur. Artificial fur hats are manufactured and are referred to as fish fur since the material is not from any real animal. The simplest fish fur of ushankas was made of wool pile with cloth substrate and cloth top, with the exception of the flaps, which had the pile exposed. Mink fur ushankas are widely used in the Arctic regions of Russia, protecting the ears and chin of the wearer even from deep frost, which is around −70 to −40 °C. Hats with fur earflaps have been known in Russia, Serbia, Croatia, Bulgaria, the standard modern ushanka with a perfectly round crown was developed in the 20th century. During the Russian Civil War, the ruler of Siberia, Aleksandr Kolchak, introduced a uniform hat, commonly referred to as a kolchakovka. It was similar to the ushanka, fields wore a kolchakovka in the short film The Fatal Glass of Beer.
However and the White Army lost the war, Red Army soldiers instead wore the budenovka, which was made of felt. It was designed to resemble historical Bogatyr helmets, and did not provide protection from the cold. During the Winter War against Finland, organizational failures and inadequate equipment left many Soviet troops vulnerable to cold, the Finnish army had much better equipment including an ushanka-style fur hat, the turkislakki M36, introduced in 1936. In 1939, shortly before the Winter War, the slightly improved turkislakki M39 was introduced, after the winter war, the Red Army received completely redesigned winter uniforms. Budenovkas were finally replaced with ushankas based on the Finnish example, officers were issued fur ushankas, other ranks received ushankas made with plush or fish fur. The ushanka became a symbol and media icon of the Soviet Union, photographs of U. S. President Gerald Ford wearing the cap during a 1974 visit to the Soviet Union were seen as a possible sign of détente.
Gray, green and black versions are in current usage, in 2013, the Russian army announced that the ushanka was being replaced by new headgear. The ushanka was used by the East German authorities before German reunification, in the Finnish Defence Forces, a gray hat is used with M62 uniform and a green one of different design is a part of M91 and M05 winter dress. Armoured troops have a hat, while generals may wear a white M39 hat. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police use a regulation hat, made of muskrat fur, a similar type of headgear is worn in Chinas Peoples Liberation Armys winter uniform
Spetsodezhda, is a Soviet developed uniform worn initially by the KGB and by the MVD. It was similar in appearance to the Afghanka, especially the airborne version and it had several styling differences to enable it to be worn as a standalone uniform for field and garrison usage. The Spetsodezhda was made in a summer and heavier, lined winter version. It could be worn with the Polevaia Furazhka field cap which was made from sturdy cotton and this was supplied with the uniform. The Kamuflirovanni Beret camouflaged beret, or the Kamaflirovannaia Furazhka camouflaged peaked cap were supplied, all were in the KLMK two colour yellow on green camouflage pattern. The winter model is composed of a jacket, a liner, their insulated lining. The liners are buttoned into their garments, and the outer garments can be worn without the liners. The jacket liner bears the fur collar of the jacket, usually in fish fur, the jacket and trousers are lined with a type of material that helps insulate by trapping warm air, whereas the liners are made of a quilted material similar to the Telogreika Uniform.
Type I - the initial pattern introduced in 1981-1982, the collar tabs, shoulder straps and arm patches were the same grass green ones as worn on the khaki uniforms. Type II - Worn by both the KGB and MVD troops and this design is closely based on the airborne Afghanka to include hidden button and subdued collar tabs, shoulder straps and arm patches. Type III - One piece cover-alls with attached hood, open belt loops, a left sleeve pocket, valenki Podvorotnichok Afghanka Soviet Uniforms and Militaria 1917-1991 by Laszlo Bekesi Inside the Soviet Army Today. Osprey Elite Military History Series No.12 by Stephen J Zaloga Russias War in Afghanistan by David Isby Warsaw Pact Ground Forces by David Rottmman
Telogreika or vatnik is a Russian kind of warm cotton wool-padded jacket. It was a part of winter uniform first issued by the Red Army during the German-Soviet War, telogreikas continued to be issued until the late 1960s. The basic cut the uniform followed was that of a quilted jacket, the trousers had a button fly and tied at the bottom of the legs. There were usually pockets on the hips of telogreika trousers and a pocket on the front of the trouser leg. Telogreika jackets buttoned up the front, and the jacket sleeves buttoned closed, early issue variants had high collars, though these were absent on. Telogreika jackets usually had a pocket on the front of the jacket. The clothing was usually khaki in colour, although black uniforms were issued to crews and some grey variants can be seen. The jacket and trousers usually had a design with the quilting. The telogreika was particularly effective at keeping the wearer warm in the harsh Russian Winter, when worn with valenki and an ushanka a wearer can comfortably remain warm in sub-zero temperatures for long periods.
This made it the perfect uniform not just for the Red Army, in contrast to the usual shortages in the Red Army, soldiers received regular issues of winter clothing, as their combat effectiveness could be hampered in cold conditions otherwise. The Wehrmacht regularly made use of captured Red Army winter uniforms, often taking them from the deceased, the Telogreika faded from military issue in the early 1960s, being largely replaced by the return to the old woollen shinel greatcoat and the bushlat. In the early 1980s the introduction of the Afghanka field uniform marked the dawn of a new era in the Soviet Army, the Telogreika is still used in Russia and many Soviet Bloc countries by private citizens. In Russia it is popular amongst night watchmen and workers in the construction industry. Afghanka Ushanka Valenki Stalins War, Soviet Uniforms and Militaria 1941-45 by Laszlo Bekesi The Red Army of the Great Patriotic War, 1941-45 By Stephen J Zaloga
Imperial Crown of Russia
The Imperial Crown of Russia, known as the Great Imperial Crown, was used by the Emperors of Russia until the monarchys abolition in 1917. The Great Imperial Crown was first used in a coronation by Catherine II and it survived the subsequent revolution and is currently on display in the Moscow Kremlin Armoury State Diamond Fund. By 1613, when Michael Romanov, the first Tsar of the Romanov Dynasty was crowned, the Russian regalia included a cross, a golden chain, a barmas, the Crown of Monomakh, sceptre. Over the centuries, various Tsars had fashioned their own private crowns, modeled for the most part after the Crown of Monomakh, in 1719, Tsar Peter I the Great founded the earliest version of what is now known as the Russian Federations State Diamond Fund. The Silk Imperial Crown of Russia was given as a coronation gift of the Russian Empire at the coronation of Nicholas II the last Emperor of the Romanov line. Nicholas II was the first and only monarch to be presented with such a coronation gift.
It was not intended as ceremonial regalia but as private Imperial property as a memento to his coronation event, the court jeweller Ekart and Jérémie Pauzié made the Great Imperial Crown for the coronation of Catherine the Great in 1762. The beautiful crown reflects Pauzies skilled workmanship and it is adorned with 4936 diamonds arranged in splendid patterns across the entire surface of the crown Bordering the edges of the mitre are a number of fine, large white pearls. It is believed to be the second largest spinel in the world, peter’s widow and successor, Catherine I, was the first Russian ruler to wear this form of imperial crown. It is believed to be the second largest spinel in the world, except for the two rows of large white pearls the entire surface of the crown is covered with 4936 diamonds and is quite heavy, weighing approximately nine pounds. At the coronation of Nicholas II in 1896, the crown was worn by Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna as was her right as a crowned Empress.
A second identical lesser Imperial Crown was made for the young Empress Alexandra Feodorovna to wear, Dowager Empresses outranked reigning Empress Consorts at the Russian Court. The work is now in the collection of the Hermitage Museum, following the tradition of the Byzantine Emperors, the Tsar of Russia placed the crown upon his own head. This left no doubt that, in the Russian system, the power came directly from God. The prayer of the Metropolitan, similar to that of the Patriarch of Constantinople for the Byzantine Emperor, a few days prior to the crowning service itself, the Tsar made a processional entry into Moscow, where coronations were always held. After the Tsar entered the cathedral, he and his spouse venerated the icons there and he took it and placed it on his head himself, while the Metropolitan recited, In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, Amen. Following this, the new Tsar crowned his consort, first briefly with his own crown, further prayers and litanies were read, the Emperor was anointed just prior to reception of Holy Communion during the Divine Liturgy.
He was invited to enter the area through the Royal Doors