Imperial Crown of Russia
The Imperial Crown of Russia, known as the Great Imperial Crown, was used by the Emperors of Russia until the monarchys abolition in 1917. The Great Imperial Crown was first used in a coronation by Catherine II and it survived the subsequent revolution and is currently on display in the Moscow Kremlin Armoury State Diamond Fund. By 1613, when Michael Romanov, the first Tsar of the Romanov Dynasty was crowned, the Russian regalia included a cross, a golden chain, a barmas, the Crown of Monomakh, sceptre. Over the centuries, various Tsars had fashioned their own private crowns, modeled for the most part after the Crown of Monomakh, in 1719, Tsar Peter I the Great founded the earliest version of what is now known as the Russian Federations State Diamond Fund. The Silk Imperial Crown of Russia was given as a coronation gift of the Russian Empire at the coronation of Nicholas II the last Emperor of the Romanov line. Nicholas II was the first and only monarch to be presented with such a coronation gift.
It was not intended as ceremonial regalia but as private Imperial property as a memento to his coronation event, the court jeweller Ekart and Jérémie Pauzié made the Great Imperial Crown for the coronation of Catherine the Great in 1762. The beautiful crown reflects Pauzies skilled workmanship and it is adorned with 4936 diamonds arranged in splendid patterns across the entire surface of the crown Bordering the edges of the mitre are a number of fine, large white pearls. It is believed to be the second largest spinel in the world, peter’s widow and successor, Catherine I, was the first Russian ruler to wear this form of imperial crown. It is believed to be the second largest spinel in the world, except for the two rows of large white pearls the entire surface of the crown is covered with 4936 diamonds and is quite heavy, weighing approximately nine pounds. At the coronation of Nicholas II in 1896, the crown was worn by Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna as was her right as a crowned Empress.
A second identical lesser Imperial Crown was made for the young Empress Alexandra Feodorovna to wear, Dowager Empresses outranked reigning Empress Consorts at the Russian Court. The work is now in the collection of the Hermitage Museum, following the tradition of the Byzantine Emperors, the Tsar of Russia placed the crown upon his own head. This left no doubt that, in the Russian system, the power came directly from God. The prayer of the Metropolitan, similar to that of the Patriarch of Constantinople for the Byzantine Emperor, a few days prior to the crowning service itself, the Tsar made a processional entry into Moscow, where coronations were always held. After the Tsar entered the cathedral, he and his spouse venerated the icons there and he took it and placed it on his head himself, while the Metropolitan recited, In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, Amen. Following this, the new Tsar crowned his consort, first briefly with his own crown, further prayers and litanies were read, the Emperor was anointed just prior to reception of Holy Communion during the Divine Liturgy.
He was invited to enter the area through the Royal Doors
Russian interregnum of 1825
The Russian interregnum of 1825 began December 1 with the death of Alexander I in Taganrog and lasted until the accession of Nicholas I and the suppression of the Decembrist revolt on December 26. Unprecedented secrecy backfired with a crisis that placed the whole House of Romanov at peril. Military governor Mikhail Miloradovich persuaded hesitant Nicholas to pledge allegiance to Constantine, as The Times of London observed, the Russian Empire had two self-denying Emperors and no active ruler. Correspondence between Saint Petersburg and Warsaw, carried by mounted messengers, took two weeks, Constantine repeated his renunciation of the crown and blessed Nicholas as his sovereign but refused to come to Saint Petersburg, leaving the dangerous task of resolving the crisis to Nicholas alone. Evidence of the brewing Decembrist revolt compelled Nicholas to act, in the first hour of December 26 he proclaimed himself Emperor of All the Russias. Nicholas crushed the revolt at a cost of 1,271 lives and he ruled the empire in an authoritative reactionary manner for 29 years.
The first historic study of the interregnum, Modest von Korffs Accession of Nicholas I, was commissioned by Nicholas himself, memoirists and fiction authors sought alternative explanations of the apparently irrational behaviour of the Romanovs. Conspiracy theorists named Alexander, Nicholas and Dowager Empress Maria, alone or in various alliances, Alexander I of Russia, the elder of four sons of Paul I, had no male issue, his legitimate daughters died in infancy. According to the 1797 Pauline Laws his childless brother Constantine had been heir presumptive since Alexanders accession, the third brother, followed him in the order of succession. Constantine and his legitimate wife Juliane of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld separated in 1799, Juliane returned to Germany and resisted any proposals to restore the family. Constantine, engaged in the action of the Napoleonic Wars, did not attempt a formal divorce until meeting Joanna Grudzińska and their love affair that began in 1815 compelled Constantine to divorce Juliane and marry Joanna.
Constantine divorced Juliane in absentia on April 2,1820, on May 24 of the same year, Constantine married Joanna, who was created Duchess of Łowicz. Constantine had no intention of ruling the Empire and retired to Warsaw as the viceroy of Congress Poland, according to Nicholas, Alexander told him of Constantines decision to abdicate in 1819. According to Michael, the youngest of four brothers, he learned about it from Constantine in the summer of 1821, in both cases the speakers emphasized extreme secrecy of the matter. Korff wrote that Constantines renunciation was completed or, at all events, on January 26,1822 Constantine sent a humble petition to Alexander, expressing his wish to pass the rights to the throne to the next in line, Nicholas. Two weeks Alexander wrote to Constantine that the matter was not resolved. The closing paragraph was especially ambiguous and could have interpreted as leaving the final outcome in Constantines hands. To leave you fully at liberty to execute your irrevocable determination, Alexanders usual speechwriter Mikhail Speransky was cut out the loop
Regalia of the Russian tsars
Like many other monarchies, the Russian Empire had a vast collection of regalia belonging to the Tsars. This collection is now on display in Kremlin in Moscow, the Diamond Fund maintains the security of the greater diamond masterpieces. Barmas of Old Ryazan, One of the greatest masterpieces of ancient jewelry were produced by masters of Old Ryazan in late 12th - early 13th century. They belonged to the princes family, but in 1237 the city was completely destroyed by Batu Khan. In 1822, the royal barmas were found by archeologists and brought to the Armory and these precious barmas are proof of the high level of local jewelry, enameled with their precious stones, gold medallions decorated with engraving. Cap of Monomakh The oldest crown is the Cap of Monomakh or Crown of Monomakh and its name is connected with a Russian legend of the 15th century, according to which it has been brought to Russia in ancient times as a gift from the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Monomachos. The cap is of oriental workmanship of the late 13th or early 14th century, the question of its origin is still unspecified.
The oldest section of the consists of eight gold plates adorned with very fine gold lace in a pattern of six-pointed rosette-stars. The semi-spherical top with a cross, the trimming and the pearls. It weighs 698 grams and is the lightest Russian crown, since the late 14th till the late 17th century, the Cap of Monomakh a symbol of power, was used in the ceremony of setting the ruler of the Russian State for reigning. In the first quarter of the 18th century, after Peter the Greats reforms, the setting for reigning was replaced by coronation. Since 18th century the Cap of Monomakh served as crown of the Tsardom of Great, Little. Kazan crown The Crown of Kazan belonged to Ediger Mahmet, the last ruler of the Tatar state of Kazan and this 16th century crown is the second oldest in Russia. The gold crown is studded with pearls and turquoises, the sable-fur trimming was for comfort. The Kazan Crown is dated by 1553 and it was first mentioned in the treasury of Tsar Ivan the Terrible, whose reigning was signed by a series of eminent events in the Russian history.
Among them is the capture of Kazan in October 1552 and annexation of the Kazan khanate to the Russian state, the precious crown might have been executed by Moscow Kremlin jewelers on the successful solution of The Eastern problem, so important for Muscovy. Its name might have immortalized the memory of the victory of Russian warriors. The crowns look combines national and eastern artistic traditions, some elements remind decor traditions of Russian churches of the epoch
Coronation of the Russian monarch
These elements remained, as Muscovy was transformed first into the Tsardom of Russia and into the Russian Empire, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1917. As the church and state were one in Imperial Russia, this service invested the Tsars with political legitimacy, however. It was equally perceived as conferring a genuine spiritual benefit that mystically wedded sovereign to subjects, as such, it was similar in purpose to other European coronation ceremonies from the medieval era. Even when the capital was located at St. Petersburg. The last coronation service in Russia was held on 26 May 1896 for Nicholas II and his wife Alexandra Feodorovna, the Russian Imperial regalia survived the subsequent Russian Revolution and the Communist period, and are currently on exhibit in a museum at the Kremlin Armoury. Starting with the reign of Ivan IV, the ruler of Russia was known as Tsar rather than Grand Prince and this continued until 1721, during the reign of Peter I, when the title was formally changed to Imperator.
However, the term Tsar remained the title for the Russian ruler despite the formal change of style, thus this article utilizes that term. In medieval Europe, the anointed Christian ruler was viewed as a persona, part priest and part layman. The Russian Orthodox Church considered the Tsar to be wedded to his subjects in the Orthodox coronation service and secular, church and state and government were all welded together by the coronation service in the person of the anointed Tsar—or so many Russians believed. Since the newly ascended sovereign was permitted all the privileges of rule immediately upon his accession, one or more years might be permitted to elapse between the initial accession of a Tsar and the ceremony itself. This allowed the court to finish its mourning for the new sovereigns predecessor, as in most European monarchies, the Tsars of Russia retained a sizable collection of Imperial regalia, some of which was used in their coronation ceremonies. Although Russian legend held that it had given to Vladimir Monomakh by the Byzantine emperor Constantine IX.
Peters wife, who succeeded him as Catherine I, was the first to wear this type of diadem. 72-carat red spinel from China, the crown was produced in a record two months and weighted only 2.3 kg. This crown was used in all coronations from Paul I to Nicholas II—although the latter tried to replace it with Monomakhs Crown for his ceremony. It survived the subsequent revolution, and is considered to be one of the treasures of the Romanov dynasty. The Silk Imperial Crown of Russia was a coronation gift of the Russian Empire at the coronation of Nicholas II. Nicholas II was the first and only monarch to be presented with such a coronation gift. It was not intended as ceremonial regalia, but as private Imperial property as a memento to his coronation event, a smaller crown, virtually identical in appearance and workmanship to the Great Imperial Crown, was manufactured for the crowning of the Tsars consort
Monomakhs Cap, called the Golden Cap, is a chief relic of the Russian Grand Princes and Tsars. It is a symbol-crown of the Russian autocracy, and is the oldest of the crowns currently exhibited at the Kremlin Armoury, the cap is surmounted by a simple gold cross with pearls at each of the extremities. It is not to be confused with the Monomachus Crown in Budapest, boris Uspensky, in particular, argues that the Tatar headgear was originally used in coronation ceremonies to signify the Muscovite rulers subordination to the khan. According to Sergey Solovyov after the death of Ivan Kalita all Russian princes traveled to the Horde. and the Khan announced the eldest son of Kalita, the Grand Prince of Vladimir. Also Solovyov writes that the first who introduced the coronation of the Russian monarch was Ivan III, at some point in the 15th or 16th century the crown was surmounted by a cross. The legend was elaborated in The Tale of the Princes of Vladimir, the crown became known as Monomakhs Cap, the term first recorded in a Russian document from 1518.
However the fact that Constantine IX Monomachus died 50 years before the coronation of Vladimir Monomakh makes the statement really a legend, the first version of the orient origin of the Cap was arisen by George Vernadsky. Vernadsky was pointing to a fact that according to Paul Pelliot Özbäg can be interpreted as a freeman. After Ivan the Terrible had himself crowned the first Russian Tsar with this headgear, Ivan was presumably not aware that at the time of Constantine IX Monomachus death, Vladimir Monomakh was only two years old and he was not the Kievan sovereign yet. The Monomakh Cap was last used in the coronation of Ivan V and Peter the Great in 1682. When Peter assumed the title of emperor, a new crown was fashioned
Emperor of All Russia
Emperor of All Russia, Empress of All Russia was the title of the ruler of the Russian Empire from 1721 to 1917. It was created in connection with the victory in the Great Northern War, the suffix of All Russia was transformed from the previous version of All Rus. Article 1 of the Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire stated that Emperor of All Russia is an autocratic, to obey his supreme authority, not only out of fear but out of conscience as well, God himself commands. The article points to the fact that Russia had an unrestricted monarchy, the full title of the emperor in the 20th century, The title of the Emperor of All Russia was introduced to Peter the Great. On November 2,1721 Peter I accepted the title, since the Russian State was referred to as the Russian Empire
Langinkoski is a rapid on the Kymi river in Kotka, Finland. Alexander III of Russia had a small manor or a medium-sized log house built there. He would take relatively rustic vacations there, along with his family and his wife the empress Marie Feodorovna enjoyed cooking while he fished or split wood. The log house is now a museum, alexander III and Dagmar had heard about the good salmon fishing at Langinkoski, so in the summer of 1880 they arrived at Langinkoski to watch the salmon fishing. They took a liking to the river scenery and promised to return. Some years they did return to Langinkoski and they said that they would like to have a little fishing hut on the banks of the river. The senate of the Grand Duchy of Finland took measures to have a built for the sovereign. The lodge was designed by architect Magnus Schjerfbeck and the decorating was planned by architect Jac. The construction of the lodge was begun in the summer of 1888, the imperial couple were so interested in their summer house in Finland that they came to watch the progress of the project.
Along with them came their youngest children, grand duke Michael,10, the interior decorating of the lodge was almost totally designed and manufactured in Finland. At their Langinkoski lodge the imperial family led a simple life. The emperor was fond of children and he took his youngest children for outings in the surroundings. The members of the family used simple clothing and had uncomplicated food to eat. Empress Marie Feodorovna knew how to cook and at Langinkoski she had an opportunity of devoting herself to that hobby and it is known that she did not like washing the dishes. Some years ago a photograph taken at Langinkoski was found in the Russian State Archives in St. Petersburg, the picture shows empress Marie Feodorovna sitting on the kitchen porch busying herself with cooking. The young officer to the right is Grand Duke George, her second youngest son and this probably was his only visit to Langinkoski. He had caught tuberculosis and the doctors had recommended for him to live in a mountain climate and he lived in the Caucasus and died there at the age of 28 years.
When Finland became independent in 1917 the imperial fishing lodge was taken over by the Finnish government, pieces of furniture were removed to unknown destinations and the lodge began to deteriorate
Diamond Fund is a unique collection of gems and natural nuggets and exhibited in Moscow Kremlin, Russia. The Fund dates back to the Russian Crown treasury instituted by emperor Peter I of Russia in 1719, peters gem collection, established in 1719, was stored in the Diamond Chamber in the Winter Palace. All succeeding monarchs added their contributions to the Chamber, a 1922 study by Alexander Fersman identified 85% of all exhibits to 1719–1855, preservation and looting of imperial treasures after the Russian Revolution of 1917 is a matter of controversy and speculation. The Imperial collection was moved from Saint Petersburg to Moscow during World War I, the treasure was first exhibited to the public in November 1967. Originally a short-term show, in 1968 it became a permanent exhibition, the Russian State retains the monopoly for mining and distribution of gemstones, as set by the 1998 law On precious metals and precious stones. Diamond Fund operations are regulated by the 1999 presidential decree, for Russians it is accessible only through guided tours of fixed duration.
Foreign visitors can buy a ticket in the lobby and go on themselves. Tours in Russian only are organized daily, 10AM-2PM and 3-5PM at twenty minutes interval
Presidential Palace, Helsinki
The Presidential Palace in Helsinki, is one of the official residences in Helsinki of the President of the Republic of Finland. It is situated on the side of Esplanadi, overlooking Market Square. At the beginning of 19th century, a salt storehouse stood on the site, Johan Henrik Heidenstrauch, one of the elite of Helsinkis merchants, purchased the entire lot and erected between 1816–1820 a stately residence designed by architect Pehr Granstedt. Heidenstrauch House more resembled a palace than a merchants house, in 1837 it actually became a palace when it was purchased for the price of 170000 roubles to be converted into a residence for the Governor-General of Finland. However, Nicholas I desired that it should become the residence in Helsinki of the Tsar of Russia/Grand Duke of Finland. All the timber storehouses behind were torn down and a new wing added, the Palace was completed in 1845, though repairs had to be made from time to time as mostly it stood empty and was not regularly heated.
It was visited for the first time by a member of the Imperial family nine years later, in February 1854 and his brother Nicholas stayed there in June of the following year, after Nicholass death. In 1856, the palace was visited by the new Tsars three oldest sons – Nicholas and Vladimir. It was during the reign of their father, Alexander II and he visited the city in 1863 and 1876, staying on both occasions at the Palace. In 1863 the Diet of Finland was opened by Alexander II in the Great Ballroom, the Ballroom was accordingly converted into a Throne-Room, with the Imperial throne placed on a dais. Alexander returned to the again in 1876 to open that years session of the Diet. The Throne-Room continued to be used as the venue for the opening and closing ceremonies of the Diet until 1906 and that was the last Imperial festivity in the palace. Alexander III did stay there in 1885, the palace was refurbished during 1904–1907 by Johan Jakob Ahrenberg. He built a new suite of rooms, including a new Throne Room where the sculpture Psyche and Zephyr by Walter Runeberg was placed.
The palace was last visited by a member of the Imperial family when Nicholas II visited the palace for one day in 1915, under the political conditions of World War I the palace was converted into Helsinki Temporary Military Hospital I in October 1915. From March to April 1918, the palace was used as the headquarters of the Executive Committee of the Helsinki Workers and Soldiers Soviet. With the victory of the Whites in the Finnish Civil War, the Reds abandoned the Palace, the international political situation in the aftermath of World War I led to him renouncing his acceptance of the Finnish throne in December 1918. Following this, the upper floors served as the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, after the new Constitution was passed in 1919 it was clear that the most suitable residence for the President was the Former Imperial Palace