Santa Lucia Range
The Santa Lucia Mountains or Santa Lucia Range is a rugged mountain range in coastal central California, running from Monterey County southeast for 105 miles into central San Luis Obispo County. It includes Cone Peak, which at 5,158 feet tall, the range forms the eastern boundary of the Big Sur region, and was a barrier to exploring the coast of California for early Spanish explorers. The Santa Lucia Mountains are part of the Outer South California Coast Ranges and its northern section runs parallel to the southern section of the Diablo Range, part of the Inner South Coast Ranges, which lies to the east across the Salinas Valley. The ranges highest summit is Junipero Serra Peak,1,784 metres in Monterey County, Cone Peak features the steepest coastal elevation in the lower 48 United States, rising nearly a mile above sea level, only three miles from the Pacific Ocean. The first European to document the Santa Lucias was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1542 while sailing northward along the coast on a Spanish naval expedition.
Cabrillo originally named the portion of the range the Sierras de San Martín, as he was passing the area on 11 November. He named the northern part Sierras Nevadas because there was snow on it, the present name for the range was documented in 1602 by Sebastián Vizcaíno, who had been tasked by the Spanish to complete a detailed chart of the coast. Passing by the range on 14 December, he named the range Sierra de Santa Lucia in honor of Saint Lucy of Syracuse. The first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition, prevented from continuing north along the coast by the rugged Big Sur cliffs, the party turned inland, finding a rugged pass northeastward through the mountains. The rough trail required much improvement by the scouts, and it was September 24 before the party emerged from the mountains at the San Antonio River near todays settlement of Jolon. Like all other Pacific Coast Ranges, these mountains are close enough to the Pacific Ocean and high enough to force incoming moisture upward, making the west side wet and this creates a rain shadow over Salinas Valley to the east, which is considerably drier.
The higher peaks receive some snowfall during the winter, the climate is classified as dry summer subtropical, or Mediterranean. Rainfall varies from 16 to 60 inches throughout the range, with the most on the mountains in the north. During the summer and low clouds are frequent along the coast up to an elevation of several thousand feet. Surface runoff from rainfall events is rapid, and many dry up entirely in the summer. The rock of the Santa Lucias is dominated by granitic basement of the Salinian Block, the core of the Salinian block formed as part of the same batholith which forms the core of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the Peninsular Ranges of Baja California. It was separated from the North American Plate and transported north by the action of the San Andreas Fault from an original position and it is predominantly Mesozoic granitic and pre-Cretaceous metamorphic rocks. There is some Cretaceous sedimentary rock of the Great Valley Sequence, considerable Miocene marine sediments, units west of the Sur-Nacimiento Fault are dominated by rocks of the Franciscan Assemblage
Mission San Antonio de Padua
Mission San Antonio de Padua is a Spanish mission established by the Franciscan order in present-day Monterey County, near the present-day town of Jolon. It was founded on July 14,1771, and was the mission founded in Alta California by Father Presidente Junípero Serra. The mission was the site of the first Christian marriage, today the mission is a parish church of the Diocese of Monterey. Mission San Antonio de Padua was the third Mission to be founded, Father Junipero Serra claimed the site on July 14,1771, and dedicated the Mission to Saint Anthony of Padua. Saint Anthony was born in 1195 in Lisbon, Portugal and is the patron Saint of the poor, Father Serra left Fathers Miguel Pieras and Buenaventura Sitjar behind to continue the building efforts, though the construction of the church proper did not actually begin until 1810. By that time, there were 178 Native Americans living at the Mission. By 1805, the number had increased to 1,300, but in 1834, after the laws went into effect. No town grew up around the Mission, as many did at other installations, in 1845, Mexican Governor Pío Pico declared all mission buildings in Alta California for sale, but no one bid for Mission San Antonio.
After nearly 30 years, the Mission was returned to the Catholic Church, the first attempt at rebuilding the Mission came in 1903, when the California Historical Landmarks League began holding outings at San Antonio. Preservation and restoration of Mission San Antonio began, the Native Sons of the Golden West supplied $1,400. Tons of debris were removed from the interior of the chapel, breaches in the side wall were filled in. Unfortunately, the earthquake of 1906, seriously damaged the building, in 1928, Franciscan Friars held services at San Antonio de Padua. It took nearly 50 years to restore the Mission. The State of California is requiring a $12–15 million earthquake retrofit that must be completed by 2015, there are 35 private families keeping the mission open, as of 2011. There is a campaign to raise funds for the retrofit. Today, the nearest city is King City, nearly 29 miles away, historians consider the Missions pastoral location in the valley of the San Antonio River along the Santa Lucia Mountains as an outstanding example of early mission life.
The mission is surrounded by the Fort Hunter Liggett Military Reservation, additional land was acquired from the Army in 1950 to increase the mission area to over 85 acres. This fort is still actively training troops today, Mission San Antonio de Padua is one of the designated tour sights of the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail
The Carmel River is a 36 mi river on the Central Coast of California in Monterey County that originates in the Ventana Wilderness Area of the Santa Lucia Mountains. The river flows northwest through the Carmel Valley with its mouth at the Pacific Ocean south of Carmel-by-the-Sea and it is often considered the northern boundary of Big Sur. The Carmel River drains a watershed of about 255 square miles, the river was visited on January 3,1603 by Spanish maritime explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno, whose written account greatly exaggerated its proportions, confusing explorers. Vizcaino named it Rio del Carmelo, likely because his voyage was accompanied by three Carmelite friars, in 1771 Fathers Junípero Serra and Juan Crespí moved Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo from Monterey to its present site by the Carmel River. In his 1945 novel Cannery Row John Steinbeck wrote The Carmel is a little river. It isnt very long but in its course it has everything a river should have, the Carmel River had three dams, with their reservoirs used for drinking water and having severe sediment buildup.
The San Clemente Dam, built in 1921, was located 18.5 miles upstream from the ocean and it was the second of three dams built on the Carmel River, preceded by the Old Carmel River Dam built in the 1880s and the Los Padres Dam in 1949. The San Clemente Dam had a capacity of 1,450 acre·ft, but as of 2002. State regulators declared in 1991 that it was in danger of collapsing in an earthquake, the Los Padres Dam, built in 1949, is located 25 miles upstream from the ocean. Its original capacity was 3,030 acre feet, but as of 2008, the oldest dam on the river, which was used as a turnout for a water pipeline, is located approximately 2,000 feet downstream of San Clemente Dam. This first dam and associated pipeline was constructed ca.1880 by Charles Crocker and this small dam, which has been referred to as the Chinese Dam and Old Carmel River Dam, was built using hewn and mortared granite blocks. Remnants of the iron pipe still exist along Carmel Valley Road. Carmel Bay State Marine Conservation Area Hydrological transport model List of rivers of California U. S.
Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Carmel River March, River in Ruin, The Story of the Carmel River
Arctostaphylos hooveri, the Santa Lucia manzanita, is a plant species endemic to the Santa Lucia Mountains in Monterey County, California. It grows in woodlands and in chaparral scrub-land at elevations of 900-1200 m, arctostaphylos hooveri is a shrub or tree up to 8 m tall. Leaves are egg-shaped, whitish with wax, up to 6 cm long, flowers are white, conical to urn-shaped, in branched panicles. Fruits are spherical or nearly so, about 8 mm in diameter
A mountain range is a geographic area containing numerous geologically related mountains. A mountain system or system of ranges, sometimes is used to combine several geological features that are geographically related. Mountain ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys, individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology. They may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earths land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the worlds longest mountain system. The Alpide belt includes Indonesia and southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, the belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges. The Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, mountain ranges outside of these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains.
If the definition of a range is stretched to include underwater mountains. The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, the sub-range relationship is often expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, and the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians. The position of mountains influences climate, such as rain or snow, when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the side, it warms again and is drier. Often, a shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are constantly subjected to forces which work to tear them down. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted and long after until the mountains are reduced to low hills, rivers are traditionally believed to be the principle erosive factor on mountain ranges, with their ability of bedrock incision and sediment transport.
The rugged topography of a range is the product of erosion. The basins adjacent to a mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. The early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example and this mass of rock was removed as the range was actively undergoing uplift
Basin Complex Fire
The Basin Complex Fire near Big Sur started on June 21,2008, was the result of a lightning strike. It eventually grew to 162,818 acres, burning most of the Ventana Wilderness, the fire forced the evacuation of Big Sur prior to the July 4 holiday weekend. Camp Pico Blanco was forced to evacuate the camp and diverted its Scouts to Boulder Creek Scout Reservation in Santa Cruz, the camp lost only one building, an outlying rangers cabin. Big Sur residents were permitted to return on July 9, as of 2014 the fire is the 10th largest wildfire in California since accurate records began being kept in 1932
The Nacimiento River is a 64. 8-mile-long river in southern Monterey County and northern San Luis Obispo County, California. A large portion of the run is on military reservations. The rivers upper reaches are inside Fort Hunter Liggett, Lake Nacimiento is in the middle and it is the largest tributary of the Salinas River in terms of streamflow. Nacimiento, meaning source of the river in Spanish, was given to the river by Father Crespi of the Portolà expedition September 21,1769. The Nacimiento River watershed comprises 361.5 square miles, the crest of the Santa Lucia Range forms the southwestern boundary of the Nacimiento River watershed, and the San Antonio River watershed divide forms its northeast boundary. Except for its uppermost reaches and headwaters, as well as the stretch below Nacimiento Dam, much of the river is dry in summer and fall. After passing through hilly terrain, the river is impounded by Nacimiento Dam forms Lake Nacimiento. Downstream from the dam, the river travels east until it joins the Salinas River at Camp Roberts, the San Antonio River, which feeds Lake San Antonio and is a Salinas River tributary, mirrors Nacimientos path several miles to the northeast.
Tributaries to the river include Little Burnett, Salmon, Las Berros, San Miguel, Stony, El Piojo, Waller. Streams which flow into the river include Las Tablas, Town, Snake. The Cone Peak Gradient Research Natural Area located near the source of the Nacimiento River is an unusual for its ecological diversity. Threatened and endangered species in the including the arroyo toad, western pond turtle, California red-legged frog. The Nacimiento River historically comprised some of the best steelhead trout spawning and rearing habitats in the Salinas River watershed, the Nacimiento Dam was constructed without fish passage and the historic habitats above these dams are no longer available to steelhead
The Angelina Jolie trapdoor spider is a species of Euctenizidae, nocturnal arthropods who seize their prey after leaping out of their burrows and inject it with venom. It was one of only seven described species of Aptostichus until 2012 and it is difficult to identify an individual as being an A. angelinajolieae specimen due to the species morphological similarity to A. atomarius and A. stanfordianus. A set of unique mitochondrial DNA nucleotide substitutions sets the species apart, a. angelinajoliaea inhabits the north of Monterey County, restricted to the Santa Lucia Range west of the Salinas Valley, which probably serves as a dispersal barrier. Its ecoregion consists of chaparral forest and shrub and it is not found in the coastal dunes, which are the habitat of the geographically proximate but lighter colored A. stephencolberti. Female specimens are seen on road cuts and humid, shaded steep banks. The species creates shallow burrows with a thin silk-soil trapdoor and white silken lined retreat, due to the Salinas Valley barrier, there is no genetic exchangeability between Aptostichus angelinajolieae and other Aptostichus species.
This and the species exclusivity as a lineage in DNA studies makes it a cohesion species. A. angelinajolieae belongs to the Atomarius Sibling Species Complex along with the related species A. atomarius, A. dantrippi, A. miwok, A. stanfordianus. In addition to being widespread and abundant in its range, the Angelina Jolie trapdoor spider flourishes in moderately developed residential areas, therefore, in terms of its conservation status, it is not considered to be a threatened species. List of organisms named after famous people
California's 20th congressional district
Californias 20th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of California. It is centered in the upper Central Coast region, and includes Monterey, the district is currently represented by Jimmy Panetta. From 2003-2013, the district covered parts of Fresno and Kern counties. It contained most of the city of Fresno, as of January 2017, there are five former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Californias 20th congressional district that are currently living. The most recent representative to die was Carlos Moorhead on November 23,2011
Pfeiffer Big Sur State Park
Pfeiffer Big Sur State Park is a state park in Monterey County, near the area of Big Sur on the states Central Coast. It covers approximately 1,006 acres of land, the park is centered on the Big Sur River. It has been nicknamed a mini Yosemite, Pfeiffer Big Sur State Park is named after John Pfeiffer, who lived in a cabin on the property beginning in 1884. He was the son of Michael Pfeiffer and Barbara Laquet, the Pfeiffer family immigrated from France and were among the first European settlers in the area. Many features in Big Sur are named for the descendants of the Pfeiffers, in 1930, John Pfeiffer had the opportunity to sell his land to a Los Angeles developer for $210,000. The developer wanted to build a subdivision on the land, Pfeiffer sold 700 acres to the state of California in 1933. Pfeiffer Big Sur State Park has both a hotel and a campground within its boundaries, the campgrounds were closed in the winter of 2008–2009 due to the Basin Complex Fire, but most are open as of May 22,2009.
The campgrounds have coin-operated showers, bathrooms and a convenience store, the convenience store offers WiFi access. Pfeiffer Big Sur State Park is known for its redwood groves, mud slides caused by the Basin Complex fire necessitated rerouting the Pfeiffer Falls Trail which is currently open. Reestablishing the old trail, with the foot bridges, was scheduled to begin in 2016. Pfeiffer Big Sur State Park was damaged by the Basin Complex Fire during June and July 2008, much of the damage was to the outskirts of the park and the campgrounds were able to reopen at the end of July. The Chalk Fire of September and October, which burned an additional 16,269 acres, did damage to Pfeiffer Big Sur State Park
Malacothamnus palmeri is a species of flowering plant in the mallow family known by the common names Palmers bushmallow and Santa Lucia bushmallow. This flower is pink in color and it grows in openings in heavy chaparral and mixed evergreen forest. It requires adobe/shale to red clay type of soil to grow, the associated species are Quercus agrifolia, Adenostoma fasciculatum, Garrya elliptica, Rhamnus californica, Diplacus aurantiacus, Arctostaphylos luciana and Arbutus menziesii. A fast growing plant in most situations, the plant is fairly narrow and will fit into a narrow flower bed. Malacothamnus palmeri is a shrub with a thick, branching stem reaching two meters or more in height. It is coated thinly to densely in white or tan hairs. The lobed, oval leaves are no more than 8 centimeters long, the inflorescence is a headlike or elongated cluster of pale pink flowers with oval petals each up to 1.5 centimeters long. Malacothamnus palmeri is endemic to California, where it grows in the chaparral and woodland of the Central Coast and adjacent Coast Ranges of Monterey, Malacothamnus palmeri is great for a bird garden.
Malacothamnus palmeris foliage type is evergreen, Malacothamnus palmeris flower color is pink. Jepson Manual Treatment, Malacothamnus palmeri USDA Plants Profile, Malacothamnus palmeri Malacothamnus palmeri Photo gallery