Category:Scheduled Ancient Monuments in Mendip
Pages in category "Scheduled Ancient Monuments in Mendip"
The following 38 pages are in this category, out of 38 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 38 pages are in this category, out of 38 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Farleigh Hungerford Castle – Farleigh Hungerford Castle, sometimes called Farleigh Castle or Farley Castle, is a medieval castle in Farleigh Hungerford, Somerset, England. The castle was built in two phases, the court was constructed between 1377 and 1383 by Sir Thomas Hungerford, who made his fortune working as a steward to John of Gaunt. The castle was built to a design, already slightly old-fashioned. A park was attached to the castle, requiring the destruction of a local village, by Walters death in 1449, the substantial castle was richly appointed and its chapel decorated with murals. At the outbreak of the English Civil War in 1642, the castle, modernized to the latest Tudor, Edward declared his support for Parliament, becoming a leader of the Roundheads in Wiltshire. Farleigh Hungerford was seized by Royalist forces in 1643, but recaptured by Parliament without a fight near the end of the conflict in 1645, as a result, it escaped slighting following the war, unlike many other castles in the south-west of England. The last member of the Hungerford family to hold the castle, Sir Edward Hungerford, inherited it in 1657, but his gambling and expensive living forced him to sell the property in 1686. By the 18th century the castle was no longer lived in by its owners and fell into disrepair, in 1730 it was bought by the Houlton family, antiquarian and tourist interest in the now ruined castle increased through the 18th and 19th centuries. In the 1915 Farleigh Hungerford Castle was sold to the Office of Works and it is now owned by English Heritage, who operate it as a tourist attraction, and the castle is a Grade I listed building and a Scheduled Ancient Monument. After the Norman Conquest of England, the manor of Ferlege in Somerset was granted by William the Conqueror to Roger de Courcelles, Ferlege evolved from the Anglo-Saxon name faern-laega, meaning the ferny pasture, and itself later evolved into Farleigh. William Rufus gave the manor to Hugh de Montfort, who renamed it Farleigh Montfort, the manor passed from the Montfort family to Bartholomew de Bunghersh in the early years of the reign of Edward III. Sir Thomas Hungerford bought the property from the Bunghersh family in 1369 for £733, by 1385 the manor was known as Farley Hungerford, after its new owner. Sir Thomas Hungerford was a knight and courtier, who became rich as the Chief Steward to the powerful John of Gaunt, Thomass new castle adapted the existing manor complex overlooking the head of the River Frome. Although the castle sat on a low spur it was overlooked by higher ground from the west, the style was well established by the late 14th century, even slightly old fashioned. Over time the towers acquired their own names, the north-west tower was called the Hazelwell Tower, the north-east the Redcap Tower and the south-west the Lady Tower. The ground fell away sharply on most sides of the castle, the gatehouse had twin towers and a drawbridge. The design of the hall may have emulated Gaunts hall at Kenilworth, at the very least, it was a symbol of Thomass authority. Behind the great hall was a courtyard or garden
2. Glastonbury Abbey – Glastonbury Abbey was a monastery in Glastonbury, Somerset, England. Its ruins, a grade I listed building and scheduled ancient monument, are open as a visitor attraction, the abbey was founded in the 7th century and enlarged in the 10th. It was destroyed by a fire in 1184, but subsequently rebuilt. The abbey controlled large tracts of the land and was instrumental in major drainage projects on the Somerset Levels. The abbey was suppressed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII of England, the last abbot, Richard Whiting, was hanged, drawn and quartered as a traitor on Glastonbury Tor in 1539. From at least the 12th century the Glastonbury area has been associated with the legend of King Arthur, Christian legends have claimed that the abbey was founded by Joseph of Arimathea in the 1st century. In 1955 Ralegh Radfords excavations uncovered Romano-British pottery at the west end of the cloister, the abbey was founded by Britons and dates at least to the early-7th century. Dark Age occupation of the site is evidenced by pieces of wine jars that were imported from the Mediterranean. A medieval Christian legend claimed that the abbey was founded by Joseph of Arimathea in the 1st century and this fanciful legend is intimately tied to Robert de Borons version of the Holy Grail story and Glastonburys connection with King Arthur from the early-12th century. Glastonbury fell into Saxon hands after the Battle of Peonnum in 658, saxons under Cenwalh of Wessex conquered Somerset as far west as the River Parrett, perhaps with the intention of gaining control of the abbey. Cenwalh allowed the British abbot, Bregored, to remain in power, after Bregoreds death in 669, he was replaced by an Anglo-Saxon, Berhtwald, but British monks remained for many years. A glassworks was established at the site during the 7th century, Glastonbury was ravaged by the Danes in the 9th century. The contemporary reformed soldier Saint Neot was sacristan at Glastonbury before he founded his own establishment in Somerset, Dunstan became Archbishop of Canterbury in 960. In 967, King Edmund was interred at Glastonbury, in 1016 Edmund Ironside, who had lost England to Canute but held onto the title of King of Wessex, was also buried there. Cnuts charter of 1032 was written and promulgated in the church at Glastonbury. The medieval Glastonbury Canal was built about the middle of the 10th century to link the abbey with the River Brue, a distance of about 1.75 kilometres. Its purpose is believed to have been to transport stone to build the abbey, much of the building stone came from the abbeys quarries at Doulting, accessed by way of the River Sheppey at Pilton. In the 13th century, the head boatman transported the abbot in an eight-oared boat on visits to the abbeys nearby manors
3. Glastonbury Lake Village – It has been designated as a scheduled monument. It has been described as the best preserved prehistoric village ever found in the United Kingdom, the site covered an area of 400 feet north to south by 300 feet east to west. It was first constructed 250 B. C. by laying down timber, wooden houses and barns were then built on the clay base and occupied by up to 200 people at any time until the village was abandoned around 50 B. C. The site was discovered by Arthur Bulleid in 1892 and excavated over the next 15 years, artefacts uncovered include wooden and metal objects, many of which are now on display at The Tribunal in Glastonbury High Street, and in the Museum of Somerset in Taunton. Much of the timber was left at the site and soil put back on top of it as the best way to preserve it. Surveys in the late 20th and early 21st century have shown this to be effective, the village was first built circa 250 B. C. and occupied until approximately 50 B. C. when it was abandoned, possibly due to a rise in the water level. It was built on a morass on a foundation of timber filled with brushwood, bracken, rubble. At least 1,000 tonnes of clay were transported to the site from higher ground around 1 kilometre away, there were gaps in the palisade and is believed by Minnitt and Coles to have been used to stabilise the clay floors rather than for defensive purposes. At its maximum occupation the village may have had 15 houses in use with a population of up to 200 people, two distinct phases of occupation have been identified. Early houses were timber framed square or rectangular and built of oak, some of the clay spreads were used for barns or animal enclosures rather than houses. The Brue was an important water-borne trade route from central Somerset to the Severn Estuary, despite the wet surroundings vegetable and small domesticated and wild mammals, including beaver and otter, made up more of the diet that fish. The remains of wheat, barley and beans have also been recovered, the lake village, a crannog or man made island, was discovered in 1892 by local medical student Arthur Bulleid, whose father was a local mayor and the founder of the Glastonbury Antiquarian Society. Bulleid had heard about the villages in Switzerland and believed similar sites could be found in his native Somerset. The excavation of the began in 1892 and continued over the next 15 years, uncovering the extent of the settlement. From 1892 until 1899 Bullied worked with labourers for six months of each year and he then left the site to complete his medical studies and returned in 1904 with Harold St George Gray to continue the excavation until 1907. The curator of the Taunton museum of the Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society and they found remains of the village. It consisted of a series of 89 mounds from 1.2 metres to 4.3 metres in diameter, made up of clay laid over the boggy ground, the whole site was surrounded by a wooden palisade made from Alder. Each of the finds from large timber to small fragments of pottery were drawn, in 1909 the site was visited by George V while he was the Prince of Wales, along with his wife
4. Glastonbury Tor – Glastonbury Tor is a hill near Glastonbury in the English county of Somerset, topped by the roofless St Michaels Tower, a Grade I listed building. The whole site is managed by the National Trust, and has designated a scheduled monument. The conical hill of clay and Blue Lias rises from the Somerset Levels and it was formed when surrounding softer deposits were eroded, leaving the hard cap of sandstone exposed. The slopes of the hill are terraced, but the method by which they were formed remains unexplained, artefacts from human visitation have been found, dating from the Iron Age to Roman eras. Several buildings were constructed on the summit during the Saxon and early periods, they have been interpreted as an early church. The head of a cross dating from the 10th or 11th century has been recovered. The original wooden church was destroyed by an earthquake in 1275, and its tower remains, although it has been restored and partially rebuilt several times. Archaeological excavations during the 20th century sought to clarify the background of the monument and church, the Tor is mentioned in Celtic mythology, particularly in myths linked to King Arthur, and has a number of other enduring mythological and spiritual associations. The origin of the name Glastonbury is unclear, but when the settlement was first recorded in the late 7th, of the latter name, Glestinga is obscure, and may derive from an Old English word or Celtic personal name. It may derive from a person or kindred group named Glast, the second half of the name, -burg, is Anglo-Saxon in origin and could refer to either a fortified place such as a burh or, more likely, a monastic enclosure. Tor is an English word referring to a rock or a hill. The Celtic name of the Tor was Ynys Wydryn, or sometimes Ynys Gutrin, at this time the plain was flooded, the isle becoming a peninsula at low tide. The Tor is in the middle of the Summerland Meadows, part of the Somerset Levels, the plain is reclaimed fen above which the Tor is clearly visible for miles around. It has been described as an island but actually sits at the end of a peninsula washed on three sides by the River Brue. The Tor is formed from rocks dating from the early Jurassic Period, the uppermost of these, forming the Tor itself, are a succession of rocks assigned to the Bridport Sand Formation. These rocks sit upon strata forming the hill on which the Tor stands, the various layers of the Beacon Limestone Formation. The Bridport Sands have acted as a caprock protecting the lower layers from erosion, the low-lying damp ground can produce a visual effect known as a Fata Morgana when the Tor appears to rise out of the mist. This optical phenomenon occurs because rays of light are bent when they pass through air layers of different temperatures in a steep thermal inversion where an atmospheric duct has formed
5. Scheduled monuments in Mendip – Mendip is a local government district of Somerset in England. The Mendip district covers a rural area of 285 square miles ranging from the Mendip Hills through on to the Somerset Levels. It has a population of approximately 110,000, the administrative centre of the district is Shepton Mallet but the largest town is Frome. The legislation governing this is the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979, the term monument can apply to the whole range of archaeological sites, and they are not always visible above ground. Such sites have to have deliberately constructed by human activity. There are 234 scheduled monuments in Mendip and these include a large number of bowl and round barrows and other neolithic, Bronze and Iron Age tumuli such as the Priddy Circles and Priddy Nine Barrows and Ashen Hill Barrow Cemeteries. There are also several Iron Age hill forts on the tops and lake villages on the lowlands such as Meare. The lake villages were connected by timber trackways such as the Sweet Track. There are several Roman sites particularly around the Charterhouse Roman Town, some later coal mining sites are also included in the list. Two major religious sites in Mendip at Glastonbury Abbey and Wells Cathedral and their precincts and dispersed residences, tithe barns, prehistoric defensive features such as Ponters Ball Dyke were supplemented in the medieval period by motte-and-bailey castles such as Farleigh Hungerford, Nunney and Fenny Castle. Commercial and industrial development is represented by the Old Iron Works at Mells, the most recent site on the list is a World War II bombing decoy complex and anti-aircraft obstructions, which were built in 1940, on Black Down, the highest point of the Mendip Hills. The monuments are listed using the titles given in the Historic England data sheets. Scheduled Monuments in Somerset Grade I listed buildings in Mendip Grade II* listed buildings in Mendip
6. Somerset Rural Life Museum – The Somerset Rural Life Museum is situated in Glastonbury, Somerset, UK. It is a museum of the social and agricultural history of Somerset and it was used as a Tithe barn for the storage of arable produce, particularly wheat and rye, from the abbeys home farm of approximately 524 acres. Threshing and winnowing would also have carried out in the barn. The barn which was built from local limestone, with thick timbers supporting the stone tiling of the roof. It has been designated by English Heritage as a grade I listed building, in 2011 the 14 feet high doors of the barn were replaced by local craftsmen using materials and traditional techniques and materials to a design based on The Bishops Eye in Wells. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539 the barn was given to the Duke of Somerset, by the early 20th century it was being used as a farm store by the Mapstone family. In 1974 they donated it to Somerset County Council and between 1976 and 1978 underwent restoration and it was also used as the location for the pistol duel in Stanley Kubricks Barry Lyndon, released in 1975. The barn and courtyard contain displays of machinery from the Victorian or early 20th Century period. Other exhibits show local crafts, including coppicing, mud horse fishing on the flats of Bridgwater Bay, peat digging on the Somerset Levels, and the production of milk, cheese. In reconstructed rooms detailing domestic life in the village of Butleigh. Outside, there is a beehive and rare breeds of poultry and sheep, regular craft demonstrations and talks on farming are held, as are activities for children and families. There is a shop, tea room, car park and disabled access, the shop is run by the Friends of the Somerset Rural Life Museum. Admission to the museum is free, Somerset Rural Life Museum Friends of the Somerset Rural Life Museum
7. Nunney Castle – Nunney Castle is a medieval castle at Nunney in the English county of Somerset. Remodelled during the late 16th century, Nunney Castle was damaged during the English Civil War and is now ruined, English Heritage maintains the site as a tourist attraction. The architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner has described Nunney as aesthetically the most impressive castle in Somerset, Nunney Castle was built near the village of Nunney in Somerset by Sir John Delamare. Delamare had been a soldier during the Hundred Years War with France and he obtained a licence to crenellate from Edward III to build a castle on the site of his existing, unfortified manor house in 1373 and set about developing a new, substantial fortification. The resulting castle centred on a stone tower-keep, measuring 60 feet by 24 feet internally and 54 feet tall, the tower-keep had eight-foot thick walls made from Lias Oolite ashlar stone and was designed around three floors. The corner towers had conical roofs and prominent machicolations, the ground floor of the tower-house included the kitchen and other service areas. The third floor was used as living accommodation for the owning family, the original design had a number of windows and fireplaces on the upper floors, but the hall would have been relatively dark and the stairs were inconveniently narrow. The tower-keep had a modest entrance, which was reached by a draw-bridge that lay across the surrounding moat, which initially reached right up to the base of the castle. A simple, 12-foot high bailey wall, with minimal value, surrounded the moat, which was in contrast wide, 10-foot deep. On the east side of the castle Nunney Brook was used as a line of defence rather than a bailey wall, Nunney closely resembles the Bastille in Paris, for example, and the machicolations are typical of those found in French castles. Nunney was considered a conservative, even slightly backward design and probably built to protect against French invasion, historians such as Robert Liddiard and Matthew Johnson are now less certain. Nunney is regarded as a bold, striking design, similar in ways to those at Herstmonceux or Saltwood Castle. Nunney Castle was inherited by Johns son, Philip Delamere, and grandson, Elias, before passing by marriage into the Poulet family following Elias probable death during Henry Vs campaigns in France. Sir John Poulet and his son John, and grandson, also called John, held the castle during most of the 15th century, Nunney Castle continued to be owned by the Roman Catholic Prater family into the 17th century. In 1642 the English Civil War broke out between the factions of Parliament and the king, like many Catholics, Colonel Richard Prater supported Charles I. In September 1645 a Parliamentary army under the command of Lord Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell advanced into Somerset, taking Sherborne, Cary and Shepton Mallet before turning to Nunney. Richard continued to resist, hoisting a flag with a Catholic crucifix on it above the castle to taunt the besiegers, but two days later the garrison surrendered. Due to the damage caused by the cannon, the castle escaped the slighting, or deliberate damaging, the castle declined and was sold by the Praters to William Whitchurch around 1700
8. The Abbot's Fish House, Meare – The Abbots Fish House in Meare, Somerset, England, was built in the 14th century and has been designated as a Grade I listed building and Scheduled Ancient Monument. It is the surviving monastic fishery building in England. Fishing was an important source of food for the monks of Glastonbury Abbey, fishing was carried out in artificial ponds, which were mentioned at Meare in the Domesday Book and from the River Brue and Meare Pool. The present rectangular stone building was constructed by the abbot between 1322 and 1335 for the storage and processing of the fish and as a residence for the chief fisherman. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries the building fell into disrepair, some restoration has been undertaken during the 20th century, including the replacement of the roof in the 1920s. The fish ponds surrounding the Fish House were recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 when they were tended by ten fishermen, the fishponds, which were connected with drains and gullies were up to 30 metres long and 5 metres wide. These were connected to the Meare Pool and the River Brue, at one point 5,000 eels were caught each year. Pike, Bream and white fish were also caught and its precise boundaries varied according to season, and, over the longer term, as efforts were made to drain the area. The south end was bordered by the ground that the village of Meare is built upon. The pond would have extended no further west than the current Westhay to Wedmore road, to the north lies the Godney ridge. The eastern extent is harder to determine, and it may have gone as far as the site of the Glastonbury Lake Village, the importance of this industry is illustrated by a series of acrimonious disputes between Glastonbury and the Dean and Chapter of Wells Cathedral. The Abbey required fish on Fridays, fast days and during Lent, drainage of the surrounding area by monks of Glastonbury Abbey had reduced the size of the lake to 500 acres at the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Meare Pool had disappeared from maps by 1749 and it may have replaced a previous abbey building. The upper floor was the abode of the fisherman when he visited intermittently and the ground floor was used for storing nets. Some alterations were made, probably in the 15th century, Meare Pool was drained after the Dissolution of the Monasteries and the fish house fell into disrepair. It suffered a fire in the 1880s, which destroyed the roof, a piece of timber from the building was subject to dendrochronology testing in an attempt to provide a more specific date for the buildings construction, but the results proved inconclusive. In 1910 the building was inspected by Charles Reed Peers under the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1900, the fish house is now in the care of English Heritage. The rectangular Blue Lias stone building has a tiled roof
9. Charterhouse Roman Town – Charterhouse Roman Town was a town in the Roman province of Britannia. Its site is located just to the west of the village of Charterhouse-on-Mendip in the English county of Somerset and its Latin name may have been Iscalis, but this is far from certain. Based on inscriptions on a pig of Roman lead BRIT, VEB, meaning British from the VEB. lead-silver works, the Roman name has been reconstructed as Vebriacum. It is associated with the Iron Age hill fort, Charterhouse Camp, the Roman landscape has been designated as a Scheduled Ancient Monument. The settlement grew up around the edge of prehistoric lead and silver mines. Mendip lead ore had up to 0. 4% silver content, after a short time, the extraction of these metals was contracted out to civilian companies, probably because of low silver content. Smelting was undertaken on site where industrial workshops have been excavated, and the metal exported along a road to the Fosse Way. An amphitheatre stood west of the settlement and it is the only one in England to exist at a lead mine and is additional evidence of the importance of Mendip lead to the Romans. It measures 32m x 24. 4m and the banks for the seating survive 4. 5m above the arena and it was probably a place of entertainment for the soldiers at the Roman fort which was established here. Roman engineering Roman mining Roman technology
10. Charterhouse, Somerset – Charterhouse, also known as Charterhouse-on-Mendip, is a hamlet in the Mendip Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty in the English county of Somerset. The area between Charterhouse and Cheddar Gorge including Velvet Bottom and Ubley Warren is covered by the Cheddar Complex Site of Special Scientific Interest. The name is believed to come from the Carthusian order of Chartreuse in France, there is evidence, in the form of burials in local caves, of human occupation since the late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age. The lead and silver mines at Charterhouse, were first operated on a large scale by the Romans, there was also some kind of fortlet here in the 1st century, and an amphitheatre. The Roman landscape has been designated as a Scheduled Ancient Monument, the parish was part of the Winterstoke Hundred. After the dissolution of the monasteries, it was granted to Robert May who constructed a house here. There is further evidence of mine workings in the medieval and Victorian periods, there is also evidence of a rectangular medieval enclosure. The outdoor activity centre and headquarters of the Mendip Hills AONB is based at Charterhouse, with accommodation, classrooms, there are several caves in the limestone around the village including Manor Farm Swallet and Upper Flood Swallet. The Church Of St Hugh was built in 1908 by W. D. Caroe, on the initiative of the Rev. Menzies Lambrick and it is a Grade II* listed building. A cross in the churchyard and the wall are also listed buildings. The roof-truss, screen, rood, and altar are all made of carved whitened oak, aerial photograph of Roman fort Charterhouse Centre Map of Charterhouse circa 1900
11. Hales Castle – Hales Castle was a medieval castle that once stood overlooking the town of Frome in the Mendip district of Somerset, England. It has been scheduled as an ancient monument, hales Castle was built, probably in the years immediately after the Norman conquest of England in 1066, overlooking the town of Frome in the Mendip district of Somerset, England. The circular ringwork is 120 feet in diameter and stands on the slope of Roddenbury Hill. It comprises banks and outer ditches and has an unfinished bailey and it covers an area of 0.11 hectares and the bank is between 0.3 metres and 1.2 metres high. There may have been a drawbridge at the entrance, Castles in Great Britain and Ireland List of castles in England Prior, Stuart. The Norman Art of War, a Few Well-Positioned Castles
12. Maesbury Castle – Maesbury Castle is an Iron Age hill fort within the parish of Croscombe on the Mendip Hills, just north of Shepton Mallet, Somerset, England. It has been listed as Scheduled Ancient Monument, the name is derived from maes, meaning field or plain in Brythonic Welsh, and burh, meaning fort in Old English. There is also a record of the name Merksburi in 705 AD, the area was a boundary between the Romano-British Celts and West Saxons during the period 577-652 AD, when the nearby Wansdyke fortification comprised part of the border. The enclosure has an area of 2.5 hectares, and lies at a height of 292 m and this includes the Somerset Levels to Glastonbury Tor and Brent Knoll which are the closest and probably the most easily identifiable landmarks from the site. The fort has a single rampart up to 6 m high, entrances are to the south-east and north-east. The Fort and surrounding grounds are now owned by the Stevens Family who have been farming in Somerset for over 60 years, hill forts developed in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age, roughly the start of the first millennium BC. The reason for their emergence in Britain, and their purpose, has been a subject of debate, the dominant view since the 1960s has been that the increasing use of iron led to social changes in Britain. Power passed into the hands of a new group of people, but I wouldnt see them as having been built because there was a state of war. The site rises to 292 metres above sea level and enables a view over the surrounding valleys, the hill has not eroded as fast as the surrounding limestone as it is made of Old Red Sandstone deposited in the Devonian period approximately 400 million years ago. Maes Knoll,20 km to the north