Pages in category "Scottish atheists"
The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Scotland – Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles, the legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
2. David Hume – David Hume was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of radical philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism. Humes empiricist approach to philosophy places him with John Locke, Francis Bacon, beginning with his A Treatise of Human Nature, Hume strove to create a total naturalistic science of man that examined the psychological basis of human nature. Humes compatibilist theory of free will takes causal determinism as fully compatible with human freedom, Kant himself credited Hume as the spur to his philosophical thought who had awakened him from his dogmatic slumbers. Arthur Schopenhauer once declared there is more to be learned from each page of David Hume than from the collected philosophical works of Hegel, Herbart. Hume is thus regarded as a pivotal figure in the history of philosophical thought. David Hume was the second of two born to Joseph Home of Ninewells, an advocate, and his wife The Hon. Katherine. He was born on 26 April 1711 in a tenement on the side of the Lawnmarket in Edinburgh. Humes father died when Hume was a child, just after his birthday, and he was raised by his mother. He changed the spelling of his name in 1734, because of the fact that his surname Home, throughout his life Hume, who never married, spent time occasionally at his family home at Ninewells in Berwickshire, which had belonged to his family since the sixteenth century. His finances as a man were very slender. His family was not rich and, as a younger son and he was therefore forced to make a living somehow. Hume attended the University of Edinburgh at the early age of twelve at a time when fourteen was normal. He had little respect for the professors of his time, telling a friend in 1735 that there is nothing to be learnt from a Professor, which is not to be met with in Books. Aged around 18, he made a discovery that opened up to him a new Scene of Thought. He did not recount what this scene was, and commentators have offered a variety of speculations, due to this inspiration, Hume set out to spend a minimum of ten years reading and writing. He soon came to the verge of a breakdown, suffering from what a doctor diagnosed as the Disease of the Learned. Hume wrote that it started with a coldness, which he attributed to a Laziness of Temper, later, some scurvy spots broke out on his fingers. This was what persuaded Humes physician to make his diagnosis, Hume wrote that he went under a Course of Bitters and Anti-Hysteric Pills, taken along with a pint of claret every day
3. John Leslie (physicist) – Sir John Leslie, FRSE KH was a Scottish mathematician and physicist best remembered for his research into heat. Leslie gave the first modern account of action in 1802 and froze water using an air-pump in 1810. In 1804, he experimented with radiant heat using a vessel filled with boiling water. One side of the cube is composed of polished metal. He showed that radiation was greatest from the side and negligible from the polished side. The apparatus is known as a Leslie cube, Leslie was born the son of Robert Leslie, a joiner and cabinetmaker, and his wife Anne Carstairs, in Largo in Fife. He received his education there and at Leven. In his thirteenth year, encouraged by friends who had even then remarked his aptitude for mathematical and physical science, on the completion of his course in 1784, he nominally studied Divinity at Edinburgh University but gained no further degrees. In 1805 he was elected to succeed John Playfair in the chair of mathematics at Edinburgh and this despite violent opposition on the part of a party who accused him of heresy. In 1807 he became a member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and his proposers were John Playfair, Thomas Charles Hope and George Dunbar. When John Playfair died in 1819, Leslie was promoted to the more congenial chair of natural philosophy and he published a famous book about multiplication table The Philosophy of Arithmetic in 1820. In 1823 he published, chiefly for the use of his class, leslies main contributions to physics were made by the help of the differential thermometer, an instrument whose invention was contested with him by Count Rumford. In 1820 he was elected a member of the Institute of France, the only distinction of the kind which he valued. In his final years he is listed as living at 62 Queen Street, Leslie died of typhus in November 1832 at Coates, a small property he had acquired near Largo in Fife, at the age of 66. John Leslie did not marry and had no children and his nephew was the civil engineer, James Leslie, son of his brother, Alexander Leslie, an architect-builder in Largo. His great nephew was Alexander Leslie, Second edition Geometrical Analysis and Geometry of Curve Lines being Volume the Second of A Course of Mathematics and designed as an Introduction to the Study of Natural Philosophy E. M. Horsburgh. The Works of Sir John Leslie, mathematical Notes,28, pp i-v. doi,10. 1017/S1757748900002279. Atmometer Timeline of low-temperature technology Olson, Richard G, Sir John Leslie and the Laws of Electrical Conduction in Solids
4. Shirley Manson – Shirley Ann Manson is a Scottish singer, songwriter, musician and actress from Edinburgh, Scotland. She is the singer of the alternative rock band Garbage. For much of her international career Manson commuted between her home city of Edinburgh and the United States to record with Garbage, she now lives, Manson gained media attention for her forthright style, rebellious attitude, and distinctive voice. Mansons musical career began in her teens when she was approached to perform backing vocals, quickly she developed into a prominent member of the group and developed a formidable stage presence. Manson was approached by her bands record label with the idea of launching her as a solo artist, Garbage toured worldwide and sold 12 million records over ten years. Shirley Ann Manson was born to John Mitchell and Muriel Flora Manson in Edinburgh, Shirley was named after an aunt who was herself named after Charlotte Brontës novel Shirley. She was born two years between both older sister Lindy-Jayne and younger sister Sarah, and was brought up in the Comely Bank. She attended Broughton High School, Edinburgh, Mansons childhood education was informed by the Church of Scotland, until the age of 12, when she rebelled against organized religion. Mansons first public performance was in 1970, at age four, with her older sister, enrolled at Flora Stevenson Primary School, Manson received instruction in recorder, clarinet and fiddle, and learned ballet and piano from extramural classes at age seven. Manson was a member of Girlguiding UK throughout this period of her youth as a Brownie and a Guide, Manson attended the City of Edinburgh Music School, Manson had teenage ambitions to become an actress, but was rejected by the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama. Manson was eventually moved into stockrooms because of her attitude toward customers, Manson became well known throughout Edinburghs clubbing scene, and making use of free samples from Miss Selfridge, styled hair for a number of local bands. Manson also briefly modelled clothing for Jackie magazine, Mansons first musical experiences came from briefly singing with local Edinburgh acts The Wild Indians and performed backing vocals with Autumn 1984. While she was acting in her group, Manson was approached by Goodbye Mr. Mackenzies lead Martin Metcalfe to join his band, Mansons first release with the Mackenzies was a YTS release of Death of a Salesman in 1984. The group signed a major record deal with Capitol Records in 1987, and they released their first album Good Deeds and Dirty Rags. In 1990, the contract was transferred to Parlophone, another EMI label. Gary Kurfirst, who managed Talking Heads and Deborah Harry, bought the Mackenzies contract and issued their second album through his own label Radioactive, after another single failed to chart, the group were persuaded to leave Radioactive by their management. The Mackenzies continued to write material, Manson was also given the opportunity to lead vocals on a number of tracks planned for the bands third album. Although MCA had no desire to further their commitments to Goodbye Mr. Mansons contract obligated her to deliver at least one album and, at the option of Radioactive
5. Sylvester McCoy – He was born Percy James Patrick Kent-Smith in Dunoon, on the Cowal peninsula, to an Irish mother and English father, killed in action in World War II a couple of months before his son was born. His maternal grandmother was from Portadown, Northern Ireland and he was raised religious, but is now an atheist. He was raised primarily in Dunoon where he attended St. Muns School and he then studied for the priesthood at Blairs College, a seminary in Aberdeen between the ages of 12 and 16, but he gave this up and continued his education at Dunoon Grammar School. After he left school he moved to London where he worked in the industry for 5 years. He worked in The Roundhouse box office for a time, where he was discovered by Ken Campbell and he came to prominence as a member of the experimental theatre troupe The Ken Campbell Roadshow. Some years later, McCoy added an r to the end of Sylveste, notable television appearances before he gained the role of the Doctor included roles in Vision On, an O-Man in Jigsaw and Tiswas. He also appeared in Eureka, often suffering from the inventions of Wilf Lunn and as Wart, McCoy also portrayed, in one-man shows on the stage, two famous movie comedians, Stan Laurel and Buster Keaton. He also appeared as Henry Birdie Bowers in the 1985 television serial about Scotts last Antarctic expedition, McCoy also had a small role in the 1979 film Dracula opposite Laurence Olivier and Donald Pleasence, and has sung with the Welsh National Opera. McCoy became the Seventh Doctor after taking over the role in Doctor Who in 1987 from Colin Baker. He remained on the series until it ended in 1989, ending with Survival, as Baker declined the invitation to film the regeneration scene, McCoy briefly wore a wig and appeared, face-down, as the 6th Doctor. He played the Doctor in the 1993 charity special Dimensions in Time, the Seventh Doctor developed into a much darker figure than any of his earlier incarnations, manipulating people like chess pieces and always seeming to be playing a deeper game. A distinguishing feature of McCoys performances was his manner of speech and he used his natural slight Scottish accent and rolled his rs. At the start of his tenure he used proverbs and sayings adapted to his own ends, in 1990, readers of Doctor Who Magazine voted McCoys Doctor Best Doctor, over perennial favourite Tom Baker. In November 2013 McCoy co-starred in the one-off 50th anniversary comedy homage The Five Doctors Reboot, McCoys television roles since Doctor Who have included Michael Sams in the 1997 drama Beyond Fear, shown on the first night of broadcast of Five. He has also returned to play the Seventh Doctor in a series of plays by Big Finish Productions. He has also acted extensively in theatre in productions as diverse as pantomime and he played Grandpa Jock in John McGraths A Satire of the Four Estaites at the Edinburgh Festival. He played the role of Snuff in the macabre BBC Radio 4 comedy series The Cabaret of Dr Caligari, McCoy was the second choice to play the role of Bilbo Baggins in the Peter Jackson The Lord of the Rings film trilogy. In 1991, he presented the Doctor Who video documentary release The Hartnell Years showcasing selected episodes of missing stories from the First Doctors era and he also appeared as the lawyer Dowling in a BBC Production of Henry Fieldings novel, The History of Tom Jones, A Foundling
6. John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry – John Douglas was born in Florence, Italy, the eldest son of Conservative politician Archibald Viscount Drumlanrig and Caroline Margaret Clayton. He had three brothers, Francis, Archibald, and James, and two sisters, Gertrude and Florence and he was briefly styled Viscount Drumlanrig following his fathers succession in 1856, and on the latters death in 1858 he inherited the Marquessate of Queensberry. The 9th Marquess was educated in the training ships Illustrious and Britannia at Portsmouth and he was Lieutenant-Colonel commanding the 1st Dumfriesshire Rifle Volunteers from 1869 to 1871. In 1864 Queensberry entered Magdalene College, Cambridge, which he left two years later taking a degree. He was more distinguished in sport, playing cricket as well as running, hunting. He married Sibyl Montgomery in 1866 and they had four sons and a daughter, his wife successfully sued for divorce in 1887 on the grounds of his adultery. She survived him to the age of 90, dying in 1935, Queensberry married Ethel Weeden in 1893 but the marriage was annulled the following year. Queensberry sold the family seat of Kinmount in Dumfriesshire, Scotland and he wrote a poem starting with the words When I am dead cremate me. After cremation at Woking Crematorium, his ashes were buried at Kinmount in the Douglas Mausoleum outside Cummertrees Parish Church. His eldest son and heir apparent was Francis Viscount Drumlanrig, who was rumoured to have engaged in a homosexual relationship with the Liberal Prime Minister. He died unmarried and without issue, Douglas second son, Lord Percy Douglas, succeeded to the peerage instead. Lord Alfred Bosie Douglas, the son, was the close friend and lover of the famous author. Queensberrys efforts to end that led to his famous dispute with Wilde. Queensberry was a patron of sport and a boxing enthusiast. The following year the Club published a set of rules for conducting boxing matches. The rules had been drawn up by John Graham Chambers but appeared under Queensberrys sponsorship and are known as the Queensberry rules. A keen rider, Queensberry was also active in fox hunting, as a rider his first winner was in the Dumfriesshire Hunt Club chase in 1865, and his last was at Sandown Park in 1883. He was Master of the Worcester Fox Hounds in 1870 and he was on the committee of the National Hunt but never won a Grand National as a rider, a last-minute substitution on the victorious Old Joe keeping him out of the 1886 National
7. J. M. Robertson – John Mackinnon Robertson PC was a prolific journalist, advocate of rationalism and secularism, and Liberal Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom for Tyneside from 1906 to 1918. Robertson was born in Brodick on the Isle of Arran, his father moved the family to Stirling while he was still young and he worked first as a clerk and then as a journalist, eventually becoming assistant editor of the Edinburgh Evening News. He wrote in February 1906 to a friend that he gave up the divine when he was a teenager and his first contact with the freethought movement was a lecture by Charles Bradlaugh in Edinburgh in 1878. Robertson became active in the Edinburgh Secular Society, soon after and it was through the Edinburgh Secular Society that he met William Archer and became writer for the Edinburgh Evening News. He eventually moved to London to become assistant editor of Bradlaughs paper National Reformer, the National Reformer finally closed in 1893. Robertson was also a lecturer for the freethinking South Place Ethical Society from 1899 until the 1920s. Robertson was a free trader and his Trade and Tariffs became a bible for free-traders pursuing the case for cheap food. In 1915 he was appointed to the Privy Council, at the United Kingdom general election,1918, as a Liberal candidate he contested Wallsend, a constituency based largely on his Tyneside seat, but finished third. He contested the United Kingdom general election,1923 as Liberal candidate for Hendon without success, Robertson died in London in 1933. Robertson was an advocate of the Christ myth theory, and in books he argued against the historicity of Jesus. According to Robertson, the character of Jesus in the New Testament developed from a Jewish cult of Joshua, whom he identifies as a solar deity. Oxford theologian and orientalist Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare wrote a book titled, The Historical Christ, or, An investigation of the views of Mr. J. M. Robertson, Dr. A. Drews, smith, directed against the Christ myth theory defended by the three authors. A Short History of Freethought Ancient and Modern, History of Freethought in the Nineteenth Century, John Mackinnon Robertson. Pagan Christs - Studies in Comparative Hierology, Works written by or about J. M. Robertson at Wikisource Works by J. M. Robertson at Project Gutenberg Works by or about J. M. Robertson at Internet Archive
8. Billy Connolly – William Billy Connolly, CBE is a Scottish comedian, musician, presenter and actor. He is sometimes known, especially in his native Scotland, by the nickname The Big Yin, in the early 1970s, he made the transition from folk- singer with a comedic persona to fully fledged comedian. Best known to many as a comedian, he appears in several lists of the greatest comedians ever. Connollys paternal grandfather, whom, like his grandmother, he never met, was an Irish immigrant who left Ireland when he was ten years old. His great-great-great and great-great grandfathers were from Connemara, Connollys mothers family came from the west coast of Scotland. His maternal grandparents moved inland to Finnieston Street, Glasgow, in the early 1900s and his maternal great-great-great-grandfather, John OBrien, fought at the Siege of Lucknow during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. He was wounded during the siege by a severe gunshot to the left shoulder. He married a local 13-year-old Indian girl called Matilda and they had four children and settled in Bangalore after his military service. Connolly was born at 69 Dover Street, on the linoleum, three floors up at six oclock in the evening, in Anderston, Glasgow, to William and this section of Dover Street, between Breadalbane and Claremont Streets, was demolished in the 1970s. Connolly refers to this in his 1983 song I Wish I Was in Glasgow with the lines I would take you there and show you but theyve pulled the building down and They bulldozed it all to make a road. The flat had only two rooms, a room, with a recess where the children slept, and another room for their parents. The family bathed in the sink, and there was no hot water. In 1946, when he was four years old, Connollys mother abandoned her children while their father was serving as an engineer in the Royal Air Force in Burma. Ive never felt abandoned by her, Connolly explained in 2009 and my father was in Burma, fighting a bloody war. The Germans were dropping all kinds of crap on the town and we lived at the docks, so thats where all the bombs were happening. She was a teenager, with two kids, in a slum, a guy comes along and says, I love you. Given the choice, I think Id have gone with him and it looks as though it might all end next Wednesday, from where youre standing. I dont have an ounce of feelings that she abandoned me, Connolly and his older sister, Florence, were cared for by two aunts, Margaret and Mona Connolly, his fathers sisters, in their cramped tenement in Stewartville Street, Partick
9. James Mill – James Mill was a British historian, economist, political theorist, and philosopher. He is counted among the founders of Ricardian school and was the father of John Stuart Mill and his influential History of British India contains a complete denunciation and rejection of Indian culture and civilisation. He divided Indian history into three parts, Hindu, Muslim and British, James Milne, later known as James Mill, was born at Northwater Bridge, in the parish of Logie Pert, Angus, Scotland, the son of James Milne, a shoemaker and small farmer. He then entered the University of Edinburgh, where he distinguished himself as a Greek scholar, in October 1798, he was ordained as a minister of the Church of Scotland, but met with little success. From 1790 to 1802, in addition to holding various tutorships, from 1803 to 1806, he was editor of an ambitious periodical called the Literary Journal, which professed to give a summary view of all the leading departments of human knowledge. During this time he edited the St Jamess Chronicle, belonging to the same proprietor. In 1804, he wrote a pamphlet on the corn trade, in 1805, he published a translation of An Essay on the Spirit and Influence of the Reformation of Luther, a C. F. Villerss work on the Reformation, an attack on the vices of the papal system. About the end of year he began his The History of British India. In that year he also married Harriet Burrow, whose mother and he then took a house in Pentonville, where his eldest son, John Stuart Mill, was born in 1806. In 1808, he acquainted with Jeremy Bentham, and was for many years his chief companion. He adopted Benthams principles in their entirety, and determined to devote all his energies to bringing them before the world, between 1806 and 1818, he wrote for the Anti-Jacobin Review, the British Review and The Eclectic Review, but there is no means of tracing his contributions. In 1808, he began to write for the Edinburgh Review, to which he contributed steadily till 1813, his first known article being Money and he also wrote on Spanish America, China, Francisco de Miranda, the East India Company, and the Liberty of the Press. In the Annual Review for 1808 two articles of his are traced—a Review of Foxs History, and an article on Benthams Law Reforms, in 1811 he co-operated with William Allen, a Quaker and chemist, in a periodical called the Philanthropist. He contributed largely to every issue – his principal topics being Education, Freedom of the Press, and Prison Discipline. He made powerful onslaughts on the Church in connection with the Bell and Lancaster controversy, in 1818, The History of British India was published, and obtained a great and immediate success. It brought about a change in the authors fortunes, the year following he was appointed an official in the India House, in the important department of the examiner of Indian correspondence. He gradually rose in rank until he was appointed, in 1830, head of the office, with a salary of £1900 and his great work, the Elements of Political Economy, appeared in 1821
10. Robin Cook – He studied at the University of Edinburgh before becoming a Member of Parliament for Edinburgh Central in 1974. In parliament he was known for his ability and rapidly rose through the political ranks. He resigned from his positions as Lord President of the Council, Robin Cook was born in the County Hospital, Bellshill, Scotland, the only son of Peter and Christina Cook. His father was a teacher who grew up in Fraserburgh. Cook was educated at Aberdeen Grammar School and, from 1960, at first, Cook intended to become a Church of Scotland minister, but lost his faith as he discovered politics. He joined the Labour Party in 1965 and became an atheist and he remained so for the rest of his life. He then studied English Literature at the University of Edinburgh, where he obtained an undergraduate MA with Honours in English Literature and he began studying for a PhD on Charles Dickens and Victorian serial novels, supervised by John Sutherland, but gave it up in 1970. In 1971, after a working as a secondary school teacher, Cook became a tutor-organiser of the Workers Educational Association for Lothian. He gave up both posts when elected a member of parliament on his 28th birthday, in February 1974, when the constituency boundaries were revised for the 1983 general election, he transferred to the new Livingston constituency after Tony Benn declined to run for the seat. Cook represented Livingston until his death, in parliament, Cook joined the left-wing Tribune Group of the Parliamentary Labour Party and frequently opposed the policies of the Wilson and Callaghan governments. He was a supporter of constitutional and electoral reform and of efforts to increase the number of female MPs. He also supported unilateral nuclear disarmament and the abandoning of the Labour Partys euroscepticism of the 1970s and 1980s, during his early years in parliament Cook championed several liberalising social measures, to mixed effect. After Labour lost power in May 1979, Cook encouraged Michael Foots bid to become party leader, when Tony Benn challenged Denis Healey for the partys deputy leadership in September 1981, Cook supported Healey. He was campaign manager for Neil Kinnocks successful 1983 bid to become leader of the Labour Party, a year later he was made party campaign co-ordinator but in October 1986 Cook was surprisingly voted out of the shadow cabinet. He was re-elected in July 1987 and in October 1988 elected to Labours National Executive Committee and he was one of the key figures in the modernisation of the Labour Party under Kinnock. He was Shadow Health Secretary and Shadow Trade Secretary, before taking on foreign affairs in 1994, the government won the vote by a majority of one. This led to legislation for major reforms including Scottish and Welsh devolution, other measures have not been enacted so far, such as further House of Lords reform. On 5 May 2011 the United Kingdom held a referendum on replacing the first-past-the-post voting system with the Alternative Vote method, on 6 May it was announced that the proposed move to the AV voting system had been rejected by a margin of 67. 9% to 32. 1%
11. John Anderson (philosopher) – John Anderson was a Scottish-Australian philosopher who occupied the post of Challis Professor of Philosophy at Sydney University from 1927 to 1958. He founded the brand of philosophy known as Australian realism. Andersons promotion of free thought in all subjects, including politics and morality, was controversial, to Anderson, an acceptable philosophy must have significant sweep and be capable of challenging and moulding ideas in every aspect of intellect and society. Anderson was listed among former pupils of Hamilton Academy in a 1950 magazine article on the school. His elder brother was William Anderson, Professor of Philosophy at Auckland University College,1921 to his death in 1955, Anderson graduated MA from Glasgow University in 1917, with first-class honours in Philosophy, and first-class honours in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. He then became aligned with the Trotskyist movement for a period of time, but e could not put up any longer with dialectical materialism or with the servile state which he saw was being imposed by the doctrine of the dictatorship of the proletariat. Anderson later abandoned authoritarian forms of socialism and became what would today be called a libertarian and pluralist—an opponent of all forms of authoritarianism, sometimes he described himself as an anarchist but, after the 1930s, he gave up his earlier political utopianism. As Sydney Universitys Challis Professor of Philosophy, Anderson was a champion of the principle of academic freedom from authoritarian intervention. For example, he fought a battle to end the role of the British Medical Association in setting course standards. He also railed against the presence on campus of a military unit—the Sydney University Regiment—and lived to see the day in 1960 when the regiments campus HQ was destroyed by fire. Anderson was censured by the Sydney University Senate in 1931 after criticising the role of war memorials in sanctifying war, in 1943 he was censured by the Parliament of New South Wales after arguing that religion has no place in schools. He founded the Sydney University Free Thought Society which ran from 1931 to 1951 and he was president of the society throughout that period. This purpose was not achieved, as Anderson continued to lecture on ethics and politics, Stout was a steady admirer and supporter of the Challis Professor and declined to undercut his prestige in any way. On Andersons retirement, the two departments were merged under Stout as the Professor of Philosophy, as a committed empiricist, Anderson argued that there is only one realm of being and it can be best understood through science and naturalistic philosophy. He asserted that there is no supernatural god and that there are no non-natural realms along the lines of Platonic ideals and he rejected all notions that knowledge could be obtained by means other than descriptions of facts and any belief that revelation or mysticism could be sources for obtaining truth. He was arguing that traditional Christian concepts of good and evil were meant for slaves and that, in actuality. Not surprisingly, Andersons influence was extensive and controversial as he constantly examined and fearlessly criticised hallowed beliefs and institutions. He is, arguably, the most important philosopher who has worked in Australia, certainly he was the most important in both the breadth and depth of influence