Battle of Magetobriga
The Battle of Magetobriga was fought in 63 BC between rival tribes in Gaul. The Aedui tribe was defeated and massacred by the forces of their hereditary rivals. The Sequani and Arverni enlisted the aid of the German Suebi tribe under their king Ariovistus, following their defeat, the Aedui sent envoys to the Roman Senate, their traditional ally, for aid. The Roman general Julius Caesar would subsequently use their request for aid as a basis for launching his conquest of Gaul, according to Strabo, the cause of the conflict between the Haedui and Sequani was commercial. The Arar River formed part of the border between the hereditary rivals, each tribe claimed the Arar and the tolls on trade along it. The Sequani controlled access to the Rhine River and had built an oppidum at Vesontio to protect their interests, in 63 BC the Sequani and Arverni secured the aid of Ariovistus, a king of the Germanic Suebi tribe, to settle the hereditary dispute. Ariovistus crossed the Rhine with a confederation of Germanic tribes, the Battle of Magetobriga, the final battle between the Aedui and their enemies, took place close to the Sequani town of Magetobria 10 km from Luxeuil.
Ariovistus 15,000 Germanic tribesmen turned the tide, and the Aedui became tributary to the Sequani, in return, Ariovistus was promised land grants in Gaul. In 63 BC, following the Aeduis defeat at Magetobriga, the Aedui druid Diviciacus travelled to Rome, while in Rome, Diviciacus was a guest of Cicero, who spoke of his knowledge of divination and natural philosophy, and names him as a druid. Cicero wrote in 60 BC of a defeat sustained by the Haedui, N public affairs for the moment the chief subject of interest is the disturbance in Gaul. For the Haedui—our brethren—have recently fought a battle, and the Helvetii are undoubtedly in arms. In the wake of victory, and to the dismay of his allies, according to Caesar, he seized a third of the Sequani territory and proceeded to settle 120,000 Germani there as the nucleus of a new Germanic kingdom. That move left the Sequani between him and the Jura mountains, not a situation for either if they were not going to be allies. Ariovistus made the decision to out the Sequani from the strategic Doubs valley.
He demanded a further third of Celtic land for his allies the Harudes, Caesar makes it clear that Germanic tribes were actually in the land of the Sequani and were terrorizing them. They are said to all the oppida, but this statement is not entirely true. Presumably, the country to the north of there was under Germanic control, following Caesar’s victory over the Helvetii, the majority of the Gallic tribes congratulated Caesar and sought to meet with him in a general assembly. The Aeduan Druid and statesment Diviciacus, acting as spokesmen for the Gallic delegation, the Gallic request afforded Caesar the perfect pretext to expand his intervention as the savior and not the conqueror of Gaul
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes. The wars paved the way for Julius Caesar to become the ruler of the Roman Republic. Still, Gaul was of significant military importance to the Romans, conquering Gaul allowed Rome to secure the natural border of the river Rhine. The Gallic Wars are described by Julius Caesar in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, as a result of the financial burdens of his consulship in 59 BC, Caesar incurred significant debt. When the Governor of Transalpine Gaul, Metellus Celer, died unexpectedly, Caesars governorships were extended to a five-year period, a new idea at the time. Caesar had initially four veteran legions under his command, Legio VII, Legio VIII, Legio IX Hispana. As he had been Governor of Hispania Ulterior in 61 BC and had campaigned successfully with them against the Lusitanians, Caesar had the legal authority to levy additional legions and auxiliary units as he saw fit.
His ambition was to conquer and plunder some territories to get out of debt. It is more likely that he was planning a campaign against the Kingdom of Dacia, the countries of Gaul were civilized and wealthy. Most had contact with Roman merchants and some, particularly those that were governed by such as the Aedui. The Romans respected and feared the Gallic tribes, only fifty years before, in 109 BC, Italy had been invaded from the north and saved only after several bloody and costly battles by Gaius Marius. Around 62 BC, when a Roman client state, the Arverni, conspired with the Sequani and the Suebi nations east of the Rhine, to attack the Aedui, the Sequani and Arverni sought Ariovistus’ aid and defeated the Aedui in 63 BC at the Battle of Magetobriga. The Sequani rewarded Ariovistus with land following his victory, Ariovistus settled the land with 120,000 of his people. When 24,000 Harudes joined his cause, Ariovistus demanded that the Sequani give him land to accommodate the Harudes people.
This demand concerned Rome because if the Sequani conceded, Ariovistus would be in a position to all of the Sequani land. They did not appear to be concerned about a conflict between non-client and allied states, by the end of the campaign, the non-client Suebi under the leadership of the belligerent Ariovistus, stood triumphant over both the Aedui and their coconspirators. Fearing another mass migration akin to the devastating Cimbrian War, the Helvetii was a confederation of about five related Gallic tribes that lived on the Swiss plateau, hemmed in by the mountains, and the Rhine and Rhone rivers. They began to come under increased pressure from German tribes to the north, by 58 BC, the Helvetii were well on their way in the planning and provisioning for a mass migration under the leadership of Orgetorix
Vesoul is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté located in eastern France. It is the most populated municipality of the department with 15,920 inhabitants in 2009, and is the seventh largest city in Franche-Comté. The same year, the Urban community of Vesoul which covers 19 municipalities together had 34,055 inhabitants while the Urban area of Vesoul which includes 78 municipalities, had 59,244 inhabitants and its urban area is the fifth largest Franche-Comté. Its inhabitants are known in French as Vésuliens, nicknamed the Nice of the East, the reputation of Vesoul-based primarily on the song Vesoul by Jacques Brel and the Vesoul International Film Festival of Asian Cinema. Its 16,000 inhabitants, account Vesoul 2000 students and 8000 licensed sport, the city has received many labels and names that reflect the investigation brings to life Vesoul common. At the end of the Middle Ages, the city experienced a period of difficulties as plagues, epidemics.
The town is the capital of the department, Vesoul is first mentioned in a document dated 899. That document speaks about an elevation with a fortified watchtower, the document speaks about Castrum Vesulium. Castrum is a fortification, and Vesulium has the syllable ves which meant hill or mountain in a language that was spoken before the Celts, there is a castle that forms the centre of the city. The first houses were built inside the walls of the castle, newcomers who found no place settled outside the city walls, on the flanks of the hill. In 1814, after the fall of the empire, a state was created. The principality was that of Free County, of the Vosges, one of the main factories of PSA Peugeot Citroën is near Vesoul. Vesoul is located in the center of the Haute-Saône and is equidistant from the cities of the department. It is located at the intersection of highways Road 19 and Road 57 and it is to 48 kilometres of Besançon,82 kilometres of Epinal,30 kilometres of Luxeuil-les-Bains,32 kilometres of Lure,64 kilometres of Belfort,59 kilometres of Gray and 105 kilometres of Dijon.
The largest city near Vesoul is Besançon, lac de Vesoul - Vaivre Vesoul International Film Festival of Asian Cinema The first public library of Vesoul opened in 1771. The abbé Bardenet, superior of the Saint-Esprit hospital in Besançon, the collections became a lot larger with the Revolution. At that time, the revolutionaries took the books from the monasteries of the town, around 20,000 books were added to the library this way, including some 11th century manuscripts. The Mayors office was responsible for keeping the books, in 1981, the municipality decided to build a new building to encourage the public to read
Mandeure is a commune in the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France. Mandeure was a Roman town called Epomanduodurum and it reached its apogee in the 2nd century. The Roman theater was one of the largest in Gaul, measuring 142 m with four levels of seats that could seat 12,000 to 15,000 spectators, free guided tours are available by contacting the mayors office. Communes of the Doubs department INSEE Mandeure on the intercommunal Web site of the department Official Web site
Sequani is an exonym assigned by the Romans, most likely based on a similar-sounding endonym. The endonym is not known for certain, Sequani is like Sequana, Caesars name for the Seine, but the country of the Sequani is not in the Seines watershed. Strabo was originally responsible for the connection by supposing that the Sequana flowed through the country of the Sequani. The French name of the Saône, the forming the western border of the Sequani. The Romans called it the Arar, william Smith hypothesized that Sequani and Souconna were related. The country of the Sequani can be defined by the reports of the ancient writers, the Jura Mountains separated the Sequani from the Helvetii on the east, but the mountains belonged to the Sequani, as the narrow pass between the Rhone and Lake Geneva was Sequanian. They did not occupy the confluence of the Saône into the Rhone, extending a line westward from the Jura estimates the southern border at about Mâcon, but Mâcon belonged to the Aedui. Strabo says that the Arar separates the Sequani from the Aedui and the Lingones, on the northeast corner the country of the Sequani touched on the Rhine.
Before the arrival of Julius Caesar in Gaul, the Sequani had taken the side of the Arverni against their rivals the Aedui and hired the Suebi under Ariovistus to cross the Rhine and help them. The Sequani appealed to Caesar, who back the Germanic tribesmen. This so exasperated the Sequani that they joined in the revolt of Vercingetorix, under Augustus, the district known as Sequania formed part of Belgica. A triumphal arch at Vesontio, which in return for service was made a colony. Diocletian added Helvetia, and part of Germania Superior to Sequania, the southern reach of this territory was known as Sapaudia, which developed into Savoy. Fifty years later, Gaul was overrun by the barbarians, under Julian, it recovered some of its importance as a fortified town, and was able to withstand the attacks of the Vandals. Later, when Rome was no able to afford protection to the inhabitants of Gaul. Vesontio Luxovium Loposagium Portus Abucini Segobudium Epamanduodurum Ariolica Magetobria / Admagetobria Pons Dubis Castro Vesulio Sigynnae Caesar, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed.
Sequani. Endnotes, T. Rice Holmes, Caesars Conquest of Gaul, Hist. of Rome, bk. v. ch. vii. Dunod de Charnage, Hist. des Séquanois J. D. Schöpflin, Alsatia illustrata, i
A bridge leads over the Rhine to Neuf-Brisach, Alsace. Its name is Celtic and means breakwater, the root Breis can be found in the French word briser meaning to break. The seat of a Celtic prince was at the hill on which Breisach is built, the Romans maintained an auxiliary castle on Mons Brisiacus The Staufer founded Breisach as a city in todays sense. But there had already been a settlement with a church at the time, an 11th-century coin from Breisach was found in the Sandur hoard. In the early 13th century, construction on the St Stephansmünster, in the early 16th century, Breisach was a significant stronghold of the Holy Roman Empire. After Bernhards death in 1639, his general gave the territory to France, in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, Breisach was de jure given to France. From 1670, Breisach was integrated into the French state in the course of the politics of Reunions. In the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697, Breisach was returned to the Holy Roman Empire, at the Treaty of Rastatt on March 7,1714, Breisach became once again part of the Empire.
Meanwhile, France founded its own fortress, Neuf-Brisach, on the shore of the Rhine. In 1790, Breisach was part of Further Austria, in the revolutionary wars in 1793, Breisach sustained heavy damage and then, in 1805, was annexed to the de facto re-established state of Baden. During World War II, 85% of Breisach was destroyed by Allied artillery as the Allies crossed the Rhine, the St. Stephansmünster was heavily damaged. In 1969, Breisach was considered as the site for a nuclear power plant, but Wyhl was chosen instead. The nearby cities of Hochstetten, Gündlingen and Oberrimsingen along with Grezhausen, since the railway bridge across the Rhine was destroyed during the Second World War, railway services have been restricted to the German side of the river. The federal road B31 leads to Lindau and the N415 on the French side connects Breisach to Colmar, one of Europes largest wine cellars called Badischer Winzerkeller eG is located in Breisach. Viticulture is very important for the economy of both Breisach and the Kaiserstuhl, the museum for municipal history has an impressive collection dating from the Stone Age to the present.
The Romanesque St. Stephansmünster, the cathedral in Breisach, has a late Gothic altar by a craftsman and paintings by Martin Schongauer. The first documentation of Jews in town dates to 1301, during the Black Death in 1349, the community was annihilated after a false blood libel, accusing the town Jews of poisoning the town wells. After the pogrom, Jews got back to the town until 1424, in 1550, the community reopened with a cemetery
In Gallo-Roman religion, Sequana was the goddess of the river Seine, particularly the springs at the source of the Seine, and the Gaulish tribe the Sequani. The sanctuary was taken over by the Romans, who built two temples, a colonnaded precinct and other related structures centred on the spring and pool. Many dedications were made to Sequana at her temple, including a large pot inscribed with her name and filled with bronze and silver models of parts of human bodies to be cured by her. Wooden and stone images of limbs, internal organs, respiratory illnesses and eye diseases were common. Pilgrims were frequently depicted as carrying offerings to the goddess, including money, fruit, a bronze statue of a woman, draped in a long gown and with a diadem on her head, is believed to represent Sequana. She stands on a boat, the prow of which is shaped like the head of a duck with a ball in its mouth, representing the playful, sometimes rebellious, the approximately 1 foot tall statue is now in the Musée archéologique de Dijon.
Eight inscriptions to Sequana are known, all from the Sources of the Seine, something like Sek-ooana is more likely, unless the local dialect was Q-Celtic. Bernard Jacomin Les sources de la Seine, traces fossiles et repérages astronomiques au pays des Lingons, editions Yvelinédition ISBN 2-84668-049-3 Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, vol. XIII, Inscriptiones trium Galliarum et Germaniarum, apud G. Reimerum, 1899-1943 Deyts, Simone Images des Dieux de la Gaule. A small image of the statue in the Musée archéologique de Dijon believed to represent Sequana
Sundgau is a geographical territory in the southern Alsace region, on the eastern edge of France. The name is derived from Alemannic German Sunt-gowe, denoting an Alemannic county in the Old High German period, the principal city and historical capital is Altkirch. It comprises parts of the modern Department of Haut-Rhin and the Territory of Belfort in the regions of Alsace, the fertile loess soil has traditionally favoured a non-specialised agriculture, with crop production being largely organised into strips. The main crops are maize and colza, the Ill, the most important river in Alsace, crosses Sundgau from south to north before flowing into the Rhine. Its source is at Winkel in the foothills of the Jura, other rivers define the regions valleys, such as the Largue, which rises near Courtavon, passes through Dannemarie, and meets the Ill at Illfurth. In mediaeval times, monks raised carp in the small valley ponds, the images of two carp appear in the coat of arms of Sundgau. Archaeological digs have revealed vestiges of palaeolithic and Neolithic settlements, traces of Bronze Age cremation pyres have been found.
Excavations at Illfurth date from the Iron Age, in the 1st century BC, the Sequani tribe, which was centered around Besançon, settled in Sundgau. From 70 BC, they waged perpetual warfare with their neighbours, when the conflict finished, the Germans settled into the region, and the Sequani, to remove them appealed to the Romans. Julius Caesar defeated Ariovistus in 58 BC near Cernay, and a domination by the Romans commenced. This ended suddenly in 405, when the Alamani crossed the Rhine and they, in turn, were followed by the Franks following their victory at the Battle of Tolbiac in 496. Sundgau was incorporated into the kingdom of Austrasia and Christianity was introduced under the Merovingians, about 750, the Duchy of Alsace was divided into two counties and Sundgau, the latter being mentioned in the Treaty of Mersen in 870. Historically then, Sundgau coincides with the lands of the counts of Ferrette and Habsburg, excepting the town of Mulhouse and its territories of Illzach, Sundgau denotes a more restricted area comprising the hilly country to the south of Mulhouse and reaching to the valley of Lucelle.
During the 9th century and the 10th century Sundgau was administered by the Lieutfried family, following the breakup of Charlemagnes empire, the region entered a period of instability, culminating in the emergence of feudalism. From 925 on, the Sundgau belonged to the Duchy of Swabia, in 1125, son of Theodoric I of Montbéliard, inherited the south of Alsace and became count of Ferrette. So, from 1125 to 1324, a part of the Sundgau was administered by the counts of Ferrette. Ulrich III conquered the valley of Saint-Amarin but died with no male issue and his daughter Jeanne married Albert II, Duke of Austria in 1324, and the County of Ferrette fell to Austria and was integrated with the other Habsburg possessions in the area. The Landgraviate of Sundgau, the successor of the Carolingian county, had been administered by the counts of Habsburg since 1135 and they had owned the adjacent County of Sundgau even earlier
Noyers is a commune in the Yonne department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in north-central France. There are half-timbered houses, ashlars and pinnacles, there are many cobbled lanes and small squares made of chalky and granitic pavements. There are towers surrounded by the river Serein loops and it has retained much of its medieval appearance with many buildings dating from the 16th century, and is a popular tourist destination with several restaurants, art galleries, a pottery and a museum. The centre is pedestrianised on Saturdays and Sundays in summer, the village holds two large truffle fairs in November where locally picked fresh truffles are sold to buyers from throughout France and beyond. Residents are known a Nuceriens who are proud that their village has been officially designated one of the most beautiful in France. The origins of Noyers are unclear and it was founded by the king of Sequani Gaul tribe, just before the Roman conquest, or by a contemporary of Julius Caesar called Lucidorius.
He would have given the city its first name, Lucida and after the 12th century the city became the seat of the Miles family. At the end of the century, Hugues de Noyers, bishop of Auxerre. It was beleaguered by Blanche de Castille’s troops in 1217, in 1419, at the end of the Miles dynasty, Noyers became the property of the dukes of Burgundy. The prince of Condé became count of Noyers and he made a Huguenot place of the city and took refuge in it after the defeat of the Amboise conspiracy in 1568. But Catherine de Médicis dislodged him and the garrison surrendered, the castle was dismantled by King Henry IV in 1599. After a long time of lethargy the city revived in 1710 when the duke of Luynes married the last descendant of the Condé family and grain trade were prosperous at Noyers. Many documents attest there were plenty of vines, walnut-trees and cherry-trees over the all around Noyers. Till the beginning of the century a great part of local craftsmen was represented by cartwrights, harness-makers, farriers.
In 1861 there were 128 vine-growers and 25 tillage-farmers, today they are not so many but farmers are still keeping their places. Duran Duran sang New Moon On Monday in this town in 1983 and its streets have been used in several other films. Noceto, Italy Communes of the Yonne department INSEE Official website