Category:Ships built in Livorno
Pages in category "Ships built in Livorno"
The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. NRP Adamastor – NRP Adamastor was a cruiser in the Portuguese Navy. She was built in Italy in 1897 using the revenue of a national subscription made after the British ultimatum to Portugal in 1890, Adamastor played an important role in Portugal′s 5 October 1910 republican revolution, being one of the three rebelling cruisers. During World War I, she was one of two sent to the vital port of Quelimane in Portuguese East Africa in 1916. The presence of the cruisers was a factor in preventing German forces from continuing their advance on Quelimane after the German victory at the Battle of Namakura. On 5 October 1934, Adamastor ran aground at Bolama, Portuguese Guinea and she was refloated on 7 October 1929. In 1934, Adamastor was decommissioned and sold to the Portuguese merchant marine, cantiere navale fratelli Orlando J. C. Pereira ed. Dicionário Ilustrado da História de Portugal
2. Italian cruiser Aretusa – Aretusa was a torpedo cruiser of the Partenope class built for the Italian Regia Marina in the 1880s. Laid down in June 1889 at the Cantiere navale fratelli Orlando shipyard and her main armament were her six torpedo tubes, which were supported by a battery of ten small-caliber guns. Aretusa spent most of her career in the main Italian fleet, at the start of the Italo-Turkish War in September 1911, she was assigned to the Red Sea Squadron in Italian Eritrea. She bombarded Ottoman positions in the Arabian Peninsula and took part in a blockade of the coast, worn out by the end of the war in October 1912, Aretusa was sold for scrap that December and broken up. Aretusa was 73.1 meters long overall and had a beam of 8.22 m and she displaced 833 metric tons normally. Her propulsion system consisted of a pair of horizontal triple-expansion steam engines, each driving a screw propeller. Specific figures for Aretusas engine performance have not survived, but the ships of her class had top speeds of 18.1 to 20.8 knots at 3,884 to 4,422 indicated horsepower. The ship had a radius of about 1,800 nautical miles at a speed of 10 knots. She had a crew of between 96 and 121, Aretusa was armed with a main battery of one 120 mm /40 gun and six 57 mm /43 guns mounted singly. α She was also equipped with three 37 mm /20 guns in single mounts. Her primary offensive weapon was her five 450 mm torpedo tubes, the ship was protected by an armored deck that was up to 1.6 in thick, her conning tower was armored with the same thickness of steel plate. Aretusa was laid down at the Cantiere navale fratelli Orlando in Livorno on 1 June 1889, after fitting-out work was completed, the ship was commissioned into the fleet on 1 September 1892. During the 1893 fleet maneuvers, Aretusa served with the 3rd Division of the Reserve Squadron, along with the protected cruisers Vesuvio and Ettore Fieramosca and four torpedo boats. In 1895, Aretusa was stationed in the 2nd Maritime Department and these included her sister ships Partenope, Minerva, Euridice, Iride, Urania, and Caprera, the four Goito-class cruisers, and Tripoli. As of 1898, Aretusa was assigned to the Active Squadron, with included the ironclads Sicilia and Sardegna, at the start of the Italo-Turkish War in September 1911, Aretusa was stationed in Italian Eritrea in the Red Sea Squadron. Italian naval forces in the region also included five protected cruisers, shortly after the start of the war on 2 October, Aretusa and the gunboat Volturno encountered the Ottoman torpedo cruiser Peyk-i Şevket off Al Hudaydah. In a short engagement, the Italians vessels forced the Ottoman ship to flee into Al Hudaydah, bombarded the port facilities, the protected cruiser Piemonte and two destroyers annihilated a force of seven Ottoman gunboats in the Battle of Kunfuda Bay on 7 January 1912. On 27 July and 12 August, Aretusa, her sister ship Caprera, during the second attack, they destroyed an Ottoman ammunition dump. With the threat of an Ottoman attack greatly reduced, the High Command thereafter began to withdraw forces from the Red Sea Squadron, by the end of August, the unit was reduced to three protected cruisers, Aretusa, Caprera and two auxiliaries
3. Italian cruiser Caprera – Caprera was a torpedo cruiser of the Partenope class built for the Italian Regia Marina in the 1880s. She was built by the Cantiere navale fratelli Orlando shipyard, her keel was laid in July 1891, she was launched in May 1894 and her main armament were her five torpedo tubes, which were supported by a battery of eleven small-caliber guns. Caprera spent most of her career in the main Italian fleet and she served in the Red Sea during the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–12, where she conducted shore bombardments and blockaded Ottoman ports in the area. Caprera did not remain in service long after the war, being sold for scrap in May 1913, Caprera was 73.1 meters long overall and had a beam of 8.22 m and an average draft of 3.48 m. She displaced 833 metric tons normally and her propulsion system consisted of a pair of horizontal triple-expansion steam engines, each driving a single screw propeller, with steam supplied by four coal-fired locomotive boilers. Specific figures for Capreras engine performance have not survived, but the ships of her class had top speeds of 18.1 to 20.8 knots at 3,884 to 4,422 indicated horsepower. The ship had a radius of about 1,800 nautical miles at a speed of 10 knots. She had a crew of between 96 and 121 personnel, Caprera was armed with a main battery of two 120 mm /40 guns and six 57 mm /43 guns mounted singly. α She was also equipped with three 37 mm /20 guns in single mounts. Her primary offensive weapon was her five 450 mm torpedo tubes, the ship was protected by an armored deck that was up to 1.6 in thick, her conning tower was armored with the same thickness of steel plate. Caprera was laid down at the Cantiere navale fratelli Orlando in Livorno on 27 July 1891 and she was renamed Caprera on 23 February 1893 and was launched on 6 May 1894, the last member of her class to enter the water. After fitting-out work was completed, she underwent sea trials in mid-1895, while testing the engines with forced draft, the ship reached 17.75 knots. The ship was commissioned into the fleet on 12 December 1895, upon entering service, Caprera was initially stationed in the 2nd Maritime Department, split between Taranto and Naples, along with most of the torpedo cruisers in the Italian fleet. These included her sister ships Partenope, Aretusa, Euridice, Iride, Minerva, and Urania, the four Goito-class cruisers, shortly thereafter, she was transferred to Italian East Africa. She departed with the protected cruiser Etna in late December, passing through the Suez Canal on 30 December, the rest of the Red Sea Squadron, which included the protected cruisers Dogali and Etruria, met Caprera and Etna in Massawa. The ship was assigned to the Atlantic Naval Division in 1899, along with the armored cruiser Marco Polo and the protected cruisers Etna, Dogali, by 1907, Caprera had been transferred to the Reserve Squadron, along with four of the older ironclad battleships. The following year, she was stationed in Italian East Africa, while there, an Italian meteorologist conducted several experiments aboard the ship with a hot air balloon to study the monsoon winds in the region, beginning in Zanzibar. The tests, which were conducted in the last week of July, were unsuccessful, at the start of the Italo-Turkish War in September 1911, Caprera was stationed in Italy, alternating between the ports of La Spezia and Naples, along with her sister ships Urania and Iride. The threat of an Ottoman attack from the Arabian Peninsula across the Red Sea to Italian Eritrea led the Italian High Command to reinforce the Red Sea Squadron, Caprera and several destroyers were sent to strengthen the Italian defenses
4. Italian cruiser Emanuele Filiberto Duca d'Aosta – Emanuele Filiberto Duca dAosta was an Italian light cruiser of the fourth group of the Condottieri-class, that served in the Regia Marina during World War II. She survived the war, but was ceded as war reparation to the Soviet Navy in 1949 and she was finally renamed Kerch and served in the Black Sea Fleet until the 1960s. Duca dAosta was the namesake of the subclass of Condottieri light cruisers. The design of the Duca dAostas derived from the preceding Montecuccoli class, with an increase in size. Duca dAosta was built by OTO, Livorno and was named after Emanuele Filiberto, 2nd Duke of Aosta, the ship joined the 7th Cruiser Division and in 1938 departed on a circumnavigation with her sister-ship, Eugenio Di Savoia. The deteriorating world political situation caused this to be cut short after visits to the Caribbean and South America, at the Italian entry into the war, dAosta was part of the 2nd Cruiser Squadron and participated in the Battle of Punta Stilo between 6–10 July. In addition, she protected North Africa convoys, took part in a sortie against British cruisers. During 1941, dAosta served mostly with the 8th Cruiser Division, laying minefields off North Africa, one of the convoy duties, in December, led to the First Battle of Sirte, in which dAosta took part. Her duties in 1942 were much as before, but with actions against Allied convoys, including the Operations Harpoon and Vigorous, in June. She sailed in August to intercept the critical Pedestal convoy, but, being without air cover, on 13 June 1942, dAosta survived a torpedo attack by the British submarine HMS Unison, while south of Sardinia with the Raimondo Montecuccoli. In 1943, dAosta was inactive due to fuel shortages for most of the remainder of the year, but in August, she attempted, unsuccessfully, a bombardment of Allied positions around Palermo. DAosta was a ship in that she never was damaged in any of the naval actions in which she participated nor was she ever damaged by air attack or submarine attack. There were seven patrols between November 1943 and February 1944, she returned to Italy in April and, thereafter, was used only for transport, after the war, dAosta was inactive. On 2 March 1949, transferred to the Soviet Union as Z15 and she was first renamed as Stalingrad, then as Kerch and served with the Soviet Black Sea Fleet until she was stricken on 20 February 1959 and scrapped in the 1960s. Whitley, M J. Cruisers of World War Two, An International Encyclopedia
5. Italian cruiser Etruria – Etruria was a protected cruiser of the Italian Regia Marina built in the 1891 by Cantiere navale fratelli Orlando Livorno. She was the third of six vessels of the Regioni class, all of which were named for current, or in the case of Etruria, former regions of Italy. The ship was equipped with an armament of four 15 cm and six 12 cm guns. Etruria spent her career with the main fleet in the Mediterranean Sea. In the early 1900s, she spent much of her time in North and South American waters, she visited the United States for the Jamestown Exposition, the ship took part in the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–12, primarily by providing gunfire support to Italian troops in North Africa. Etruria was 84.8 meters long overall, had a beam of 12.03 m and she displaced up to 3,110 metric tons at full load. Her propulsion system consisted of a pair of horizontal triple-expansion engines, on her speed trials, she reached a maximum of 18.3 knots at 7,018 indicated horsepower. The ship had a radius of about 2,100 nautical miles at a speed of 10 knots. She had a crew of between 213-78, Etruria was armed with a main battery of four 15 cm L/40 guns mounted singly, with two side by side forward and two side by side aft. Six 12 cm L/40 guns were placed between them, with three on each broadside, light armament included eight 57 mm guns two 37 mm guns, and a pair of machine guns. She was also equipped with two 45 cm torpedo tubes, Etruria was protected by a 50 mm thick deck, and her conning tower had 50 mm thick sides. Etruria was laid down at the Odero-Terni-Orlando shipyard in Livorno on 1 April 1889, shortages of funding slowed the completion Etruria and her sister ships. Tight budgets forced the navy to reduce the pace of construction so that the funds could be used to keep the fleet in service. As a result, it took two years to complete her hull, which was launched on 23 April 1891, fitting-out work proceeded even more slowly, she was not ready for commissioning until 11 July 1894. In 1895, she the other ships were replaced by the ironclads Sardegna and Ruggiero di Lauria, contingents from Britain, France, Russia, Spain, and several other countries joined the celebration. In addition to the Austro-Hungarian delegation, the fleet consisted of warships from Great Britain, Japan, Germany, Austria-Hungary. On this occasion, she was joined by the training cruiser Etna, Etruria also represented Italy at the commemoration of Peruvian pilot Jorge Chávez on 27 October 1910, who had been killed in a crash attempting to cross the Alps from France to Italy a month before. The French cruiser Montcalm joined Etruria for the event, the ship made another visit to the United States in March 1911, this time in San Francisco
6. ARA General Belgrano (1896) – ARA General Belgrano was a Giuseppe Garibaldi-class armoured cruiser of the Argentine Navy. The ship was built in Italy, along with three ships also for Argentina. The ship was launched in 1896 and served on the Argentine Navy until she was stricken on 8 May 1947, the cruiser was built at the Cantiere Navale Fratelli Orlando, in Livorno, where her hull was laid down in 1896 and launched on July 25,1897. She was purchased in 1898 by the government of Argentina, engaged in a conflict with Chile. After the conflict with Chile, January 20,1899 she carried the President of Argentina Julio Argentino Roca and the President of Chile Federico Errazuriz Echaurren for signing the peace treaty. After visiting Santa Cruz, Rio Gallegos, Puerto Harberton and Ushuaia, in 1902 he was put on hold and after being fitted with a telegraph set in 1907, she was drafted into the fleet again in 1908. In 1912 she was equipped with a radio transmitter, later, she visited Spain and again returned to Genoa to continue the modernization work, including the conversion of boilers to consume gasoline, installing a new mast and changes in the artillery. At the end of this modernization, October 25,1929 arriving part to Buenos Aires on November 24 next, in 1933 she ranked as a coast guard ship and in December the same year is sent to Mar de Plata to be used as a depot ship for submarines. On May 8,1947, after nearly 50 years of service, towed to Buenos Aires, she was broken up in the Matanza River shipyards. Gardiner, Robert, ed. Conways All the Worlds Fighting Ships, acorazados y Cruceros De La Armada Argentina. Apuntes sobre los buques de la Armada Argentina, comando en Jefe de la Armada, Buenos Aires,1972. ISBN n/a Media related to ARA General Belgrano at Wikimedia Commons
7. Greek cruiser Georgios Averof – Georgios Averof is a modified Pisa-class armored cruiser built in Italy for the Royal Hellenic Navy in the first decade of the 20th century. The ship served as the Greek flagship during most of the first half of the century, although popularly known as a battleship in Greek, she is in fact an armored cruiser, the only ship of this type still in existence. At the beginning of the 20th century, Greece decided to reinforce its fleet, the navy procured eight destroyers between 1905-1907, but the most important addition was Georgios Averof. The ship, a Pisa-class cruiser like her Italian sisters Amalfi, the ship was fitted with a combination of Italian engines, French boilers, British artillery and German generators. The ship was launched on 12 March 1910 and her first captain was Captain Ioannis Damianos, who took command of her on 16 May 1911. Averof sailed for Britain, in order to participate in the festivities for the coronation of King George V and it was clear that Captain Damianos was inadequate, so he was replaced by the highly esteemed Captain Pavlos Kountouriotis, who quickly reimposed discipline and set sail for Greece. During the journey, Kountouriotis took care to train the crew, Averof finally sailed into Faliro Bay, near Athens, on 1 September 1911. Averof was at the time the most modern and powerful ship in the navies of either the Balkan League or the Ottoman Empire, with the outbreak of the First Balkan War in October 1912, Kountouriotis was named rear admiral and commander-in-chief of the Hellenic Royal Navy. Averof, under Captain Sofoklis Dousmanis, served as the flagship of the fleet, during the naval battles at Elli and Lemnos against the Ottoman Navy, she almost single-handedly secured victory and the undisputed control of the Aegean Sea for Greece. In both battles, due to her speed, armor and armament, she left the battle line. Averof succeeded in crossing the T of the Turkish fleet and concentrated her fire against the Ottoman flagship, likewise, during the Battle of Lemnos, when the older battleships failed to follow up with Averof, Kountouriotis did not hesitate to pursue independent action. In each battle the ship suffered slight damage, while inflicting severe damage to several Turkish ships. These exploits propelled her and her Admiral to legendary status in Greece, after the Battle of Lemnos, the crew of Averof affectionately nicknamed her Lucky Uncle George. It is a fact that, due to the aforementioned delays in the delivery of ammunition. Georgios Averof is credited with closing the Aegean Sea to Ottoman transports bringing fresh troops. This success had a impact on the land action where the Ottoman forces suffered decisive defeats. During World War I, Averof did not see active service, as Greece was neutral during the first years of the war. After the Noemvriana riots of 1916, she was seized by the French, after the wars end, Averof sailed with other Allied ships to Constantinople, receiving an ecstatic welcome from the citys Greeks
8. Italian cruiser Gorizia – Gorizia was the fourth and final member of the Zara class of heavy cruisers to be built for the Italian Regia Marina in the 1930s. Named for the town of Gorizia, the ship was laid down at the OTO Livorno shipyard in March 1930, was launched in December that year and was commissioned into the fleet in December 1931. Armed with a battery of eight 8-inch guns, she was nominally within the 10, 000-long-ton limit imposed by the Washington Naval Treaty. During the ships career, she frequently took part in fleet reviews. In 1934, she went on a tour with the yacht to eastern Africa. The ship supported the Italian invasion of Albania in 1939, the ship saw extensive service in World War II, which Italy entered in June 1940. In the course of operations, she took part in the battles at Calabria, Cape Spartivento. Gorizia was also attacked numerous times by Allied bombers while in port, under repair when Italy surrendered to the Allies in September, the ship was seized by occupying Germany forces, who found the ship to be unusable and so abandoned her. Italian and British frogmen tried unsuccessfully to sink the ship in 1944, after Germanys defeat in 1945, the Italian Navy determined the ship was beyond economical repair, and so she was broken up for scrap in 1947. Gorizia was 182.8 meters long overall, with a beam of 20.62 m and she displaced 14,330 long tons at full load, though her displacement was nominally within the 10, 000-long-ton restriction set in place by the Washington Naval Treaty. Her power plant consisted of two Parsons steam turbines powered by eight oil-fired Yarrow boilers, which were trunked into two funnels amidships and her engines were rated at 95,000 shaft horsepower and produced a top speed of 32 knots. She had a crew of 841 officers and enlisted men and she was protected with a armored belt that was 150 mm thick amidships. Her armor deck was 70 mm thick in the portion of the ship. The gun turrets had 150 mm thick plating on the faces, the main conning tower had 150 mm thick sides. Gorizia was armed with a battery of eight 203 mm Mod 29 53-caliber guns in four gun turrets. The turrets were arranged in superfiring pairs forward and aft, anti-aircraft defense was provided by a battery of sixteen 100 mm 47-cal. Guns in twin mounts, four 40 mm guns in single mounts and she carried a pair of IMAM Ro.43 seaplanes for aerial reconnaissance, the hangar was located in under the forecastle and a fixed catapult was mounted on the centerline at the bow. Gorizias secondary battery was revised several times during her career, two of the 100 mm guns and all of the 40 mm and 12.7 mm guns were removed in the late 1930s and eight 37 mm 54-cal
9. Italian cruiser Ettore Fieramosca – Ettore Fieramosca was a protected cruiser of the Italian Regia Marina built in the 1880s. She was the fourth and final member of the Etna class, named for the condottiero of the same name, she was the only member of her class not named for a volcano. The ship was laid down in December 1885, launched in August 1888 and she was armed with a main battery of two 10-inch and six 6-inch guns, and could steam at a speed of 18 knots. Ettore Fieramosca had an uneventful career, her first decade in service was confined to the normal peacetime routine of training with the Italian fleet. She thereafter spent most of her career abroad, including a deployment to China to help suppress the Boxer Rebellion in 1900 and tours in African and she was stricken from the naval register in July 1909 and sold for scrap. Compared to her half-sisters, Ettore Fieramosca was almost 7 feet longer at 290 feet between perpendiculars, and 10 inches wider with a beam of 43 feet 4 inches and she had a mean draft of 18 feet 9 inches and displaced 3,538 long tons. Her crew numbered 17 officers and 298 men, designed to be a half-knot faster than her sisters, the ship had two horizontal compound steam engines, each driving a single propeller, with steam provided by four double-ended cylindrical boilers. Ettore Fieramosca was the fastest ship in her class and reached a speed of 18 knots from 7,000 ihp during her sea trials. She had a radius of 5,000 nautical miles at a speed of 10 knots. The main armament of the ships consisted of two Armstrong 10-inch, 30-caliber breech-loading guns mounted in fore and aft. She was also equipped with six 6-inch, 32-caliber, breech-loading guns that were carried in sponsons along the sides of the ship, for anti-torpedo boat defense, Ettore Fieramosca was fitted with six 57-millimeter 6-pounder Hotchkiss guns and eight 37-millimeter 1-pounder Hotchkiss guns. Ettore Fieramosca was also armed with three 14-inch torpedo tubes and she was protected with an armored deck below the waterline with a maximum thickness of 1.5 inches. The conning tower had.5 in worth of armor plating, Ettore Fieramosca was built by the Regia Marina shipyard in Livorno. Her keel was laid down on 31 December 1885 and her hull was launched on 30 August 1888. After fitting-out work was finished, she was commissioned into the Italian fleet on 16 November 1889, Ettore Fieramosca and her sisters Vesuvio and Stromboli participated in the 1893 naval maneuvers as part of the Squadron of Maneuvers. Stomboli and Ettore Fieramosca next participated in the 1896 naval maneuvers as part of the Maneuver Fleet, in 1897, Enrico Toti served aboard the ship. Ettore Fieramosca and Vesuvio were sent to China in 1900 to assist the Eight-Nation Alliance in putting down the Boxer Rebellion there, Ettore Fieramosca returned to Italy and made a cruise off East Africa in 1905. She then sailed across the Atlantic and made a number of visits in South America
10. Italian ironclad Lepanto – Lepanto was an Italian ironclad battleship built for the Italian Regia Marina, the second and last ship of the Italia class. Lepanto was laid down in November 1876, launched in March 1883 and she was armed with a main battery of four 17 in guns mounted in a central barbette and was capable of a top speed of 17.8 knots. Unlike other capital ships of the era, Lepanto had a deck rather than the more typical belt armor. Lepanto spent the first two decades of her career in the Active and Reserve Squadrons, where she took part in training maneuvers with the rest of the fleet. In 1902, she was withdrawn from service for use as a training ship, during the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–12, the ship provided fire support to Italian troops defending Tripoli in Libya. Lepanto was ultimately stricken from the register in January 1914. Lepanto was 124.7 meters long overall and had a beam of 22.34 m and she displaced 13,336 metric tons normally and up to 15,649 t at full load. Her propulsion system consisted of four steam engines each driving a single screw propeller, with steam supplied by eight coal-fired, oval boilers. Her engines produced a top speed of 18.4 knots at 15,797 indicated horsepower and she could steam for 5,000 nautical miles at a speed of 10 knots. She had a crew of 669–701 officers and men, Lepanto was armed with a main battery of four 17 in 27-caliber guns, mounted in two pairs en echelon in a central barbette. She carried a battery of eight 6 in 26-caliber guns. As was customary for ships of the period, she carried four 14 in torpedo tubes. Unlike other ships built at the time, Lepanto dispensed with vertical belt armor and her designer, Benedetto Brin, believed that contemporary steel alloys could not effectively defeat armor-piercing shells of the day, and so he discarded it completely. Lepanto was instead protected by a deck that was 4 in thick. Her conning tower was armored with the thickness of steel plate. The barbette had 19 in of steel armor, Lepanto was under construction for nearly 11 years. She was laid down at the Cantiere navale fratelli Orlando shipyard at Livorno on 4 November 1876 and she spent nearly six-and-a-half years on the building ways and was not launched until 17 March 1883, two-and-a-half years after Italia. Lepanto was not completed for another four-and-a-half years, her construction finally being finished on 16 August 1887, the maneuvers consisted of close-order drills and a simulated attack on and defense of La Spezia
11. Italian cruiser Pisa – The Italian cruiser Pisa was the name ship of her class of two armored cruisers built for the Royal Italian Navy in the first decade of the 20th century. During World War I, Pisas activities were limited by the threat of Austro-Hungarian submarines, although the ship did participate in the bombardment of Durazzo, after the war she became a training ship and was stricken from the Navy List in 1937 before being scrapped. Pisa had a length between perpendiculars of 130 meters and a length of 140.5 meters. She had a beam of 21 meters and a draft of 7.1 meters, the ship displaced 9,832 metric tons at normal load, and 10,600 metric tons at deep load. The Pisa-class ships had a complement of 32 officers and 652 to 655 enlisted men, the ship was powered by two vertical triple-expansion steam engines, each driving one propeller shaft using steam supplied by 22 Belleville boilers. Designed for an output of 20,000 indicated horsepower. She had a range of about 2,500 nautical miles at a speed of 12 knots. The main armament of the Pisa-class ships consisted of four Cannone da 254/45 V Modello 1906 guns in turrets fore. The ships mounted eight Cannone da 190/45 V Modello 1906 in four twin-gun turrets, for defense against torpedo boats, the ships carried 16 quick-firing Cannone da 76/40 V Modello 1908 guns and eight QF Cannone da 47/40 V Modello 1908 guns. They were also equipped with three submerged 450 mm torpedo tubes, during World War I, her 76 and 47 mm guns were replaced by twenty 76/40 guns, six of these were anti-aircraft guns. Pisa was protected by a belt that was 200 mm thick amidships and reduced to 90 mm at the bow. The armored deck was 51 mm thick, the conning tower armor was 180 mm thick. The ship was launched on 15 September 1907 and completed on 1 September 1909, Pisa and her sister ship, Amalfi, were among the ships selected for the initial blockade of Tripoli. On 2 October, the Training Division relieved the 1st Squadron in blockade duty, the group escorted several Italian transports that arrived off Derna on 15 October. After negotiations for a surrender of the town fell apart, Pisa shelled the barracks, there was no return fire from Derna, so a boat with offers of a truce was sent in. A landing party was unable to reach the shore because of rough seas, Pisa and her consorts then shelled the beach for two hours. Weather conditions prevented a landing until the 18th, when 1,500 men took possession of Derna, Pisa remained in North African waters until mid-December when most of the 1st Squadron returned to Italy. Pisa later escorted troop transports from Augusta, Sicily in an attempt to seize the port of Zuara shortly before Christmas that was foiled by bad weather
12. Italian cruiser Pola – Pola was a Zara-class heavy cruiser of the Italian Regia Marina. She was built in the Odero-Terni-Orlando shipyard in Livorno in the early 1930s and she was the third of four ships in the class, which also included Zara, Fiume, and Gorizia. Pola was built as a flagship with a conning tower to accommodate an admirals staff. Like her sisters, she was armed with a battery of eight 203-millimeter guns and was capable of a top speed of 32 knots. Pola initially served as the flagship of the 2nd Squadron, and in 1940 she led the squadron during the battles of Calabria and Cape Spartivento, in July and November, during the latter engagement she briefly battled the British cruiser HMS Berwick. Pola was thereafter reassigned to the 3rd Division, along with her three sister ships, the ship took part in the Battle of Cape Matapan in late March 1941. During the battle, she was disabled by a British airstrike, later, in a fierce night engagement in the early hours of 29 March, Pola, Zara, Fiume, and two destroyers were sunk by the British Mediterranean Fleet with heavy loss of life. Pola was 182.8 meters long overall, with a beam of 20.62 m and she displaced 13,944 long tons at full load, though her displacement was nominally within the 10, 000-long-ton restriction set in place by the Washington Naval Treaty. Her power plant consisted of two Parsons steam turbines powered by eight oil-fired Yarrow boilers, which were trunked into two funnels amidships and her engines were rated at 95,000 shaft horsepower and produced a top speed of 32 knots. She had a crew of 841 officers and enlisted men, Pola was designed to function as a squadron flagship, and so her forward superstructure was larger than that of her sisters, and was faired into the forward funnel. She was protected with a belt that was 150 mm thick amidships. Her armor deck was 70 mm thick in the portion of the ship. The gun turrets had 150 mm thick plating on the faces, the main conning tower had 150 mm thick sides. Pola was armed with a battery of eight 203 mm Mod 29 53-caliber guns in four gun turrets. The turrets were arranged in superfiring pairs forward and aft, anti-aircraft defense was provided by a battery of sixteen 100 mm 47-cal. Guns in twin mounts, four 40 mm guns in single mounts and she carried a pair of IMAM Ro.43 seaplanes for aerial reconnaissance, the hangar was located under the forecastle and a fixed catapult was mounted on the centerline at the bow. Polas secondary battery was revised several times during her career, Two of the 100 mm guns and all of the 40 mm and 12.7 mm guns were removed in the late 1930s and eight 37 mm 54-cal. Guns and eight 13.2 mm guns were installed in their place, starshell guns were added in 1940
13. Italian cruiser Umbria – Umbria was a protected cruiser of the Italian Regia Marina built in the 1890s. She was the ship of the Regioni class, which included five other vessels. All of the ships were named for current or former regions of Italy, the ship was equipped with a main armament of four 15 cm and six 12 cm guns, and she could steam at a speed of 18 knots. Umbria spent much of her career abroad, including several years in American waters, in service during a period of relative peace, Umbria never saw combat. In 1911, she was sold to Haiti and renamed Consul Gostrück and she displaced up to 3,110 metric tons at full load. Her propulsion system consisted of a pair of horizontal triple-expansion engines, on her speed trials, she reached a maximum of 19 knots at 7,400 indicated horsepower. The ship had a radius of about 2,100 nautical miles at a speed of 10 knots. She had a crew of between 213-78, Umbria was armed with a main battery of four 15 cm L/40 guns mounted singly, with two side by side forward and two side by side aft. Six 12 cm L/40 guns were placed between them, with three on each broadside, light armament included one 75 mm gun, eight 57 mm guns, two 37 mm guns, and a pair of machine guns. She was also equipped with two 45 cm torpedo tubes, Umbria was protected by a 50 mm thick deck, and her conning tower had 50 mm thick sides. Umbria was built by the Odero-Terni-Orlando shipyard in Livorno and her keel was laid down on 1 August 1888. Shortages of funding slowed the completion of Umbria and her sister ships, tight budgets forced the navy to reduce the pace of construction so that the funds could be used to keep the active fleet in service. As a result, her hull was not ready to be launched until 23 April 1891, Umbria finally joined the fleet on 16 February 1894. On 1 February 1897, Umbria was assigned to the Cruiser Squadron of the main Italian fleet, along with her sister Liguria and the cruisers Marco Polo and Dogali. In September 1904, Umbria stopped in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the men,134 in all, had been buried in various cemeteries, but were re-interred in a large mausoleum in São Francisco Xavier. On 29 December, Umbria stopped in Valparaiso, where she met the German cruiser SMS Falke and the United States cruisers USS New York and USS Marblehead, in June 1905, Umbria represented Italy at the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in Portland, Oregon. She was joined there by the United States cruisers USS Chicago, Umbria ran aground outside Kingston, Jamaica in July 1906, while en route from Puerto Rico. The salvage ship SS Premier assisted in pulling the ship free, by 1910, the Regia Marina had decided to dispose of the obsolescent cruiser
14. Italian cruiser Varese – Varese was a Giuseppe Garibaldi-class armored cruiser built for the Royal Italian Navy in the 1890s. The ship made deployments to the Eastern Mediterranean and the Levant before the start of the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–12. She supported ground forces in the occupations of Tripoli and Homs in Libya, Varese may have bombarded Beirut and did bombard the defenses of the Dardanelles during the war. She also provided gunfire support for the Italian Army in Libya. During World War I, the activities were limited by the threat of Austro-Hungarian submarines. She was struck from the register in 1923 and subsequently scrapped. Varese had a length of 111.8 meters, a beam of 18.2 meters. She displaced 7,350 metric tons at normal load, the ship was powered by two vertical triple-expansion steam engines, each driving one shaft, using steam from 24 coal-fired Belleville boilers. The engines were rated 13,500 indicated horsepower and designed to give a speed of approximately 20 knots, during her sea trials on 27 November 1900, Varese barely exceeded her designed speed, reaching 20.02 knots from 14,200 ihp. She had a range of 5,500 nautical miles at 10 knots. Her complement ordinarily consisted of 555 officers and enlisted men and 578 when acting as a flagship and her main armament consisted of one 254-millimeter gun in a turret forward of the superstructure and two 203-millimeter guns in a twin turret aft. Ten of the 152-millimeter guns that comprised her secondary armament were arranged in casemates amidships, Varese also had ten 76-millimeter and six 47-millimeter guns to defend herself against torpedo boats. She was fitted with four single 450-millimeter torpedo tubes, the ships waterline armor belt had a maximum thickness of 150 millimeters amidships and tapered to 80 millimeters towards the ends of the ship. The conning tower, casemates, and gun turrets were protected by 150-millimeter armor. Her protective deck armor was 37 millimeters thick and the 152-millimeter guns on the deck were protected by gun shields 50 millimeters thick. The ship made visits to Algiers on 14 September 1903. During the 1905 fleet maneuvers, she was assigned to the force blockading La Maddalena. Varese was present in Athens during the Intercalated Olympic Games in April 1906, under the command of Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, Varese was present at the Jamestown Exposition in May 1907
15. ARA Veinticinco de Mayo (C-2) – ARA Veinticinco de Mayo was a cruiser which served in the Argentine Navy through World War II. The English translation of the name is May 25th, which is the date of Argentinas May Revolution in 1810, Veinticinco de Mayo was built in Italy and was the first ship of the Veinticinco de Mayo class of cruisers. Three vessels were to be produced, but in the end, only 25 de Mayo and her sister ship Almirante Brown were acquired and these ships were unusual in several ways. First, they carried 7.5 inch guns, only the class of warship to do so. Also, like the Italian Zara class and other Italian-built warships of the era they carried their floatplanes under the foredeck, List of cruisers List of ships of the Argentine Navy David Miller, Illustrated Directory of Warships - from 1860 to the present day. M. J. Whitley, Cruisers of World War II, An International Encyclopedia Arms and Armour Press Burzaco, acorazados y Cruceros de la Armada Argentina. Apuntes sobre los buques de la Armada Argentina, comando en Jefe de la Armada, Buenos aires,1972. ISBN n/d List of cruisers List of ships of the Argentine Navy History of argentinian cruisers, at HISTARMAR
16. Italian cruiser Vesuvio – Vesuvio was a protected cruiser of the Italian Regia Marina built in the 1880s. She was the member of the Etna class, which included three sister ships. Named for the volcano Mount Vesuvius, the keel was laid down in July 1883. She was launched in March 1886 and was commissioned into the fleet in March 1888 and she was armed with a main battery of two 10-inch and six 6-inch guns, and could steam at a speed of around 17 knots. Her career was uneventful, the only significant action in which she took part was the campaign against the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900. She was stricken from the register in May 1911 and sold for scrap in 1915. Vesuvio was 283 feet 6 inches between perpendiculars, with a beam of 42 feet 6 inches and she had a mean draft of 19 feet and displaced 3,373 long tons. Her crew numbered 12 officers and 296 men, the ship had two horizontal compound steam engines, each driving a single propeller, with steam provided by four double-ended cylindrical boilers. Vesuvio was credited with a top speed of 17 knots from 6,820 indicated horsepower and she had a cruising radius of 5,000 nautical miles at a speed of 10 knots. The main armament of the ships consisted of two Armstrong 10-inch, 30-caliber breech-loading guns mounted in fore and aft. She was also equipped with six 6-inch, 32-caliber, breech-loading guns that were carried in sponsons along the sides of the ship, for anti-torpedo boat defense, Vesuvio was fitted with five 57-millimeter 6-pounder Hotchkiss guns and five 37-millimeter 1-pounder Hotchkiss guns. Vesuvio was also armed with four 14-inch torpedo tubes, one was mounted in the bow underwater and the other three were above water. She was protected with a deck below the waterline with a maximum thickness of 1.5 inches. The conning tower had.5 in worth of armor plating, Vesuvio was built by the Livorno shipyard, with her keel being laid down on 10 July 1883. Her completed hull was launched on 21 March 1886, and after work was finished. Vesuvio and her sisters Stromboli and Ettore Fieramosca participated in the 1893 naval maneuvers as part of the Squadron of Maneuvers, Vesuvio was placed in reserve for 1896, though she was reactivated to take part on the naval maneuvers at the end of the year. During these maneuvers, she was assigned to a force tasked with defending against a simulated French fleet, in 1900, she and Ettore Fieramosca were sent to Chinese waters to assist in the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion as part of the Eight-Nation Alliance. Both ships were assigned to the Cruising Squadron in Chinese waters in 1901