Category:Six-thousanders of the Andes
Pages in category "Six-thousanders of the Andes"
The following 70 pages are in this category, out of 70 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 70 pages are in this category, out of 70 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
Aucanquilcha is a massive stratovolcano located in the Antofagasta Region of northern Chile, just west of the border with Bolivia and within the Alto Loa National Reserve. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, the stratovolcano has the form of a ridge with a height of 6,176 metres. The volcano is embedded in a cluster of volcanoes known as the Aucanquilcha cluster. This cluster of volcanoes was formed in stages over eleven years of activity with varying magma output, including lava domes. Aucanquilcha volcano proper is formed from four units that erupted between 1. 04-0.23 million years ago, during the ice ages, both the principal Aucanquilcha complex and the other volcanoes of the cluster were subject to glaciation, resulting in the formation of moraines and cirques. The cluster has generated lava ranging in composition from andesite to dacite, systematic variations in temperature and biotite content have been recorded during the evolution of the cluster. At Aucanquilcha volcano there is some activity, and sulfur deposits are found at the summit.
Several sulfur mines lie in the complex, one mine at an altitude of 5,950 metres was opened in 1913 and remained in use from 1950 to 1992. It was the worlds highest mine during that period, sulfur obtained at the mine was transported down with llamas. Subsequently, an aerial cableway was employed to transport the sulfur to the town of Amincha, to bring the sulfur down, a road network to the summit was constructed in 1972, although it is now impassable. In 1986, four men were reported to be living at an altitude of 5,900 metres, Aucanquilcha is part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, a highly silicic volcanic zone in South America. The CVZ generates magmas at a rate of 0.11 cubic kilometres per millennium, one tenth of the average of arc magma production. The arc has migrated eastward towards the high Andes from the Pacific Ocean coast since the Jurassic, the arc contains andesitic volcanoes and compound volcanoes and has generated over 3,000 cubic kilometres of eruption products over 28 million years.
The Aucanquilcha complex lies northwest of the Altiplano–Puna volcanic complex, a large igneous province. The APVC is underpinned below at a depth of 20 kilometres by a seismic velocity zone that has been linked to the presence of 15–25% of partial melts in the zone. The Aucanquilcha complex is much smaller volumetrically than the APVC ignimbrites, but the duration of activity, the long-term magma output of Aucanquilcha is comparable to the magma output of other long-term active volcanoes in the central Andes such as Ollagüe and Llullaillaco. In all such cases, a peak in magma output is followed by lower-volume activity. Unzen in Japan and Mount Duff and Lassen Peak in California have similar eruption histories, such decreases may occur because of the lithostatic load imposed by the edifices on the magma chambers and the increased travel distance of the magma through the edifice
Volcán Marmolejo is a 6,108 m high Pleistocene stratovolcano in the Andes on the border between Argentina and Chile. It is located 9 km NNE of the active San José volcano, List of volcanoes in Argentina List of volcanoes in Chile SI Google Earth Placemarks - Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, download placemarks with SI Holocene volcano-data. The Andes, A Guide for Climbers
Ausangate or Auzangate is a mountain of the Vilcanota mountain range in the Andes of Peru. The mountain has significance in Incan mythology, every year the Quyllur Riti festival which attracts thousands of Quechua pilgrims is celebrated about 20 km north of the Ausangate at the mountain Qullqipunku. It takes place one week before the Corpus Christi feast, the region is inhabited by llama and alpaca herding communities, and constitutes one of the few remaining pastoralist societies in the world. High mountain trails are used by herders to trade with agricultural communities at lower elevations. Currently, one of these trails, the road of the Apu Ausangate, is one of the most renowned treks in Peru
Salcantay, Salkantay or Sallqantay is the highest peak in the Vilcabamba mountain range, part of the Peruvian Andes. It is located in the Cusco Region, about 60 km west-northwest of the city of Cusco and it is the 38th highest peak in the Andes, and the twelfth highest in Peru. However, as a highpoint in deeply incised terrain, it is the second most topographically prominent peak in the country. Salcantays proximity to Machu Picchu makes trekking around it an alternative to the oversubscribed Inca Trail, the name Salkantay is from sallqa, a Quechua word meaning wild, savage, or invincible, and was recorded as early as 1583. The name is often translated as Savage Mountain. Directly to the north of Salkantay lies Machu Picchu, which is at the end of a ridge that extends down from this mountain, viewed from Machu Picchus main sundial, the Southern Cross is above Salkantays summit when at its highest point in the sky during the rainy season. The Incas associated this alignment with concepts of rain and fertility, Salcantay is a large, steep peak with great vertical relief, particularly above the low valleys to the north, which are tributaries of the Amazon River.
The standard route on the mountain is the Northeast ridge, accessing the route typically involves three days of travel from Cusco. The climb involves about 1,800 m of vertical gain, on glacier, ice, Salcantay was first climbed in 1952 by a French-American expedition comprising Fred D. Ayres, David Michael, Jr. John C. Graham Matthews, Austen F. Riggs, George Irving Bell, Claude Kogan, M. Bernard Pierre, all except Oberlin and Guillemin reached the summit. Two years Fritz Kasparek fell through a cornice near the summit on the NE ridge, on June 17,2013 Nathan Heald, Thomas Ryan, and Luis Crispin made the summit at 10, 30am after nine hours of climbing from a high camp at 5, 500mts. This makes Crispin the first Peruvian climber to summit the mountain, the team took a reading of 6, 279mts. S 13°20. 027’, W 72°32. 596’, on July 31,2013 a second team led by Nathan Heald, consisting of James Lissy and Edwin Espinoza Sotelo make the summit by the NE ridge. Due to glacial retreat, the route is now calculated to be graded D on the French adjectival scale and this makes Heald the only person to have summited the mountain twice.
Kiswar or Padreyuq List of mountains in Peru, all peaks above 6,000 meters Biggar, the Andes, a guide for climbers. Archived from the original on 2007-11-23, su máxima elevación es el pico Salcantay o Sarkantay Encarta/Spanish. Archived from the original on 2007-11-27, constituye una de las principales elevaciones de la cordillera de Vilcabamba, Alcanza una altitud de 6.271 metros. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perú, – Also stored at List of mountains in Peru
Antofalla is a large and very remote stratovolcano in Catamarca Province in northwestern Argentina. It is located on the edge of the Puna de Atacama. It lies just west of the Salar de Antofalla, a large playa over 140 km in length, inca ruins can be found at the volcanos summit, offering definitive proof of numerous Pre-Columbian ascents. Antofalla is located west of the Salar de Antofalla, the salar basin largely predates the volcanic complex and lava flows are largely undisturbed. Antofalla and Potrero Grande are neighbouring towns, the volcano has a diametre of 35 kilometres and covers a surface of 2,100 square kilometres. Antofalla is located in an area of arid climate, minimal precipitation primarily in the summit areas allows for some minimal glaciation on the main Antofalla summit since the Pliocene-Pleistocene. The rest of the complex is preserved with little erosion other than gullying from spring thaw waters. Some ravines bear evidence of flash flood activity, possibly related to the melting of glacier caps at the end of ice ages, today the snowline lies at about 5,750 metres altitude.
Antofalla is situated above the Archibarca lineament, a northwest-southeast trending structure that encompasses ore deposits and this lineament may be responsible for the off-axis nature of volcanism in the area, the main arc is located 75 kilometres west of Antofalla. An old mine Los Jesuitas lies on the flank of the volcano. Antofalla is constructed on Cenozoic sedimentary layers, sedimentation began in the Eocene, first from Andean sediments. In the Oligocene sedimentation mostly provened from the Sierra de Calalaste south, in the late Miocene, the area became endorheic and deposition centres fragmented. During this time, halite deposits formed, the volcanic complex is constructed from rhyolitic domes, thick pyroclastic layers and layered dacitic-andesitic lava flows. Lava flows cover some of the cones and extensive areas in the northeast are covered by flows, during the Pleistocene, the Quebrada de las Cuevas valley was filled and the flanking hills covered by pumice by an ignimbrite from the Cerro Bayo vent.
Between Cerro Lila and Cerro Cajeros and Laguna de los Patos, Quaternary andesites and basaltic andesites of aphyric olivine composition formed small cones, the Conito de las Lagunitas vent erupted andesites 6.07 mya. In the first stage, basaltic andesites formed cones like Antofalla, dacitic lava domes, dacitic-rhyolitic ignimbrites, andesitic-dacitic lavas and basaltic-andesitic lavas were erupted. In the second phase and basaltic andesites were erupted from flank vents, the third stage continued this effusive activity as well as rhyolitic domes like Cerro Botijuela and Las Cuevas. Scoria cones and associated lava flows erupted during the Pleistocene on the margins of the salar, the volcano is still fumarolically active
Incahuasi is a volcanic mountain in the Andes of South America. It lies on the border of the Argentine province of Catamarca, Incahuasi has a summit elevation of 6,621 metres above sea level. The volcano consists of a 3. 5-kilometre-wide caldera and two stratovolcanoes, four pyroclastic cones are located 7 kilometres to the north-east and produced basalt-andesite lava flows that cover an area of 10 square kilometres. Incahuasi lies on the border between Chile and Argentina, close to Paso San Francisco, a major road crosses the border there. Incahuasi is located northeast of Ojos del Salado, the highest volcano in the world, both volcanoes are found at the southern end of the Central Volcanic Zone. They together with El Fraile, El Muerto, Nevado Tres Cruces, the area is dominated by volcanoes that were active after 1.5 million years ago. Also located close to Incahuasi are Falso Azufre and Nevado San Francisco and it has been suggested that a perpendicular chain of volcanoes including Ojos del Salado may be the consequence of the Juan Fernandez Ridge subducting in the Peru-Chile Trench.
Volcanism in the area back to the Oligocene and Miocene. Between 9 and 6 million years ago volcanic activity in the Maricunga Belt decreased, the back-arc experienced increased volcanic activity. Incahuasi is formed by a caldera 3.5 kilometres wide, two coalesced stratovolcanoes formed within the caldera and have a diametre of 15 kilometres. A6 by 4 kilometres wide lava dome is located on the eastern flank, the volcano has a volume of about 231 cubic kilometres. With a height of 6,621 metres Incahuasi is the 12th highest mountain in South America, Incahuasi has two craters, a summit crater and an arcuate crater on the eastern slope that contains a lava dome. The summit crater has dimensions of 750 by 900 metres, subsidiary vents conversely are associated with fissure vents. The western and southwestern slopes of Incahuasi are dotted with lava domes, less than 1 kilometre wide and 5 kilometres long lava flows extend down the volcano. They reach the Las Coladas salar east of Incahuasi, two 2 kilometres long coulees extend north and east of the main crater.
7 kilometres northeast of Incahuasi four pyroclastic cones can be found and they have covered 10 square kilometres with lava. Incahuasi volcano rises over a surface with elevations of 4, 300–4,700 metres, like many Andean volcanoes, Incahuasi has erupted andesite containing hornblende and pyroxene. Lava flows on the main stratovolcano are dacitic, the four cones northeast of the principal volcano have erupted basaltic andesite
Callangate or Ccallangate is a mountain massif in the Vilcanota mountain range of the Andes in Peru. Its highest point is Collpa Ananta, known as Chimboya, another peak in the massif is called Ccallangate. It lies in the Cusco Region, Quispicanchi Province, Ocongate District, Collpa Ananta is the second highest peak in Cusco, and ranks as the 24th highest in Peru. Condoriquiña Comercocha List of mountains in Peru List of mountains in the Andes
Ranrapalca is a mountain in the Cordillera Blanca range in the Andes of Peru. It has an elevation of 6,162 m and it is located in the region of Ancash, east of Ocshapalca. The northeast ridge is of intermediate difficulty and it consists in climbing a steep, rocky ridge from the Ranrapallqa-Ischinca col to the summit snowfields and 6,000 m and traverse south of the knife edge summit. An easier variant of the route consists in avoiding the northeast ridge. Many other routes exist, some of them quite difficult
Parinacota, Parina Quta or Parinaquta is a massive dormant stratovolcano on the border of Chile and Bolivia. It is part of the Payachata volcanic group, the other major edifice in that group is the Pleistocene peak of Pomerape. Parinacotas last eruptive phase has been dated using the surface exposure technique. The volcano and Pomerape straddle the border between Sajama National Park and Lauca National Park, climbing the volcano is relatively easy, alpine F grade, on a snow/rubble slope of about 35 degrees. A camp can be established at 5,300 m at the saddle between Parinacota and Pomerape, depending on the season, the main difficulty can be a snow formation called penitentes which make the ascent physically difficult or impossible. It is attempted by about one party per week in the season, if needed and transport can be hired from Sajama village,27 km away on the Bolivian side of the mountain. List of volcanoes in Bolivia List of volcanoes in Chile Parinacota, media related to Parinacota at Wikimedia Commons Andeshandbook, A Complete Description, place names and routes of Parinacota Parinacota at SummitPost. org
Monte Pissis is an extinct volcano in La Rioja Province, Argentina. The mountain is the third-highest in the Western Hemisphere, and is located about 550 km north of Aconcagua, Monte Pissis is named after Pedro José Amadeo Pissis, a French geologist who worked for the Chilean government. In 2006 an international expedition surveyed the height on the summit, the first successful recorded ascent was achieved in 1937 by Polish climbers Osiecki and Szczepanski. The mountain was not climbed again until 1985, the opening of mining in the area has resulted in the construction of basic roads in the last 15 years. This has developed the tourism in the Atacama Desert and now more people ascend the mountain, approaching it from neighboring Chile is possible but involves a longer way. As the mountain is high and remote, a long approach is required but the ascent is easy. Nevertheless, warm clothing and good shoes are required as temperature during the night can drop as low as −30 °C, usually most teams ascend the peak during December to March, the warmest period of the year.
From the base of the mountain 4,500 m several days of hike are required, the summit is usually reached directly from a high camp at 5,900 m at the edge of the glacier. Monte Pissis is a large andesitic-dacitic volcanic centre and it was formed between 6.6 and 6.2 million years ago. Like Cerro Bonete Chico it is one of the large volcanic complexes formed at time over a deforming Nazca slab. Volcanism in the area ceased about 2 million years ago, Monte Pissis, Cerro Bonete Chico and Incapillo form a large volcanic complex that is among the highest in the world. Incapillo formed after Monte Pissis had ceased erupting, and hydrothermal activity at Incapillo may continue to this day, Incapillo Volcanic Seven Summits List of Ultras of South America Pissis in Andeshandbook Pissis on Summitpost Pissis Jan-2008 climb on Distantpeak
Chimborazo is a currently inactive stratovolcano in the Cordillera Occidental range of the Andes. Its last known eruption is believed to have occurred around 550 C. E, with a peak elevation of 6,263 m, Chimborazo is the highest mountain in Ecuador. It is the highest peak near the equator, Chimborazo is not the highest mountain by elevation above sea level, but its location along the equatorial bulge makes its summit the farthest point on the Earths surface from the Earths center. Chimborazo is in the Cordillera Occidental of the Andes of central Ecuador,150 km south-southwest of the capital Quito and it is a neighbor to 5,018 m high Carihuairazo. Chimborazos summit rises 2,500 m above the surrounding highlands with a ≈20 km wide base, under clear conditions, the summit of Chimborazo can be seen from the coastal city Guayaquil, nearly 140 km away. The nearest cities are Riobamba and Guaranda, Chimborazo is surrounded by the Reserva de Produccion Faunistica Chimborazo, which forms a protected ecosystem to preserve the habitat for the Andes native camelids of vicuña, llama and alpaca.
Chimborazo is at the end of the Ecuadorian Volcanic Arc. Chimborazo is in la Avenida de los Volcanes west of the Sanancajas mountain chain, Tungurahua, and El Altar are all mountains that neighbor Chimborazo. The closest mountain peak, Carihuairazo, is 5.8 mi from Chimborazo, there are many microclimates near Chimborazo, varying from desert in the Arenal to the humid mountains in the Abraspungo valley. The top of Chimborazo is completely covered by glaciers, with some north-eastern glacier arms flowing down to 4,600 m and its glacier is the source of water for the population of the Bolivar and Chimborazo provinces of Ecuador. As on other glaciated Ecuadorian mountains, Chimborazos glacial ice is mined by locals to be sold in the markets of Guaranda, in earlier days, the people transported ice for cooling uses down to coastal towns such as Babahoyo or Vinces. With an elevation of 6,263 m, Chimborazo is the highest mountain in Ecuador and the Andes north of Peru, it is higher than any more northerly summit in the Americas.
Chimborazo is one degree south of the Equator and the Earths diameter at the Equator is greater than at the latitude of Everest, nearly 27. 6° north, with sea level elevated. Despite being 2,585 m lower in elevation above sea level, however, by the criterion of elevation above sea level, Chimborazo is not even the highest peak of the Andes. Chimborazo is an inactive volcano in Ecuador. Chimborazo is a volcano composed of one volcanic edifice on top of another. Chimborazo shows four summits, Whymper, the Veintimilla peak is about 6,230 m high. The Whymper peak is the highest point on the mountain at 6,263 meters, the Politecnica peak is 5,820 m high
Llullaillaco is a dormant stratovolcano at the border of Argentina and Chile. It lies in the Puna de Atacama, a region of high volcanic peaks on a high plateau close to the Atacama Desert. It is the second highest active volcano in the world after Ojos del Salado, Llullaillaco was constructed during two different phases in the Pleistocene-Holocene by dacitic lava flows. The oldest rocks are about 1.5 million years old, about 150,000 years ago, the volcanos southeastern flank collapsed and generated a debris avalanche that reached as far as 25 kilometres from the summit. The youngest dated rocks were erupted 5,600 ±250 years ago in the summit region, the mountains first recorded climb was in 1950, but traces of earlier climbs, and a number of archeological sites, were found on the mountain and at its feet. With an archeological site at the region, Llullaillaco is the highest archeological site in the world. There, in 1999, the remains of three children, known as the Children of Llullaillaco, were found.
They are presumed to have been human sacrifices, the name Llullaillaco is derived from the Kunza word llulla meaning false, lie or deceitful and yaku or llaco meaning water. This name probably refers to the meltwater from snow, which flows down the slopes, normally such mountains are sources for water. Volcanism in the Andes is caused by the subduction of the Nazca Plate, the Nazca Plate subducts at a speed of 7–9 centimetres per year and the Antarctic Plate at a speed of 2 centimetres per year. The formation of magma results from the release of water and other material from the subducting plate. The volcanic zones are separated by areas where the plate subducts at a flatter angle. About 178 volcanoes are found in the Andes,60 of which have active in historical times. In addition, large calderas and monogenetic volcanoes exist in the Andes, Llullaillaco is part of the Central Volcanic Zone. At least 44 volcanic centres with historical activity and 18 large caldera-forming volcanoes have been identified in the Central Volcanic Zone, volcanism in the Central Volcanic Zone mostly occurs on the Altiplano and the Cordillera Occidental.
A number of volcanoes there reach heights of over 6,000 metres above sea level, large Miocene ignimbrites that cover large surfaces are part of the regional geology. Llullaillaco is located about 300 kilometres east of the Peru-Chile Trench, the Wadati-Benioff zone is 180 kilometres deep. Llullaillaco is located in the northwestern Argentine Andes, towards the end of the Puna