This category has the following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total.
This category has the following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total.
1. Barbados Slave Code – The Barbados Slave Code of 1661 was a law passed by the colonial English legislature to provide a legal basis for slavery in the Caribbean island of Barbados. The Barbados slave code ostensibly sought to protect slaves from cruel masters and masters from unruly slaves, in practice, the law required masters to provide each slave with one set of clothing per year, but it set no standards for slaves diet, housing, or working conditions. However, it also denied slaves even basic rights guaranteed under English common law and it allowed the slaves owners to do entirely as they wished to their slaves, including mutilating them and burning them alive, without fear of reprisal. Throughout British North America, slavery evolved in practice before it was codified into law, the Barbados slave code of 1661 marked the beginning of the legal codification of slavery. The Barbados Assembly reenacted the slave code, with modifications, in 1676,1682. The Barbados slave code served as the basis for the slave codes adopted in several other British colonies, including Jamaica, South Carolina. The legal basis for slavery was established in Mexico in 1636 and these statutes created the status of chattel slave for those of African descent, i. e. they were slaves for life and the status of slave was inherited. Slave status passed to children through the mother in these statutes, virginias 1662 statute reads, All children borne in this country shall be held bond or free only according to the condition of the mother. For his second offence of that nature he shall be severely whipped, his nose slit, and be burned in some part of his face with a hot iron. And being brutish slaves, deserve not, for the baseness of their condition, to be tried by the trial of twelve men of their peers. Sugar and Slaves, The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, the Origins of American Slavery, Freedom and Bondage in the English Colonies. New York, Hill and Wang,1997, Slavery Abolition Act 1833 Emancipation Day Slave Trade Acts Africa
2. Code of Hammurabi – The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia, dating back to about 1754 BC. It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world, the sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code, and partial copies exist on a seven and a half foot stone stele and various clay tablets. The code consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting an eye for an eye, nearly one-half of the code deals with matters of contract, establishing, for example, the wages to be paid to an ox driver or a surgeon. Other provisions set the terms of a transaction, establishing the liability of a builder for a house collapses, for example. A third of the code addresses issues concerning household and family such as inheritance, divorce, paternity. Only one provision appears to impose obligations on an official, this establishes that a judge who reaches an incorrect decision is to be fined and removed from the bench permanently. A few provisions address issues related to military service, the code was discovered by modern archaeologists in 1901, and its editio princeps translation published in 1902 by Jean-Vincent Scheil. This nearly complete example of the code is carved into a basalt stele in the shape of an index finger,2.25 m tall. The code is inscribed in the Akkadian language, using cuneiform script carved into the stele, Hammurabi ruled for nearly 42 years, from about 1792 to 1749 BC according to the Middle chronology. On the stone slab are 44 columns and 28 paragraphs that contained 282 laws, some of these laws follow along the rules of an eye for an eye. It had been taken as plunder by the Elamite king Shutruk-Nahhunte in the 12th century BC and was taken to Susa in Elam where it was no longer available to the Babylonian people. The Code of Hammurabi was one of several sets of laws in the ancient Near East, the code of laws was arranged in orderly groups, so that all who read the laws would know what was required of them. These codes come from similar cultures in a small geographical area. The Code of Hammurabi is the longest surviving text from the Old Babylonian period, the code has been seen as an early example of a fundamental law, regulating a government — i. e. a primitive constitution. The code is one of the earliest examples of the idea of presumption of innocence. However, its copying in subsequent generations indicates that it was used as a model of legal and judicial reasoning, the Code issues justice following the three classes of Babylonian society, property owners, freed men, and slaves. For example, if a doctor killed a patient, he would have his hands cut off. Various copies of portions of the Code of Hammurabi have been found on baked clay tablets, the Prologue of the Code of Hammurabi is on such a tablet, also at the Louvre
3. Modern Slavery Act 2015 – The Modern Slavery Act 2015 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It is designed to tackle slavery in the UK and consolidates previous offences relating to trafficking, the act extends to England and Wales. The bill was introduced to the House of Commons in draft form in October 2013 by James Brokenshire, Parliamentary Under Secretary for Crime, the bills sponsors in the Home Office were Theresa May and Lord Bates. It received Royal Assent and became law on 26 March 2015, however, campaigning resulted in a supply chain clause being added to the bills so that “big business will be forced to make public its efforts to stop the use of slave labour by its suppliers”. Consultation regarding the requirements of the supply chain clause took place in February. From 29 October 2015 the Transparency in Supply Chain Provisions require businesses to publish a statement if they have an annual turnover above a threshold. It is expected that few businesses would take the option as it may place their ethical position into question. There are, however, no legally binding requirements to conduct due diligence on supply chains, on the 31st January 2017 it had 10153 companies with statements held within its open data register, making it the largest modern slavery statement register globally. In November 2014 Fiona Mactaggart MP added an amendment to the bill concerning prostitution, in the bills debate in the House House of Commons, John McDonnell MP argued against the amendment. Criminalising clients does not stop prostitution, nor does it stop the criminalisation of women. It drives prostitution further underground, making it dangerous and stigmatising for women. ”In March 2015 an amendment was brought forward in the House of Lords concerning migrant workers who are brought to the UK by their employer using tied visas. These workers are typically foreign domestic workers and they are not allowed to leave their job. The system of tied visas, introduced in 2012, has compared to the Kafala system of employer-sponsored workers used in some Middle East countries. The amendment would have given workers in the UK using tied visas the right to change employer, experts in the issue were sceptical of the bill, believing that it had many shortcomings. Parosha Chandran, a human rights barrister and United Nations expert on trafficking, anthony Steen, who advised on the legislation and chairs the Human Trafficking Foundation, claimed that the bill failed to focus on the needs of victims of trafficking in the UK. “The bill is wholly and exclusively about law enforcement – but it shouldn’t be enforcement-based, it should be victim-based, submissions to the inquiry published in June 2016 said that there had been 1,139 victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation in 2014
4. Slavery at common law – Some groups assert slavery was not recognised as lawful, often on the basis of pronouncements such as those attributed to Lord Mansfield, that the air of England is too pure for any slave to breathe. However the true legal position has been both nuanced and complex through the relevant time period, for most of the early common law history, the courts were not called upon to consider the position in relation to slavery. Accordingly, it has been argued that as slavery usually involved one or both of these things, it would only be lawful if there was positive legal impetus for its legality. Even if that is correct, it is clear that the law was not expressed to abrogate the status of either serfs generally, or slaves who were brought to England from abroad. There are also reports relating to an Irish decree in 1171 that all the English slaves in the whole of Ireland, the same source indicates that slavery in England was abolished by a general charter of emancipation in 1381. Certainly villeinage continued in England, slowly decaying, until the last villein died in the early 17th century, in later common law cases, none of the foregoing decrees or proclamations were cited or referred to as binding law in relation to the status of slaves generally. In 1569, a man, Cartwright, was observed savagely beating another, Cartwright averred that the man was a slave whom he had brought to England from Russia, and thus such chastisement was not unlawful. The case is reported by John Rushworth in his 1721 summary of John Lilburnes case of 1649 and he wrote, Whipping was painful and shameful, Flagellation for Slaves. And indeed it was resolved, even in Star-Chamber, That no Gentleman was to be whipt for any offence whatsoever. It is reported that the court held that the man must be freed, subsequent citations of the effect of the case was actually to impose limits on the physical punishment on slaves, rather than to express comment on legality of slavery generally. In the case of John Lilburne in 1649, the defendants counsel relied upon Cartwrights case to show that the severity of a received by Lilburne exceeded that permitted by law. In none of subsequent common law cases prior to Somersetts case was Cartwrights case cited as authority for the proposition that slavery was unlawful, however, those disputes predominantly concerned disputes between slave merchants, for whom it would have been commercially unwise to plead that slavery was unlawful. It is inferred that, because he was from Russia, Cartwrights slave was white, however, it is possible that he was African, as, although they were uncommon, African slaves in Russia were not unknown prior to the emergence of the Atlantic slave trade. However, the opposition of the courts of England to the status of slavery began to change with the rising importance of the African slave trade. An extensive traffic in slaves from Africa began in the 17th century, primarily to supply labour for the sugar. In 1660, what became the Royal African Company was chartered by the King with a monopoly in the trade, and in 1698, in the Caribbean, Barbados became an English Colony in 1624 and Jamaica in 1655. These and other Caribbean colonies became the center of wealth and the focus of the trade for the growing English empire. English merchants were prominent in the trade, and in commercial disputes slavery soon presented the English courts with novel legal questions
5. Slavery in international law – Slavery in International Law is governed by a number of treaties, conventions and declarations. Foremost among these is the Universal Declaration on Human Rights that states in Article 4, “no one should be held in slavery or servitude and this is affected by the Optional Protocol to the Abolition of Slavery and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The ICCPR, governed by the Human Rights Committee, is responsible for internationally monitoring present conditions of slavery, the concept has its roots in the 1807 Abolition of Slavery Act of Great Britain. Many academics in the field perceive this as the beginning of the end of the form of slavery. In the 19th century, Britain controlled the majority of the world through its colonies, consequently, in passing this law to abolish slavery, the British Parliament abolished slavery in the vast majority of its colonies. Customarily, freedoms from slavery can also be found prior to the 19th century under the freedom from oppression. Through customary practice and the abolition of slavery, the community has adopted the right of each person to be free from slavery. The first large-scale move to abolish slavery by the community came in 1926 with the Slavery Convention. Although this document provides the definition of slavery, its definition is limited in the types of slavery it includes. It is for this reason that the 1956 Supplementary Convention on Slavery was signed, the 1956 Supplementary Convention on Slavery came into force on April 30,1957 and of 2002 there were 97 states partied to the convention. The Slavery Convention and its supplementary document are beneficial in providing a definition of slavery, however. Article 8 of this Covenant states, “No one shall be held in slavery, slavery, no one shall be held in servitude. No one shall be required to force or compulsory labour. ”The ICCPR outlines, in part IV. All states are required to submit reports to the Committee on how the rights of the Covenant are being implemented. A state’s initial report must be one year of acceding the Covenant and after this. In Mali, the noted that the State party has not taken clear action in response the reports of slavery like practices. In acknowledging this, the committee recommended that the state should conduct research to determine if these conditions of slavery still exist, the committee also noted concerns of child trafficking into Côte dIvoire, where children were then being subjected to forced labour and slavery. The committee observed situations of trafficking of human beings, namely women and children, in Serbia, the Human Rights Committee monitored trafficking in Norway