Category:Soviet prisoners of war
Pages in category "Soviet prisoners of war"
The following 58 pages are in this category, out of 58 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 58 pages are in this category, out of 58 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war – During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in a policy of deliberate maltreatment of Soviet prisoners of war, in contrast to their treatment of British and American POWs. This resulted in some 3.3 to 3.5 million deaths, during Operation Barbarossa, the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, and the subsequent German–Soviet War, millions of Red Army prisoners of war were taken. It is estimated that at least 3.3 million Soviet POWs died in Nazi custody, out of 5.7 million. This figure represents a total of 57% of all Soviet POWs and may be contrasted with 8,300 out of 231,000 British and U. S. prisoners, about 5% of the Soviet prisoners who died were of Jewish ethnicity. The most deaths took place between June 1941 and January 1942, when the Germans killed an estimated 2, by September 1941, the mortality rate among Soviet POWs was in the order of 1% per day. According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, by the winter of 1941, starvation, for the Germans, Soviet POWs were expendable, they consumed calories needed by others and, unlike Western POWs, were considered to be subhuman. The Commissar Order was an order given by the German High Command on 6 June 1941. It demanded that any Soviet political commissar identified among captured troops be shot immediately and those prisoners who could be identified as thoroughly bolshevized or as active representatives of the Bolshevist ideology were also to be executed. In the summer and fall/autumn of 1941, vast numbers of Soviet prisoners were captured in about a dozen large encirclements, due to their rapid advance into the Soviet Union and an expected quick victory, the Germans did not want to ship these prisoners back to Germany. Much like comparative occasions such as the Pacific Wars Bataan Death March in 1942, Soviet prisoners of war were stripped of their supplies and clothing by ill-equipped German troops when the cold weather set in. This resulted in fatal consequences for the prisoners, in the case of the Soviet POWs, most of the camps were simply open areas fenced off with barbed wire and watchtowers with no inmate housing. These meager conditions forced the prisoners to live in holes they had dug for themselves. Beatings and other abuse by the guards were common, and prisoners were malnourished, medical treatment was nonexistent and an International Red Cross offer to help in 1941 was rejected by Hitler. Some of Soviet POWs were also experimented on, in one such case, Dr. Heinrich Berning from Hamburg University starved prisoners to death while performing famine experiments. In another instance, a group of prisoners at Zhitomir were shot using dum-dum bullets, the camps established specially for Soviet prisoner-of-war were called Russenlager. The Allied regulars kept by Germany were usually treated in accordance with the 1929 Geneva Convention on Prisoners of War, Russenlager conditions were often even worse than those commonly experienced by prisoners in regular concentration camps. Such camps included, Oflag IV-C, Allied officers at Colditz Castle were barred from sharing Red Cross packages with starving Soviet prisoners, Oflag XIII-D, In July 1941 a new compound was set up in Oflag XIII-A for higher ranking Soviet military officers captured during Operation Barbarossa. It was closed in April 1942, the officers were transferred to other camps
2. Ahmadiyya Jabrayilov – Ahmadiyya Mikayil oglu Jabrayilov (Azerbaijani, Əhmədiyyə Mikayıl oğlu Cəbrayılov, Russian, Ахмедия Микаил оглы Джебраилов, French, Ahmed Michel, was an Azerbaijani activist of the French Resistance. The factual accuracy of the official biography of Jabrailov was questioned after the deletion of articles about Jabrayilov from the Russian. Jabrayilov was born in Okhud village, Shaki Rayon, Azerbaijani SSR, in 1941, he began his service in the Soviet Army. In 1960, the Soviet newspaper Nedelya published the version of the biography of Jabrayilov by Azerbaijani historian. Wounded, Jabrayilov was taken hostage by the Germans, after several failed attempts, he managed to flee from the German camp. In August 1944, Jabrayilov was told by the leadership of the French Resistance to organize an escape from the camp of the town of Rodez that contained thousands of Azerbaijanis. However, on 15 August a traitor exposed the plot to the Germans, while the plotters were being transported to the execution yard, several of them managed to escape. Later, the joined the Soviet partisan regiment and formed a task unit that together with the French patriots. For his participation in the Resistance movement, Jabrayilov was awarded seven French medals, on 20 August 1944 at a rally in the liberated Paris Jabrayilov delivered a speech on behalf of the Soviet soldiers. In the newspaper Bakinskiy Rabochiy of 1966, the biography of Jabrayilov is presented the following way, was placed in a camp near Lvov under the number 4167. Transiting through Germany he reached France, several times tried to escape, was caught. In a camp in Toulouse, where he was again numbered 4167, a German doctor noticed that Jabrayilov was still alive, but allowed the funeral, hoping that he would die underground. Jabrayilov was buried alive in a coffin, at midnight French partisans dug up the coffin and pulled Jabrayilov out while he was still alive. In course of one of combat operations Jabrayilov, disguised in German uniform, was wounded and fell to the Germans. Having regained consciousness, Jabrayilov escaped from the hospital, during the liberation of Bordeaux Jabrayilov, within the Delplanque detachment, led a group that penetrated into the center of the city through the sewers and caused panic among the Germans. Later, together with the Delplanque detachment, Jabrayilov went to Paris, during the surrender of Germany Jabrayilov was in Paris, he then returned to his native Azerbaijan. According to the book Ever Living Traditions published in 1968, Jabrayilov fought in France within the first Soviet partisan division, while he was with them, the division liberated Paris. She persuaded the commandant of the camp to bury Jabrayilov outside of the camp, however what was buried was an empty coffin
3. Nikolay Voronov – Nikolay Nikolayevich Voronov was a Soviet military leader, chief marshal of the artillery, and Hero of the Soviet Union. He was commander of forces of the Red Army from 1941 until 1950. Voronov commanded the Soviet artillery during the Battle of Stalingrad and was the Stavka representative to various fronts during the Siege of Leningrad and the Battle of Kursk. He also fought in the Russian Civil War, the Polish-Soviet War, nikolay Voronov was born on 5 May 1899 in Saint Petersburg to Nikolai Terentyvich Voronov, a clerk, and Valentina Voronov. After the Revolution of 1905, Voronovs father became unemployed due to his Russian Social Democratic Labour Party sympathies, on 30 November 1908, his poverty-stricken mother committed suicide by taking cyanide. Voronov dropped out of a school in 1914 due to financial problems. In the fall of 1916, his father was drafted, in 1917, Voronov passed an external degree examination. In March 1918, Voronov joined the Red Army, in the same year, he completed the 2nd Petrograd Artillery courses, after which he was a platoon commander in a howitzer battalion in the Petrograd 2nd Battery. As part of the 15th Army, he fought in battles with Nikolai Yudenichs forces near Pskov, in 1919, Voronov joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Beginning in April 1920, Voronov fought in the Polish–Soviet War with the 83rd Regiment of the 10th Rifle Division and his battery was armed with the 76 mm divisional gun M1902 instead of the 122 mm howitzer M1910. On 17 August, Voronov received a concussion during a battle in the village of Józefów nad Wisłą. When he regained consciousness, he found that Polish troops had captured the village, the injured Voronov attempted to escape on a horse, but was captured. During his eight months of captivity, Voronov suffered from typhus and he was repatriated at the end of the war in April 1921. In the summer of 1922, Voronov was appointed commander of the battery of the 27th Rifle Division. In fall 1923 he attended the school of higher artillery commanders, during the 1926 maneuvers, Voronov distinguished himself commanding the artillery of the Belorussian Military District. As a reward, he was granted permission to take the examination for the Frunze Military Academy. In 1930, Voronov graduated from the academy and he became the commander of the artillery regiment of the 1st Moscow Rifle Division. In August 1932, Voronov was sent to Italy as part of the Soviet mission there, in April 1934, he was appointed chief military Commissar of the 1st Artillery School
4. Soviet prisoners of war in Finland – Soviet prisoners of war in Finland during World War II were captured in two Soviet-Finnish conflicts of that period, the Winter War and the Continuation War. The Finns took about 5,700 POWs during the Winter War, however, during the Continuation War the Finns took 64,000 POWs, of whom almost 30 percent died. The number of Soviet prisoners of war during the Winter War was 5,700, most of them were captured in Finnish pockets north of Lake Ladoga. The war lasted only 105 days and most of the deceased POWs were either wounded or sick. Some of the POWs, at least 152 men, enlisted in the so-called Russian Liberation Army in Finland and they were not allowed to take part in combat. After the war, some members of the Liberation Army managed to escape to a third country, the number of Soviet prisoners of war during the Continuation War was about 64,000. Most of them were captured in 1941, the first Soviet POWs were taken in June 1941 and were transferred to reserve prisons in Karvia, Köyliö, Huittinen and Pelso. Soon Finnish administration realized that the number of POWs was much greater than initially estimated, however, all of them were not used at the same time as POWs were used as a labour force in different projects around the country. The Finns did not pay attention to the living conditions of the Soviet POWs at the beginning of the war. The quantity and quality of personnel was very low, as the more qualified men were at the front. It was not until the middle of 1942 that the quantity and quality of personnel was improved. There was a shortage of labour in Finland and authorities assigned POWs to forest and agricultural work, some Soviet officers cooperated with the Finnish authorities and were released from prison by the end of the war. Finnic prisoners who were captured on the fronts or transferred by Germany were separated from other Soviet POWs, at the end of 1942 volunteers could join the Finnish battalion Heimopataljoona 3, which consisted of Finnic peoples such as Karelians, Ingrian Finns, Votes and Veps. About 2, 600–2,800 Soviet prisoners of war were handed over to the Germans in exchange for roughly 2,200 Finnic prisoners of war held by the Germans, most of the prisoners transferred to Germany joined the Russian Liberation Army. The rest, mostly army and political officers, died in Nazi concentration camps, sometimes these handovers were demanded in return for arms or food. Most of the deaths among Soviet POWs,16,136, prisoners died due to bad camp conditions and the poor supply of food, shelter, clothing, and health care. About a thousand POWs,5 percent of fatalities, were shot. Food was especially scarce in 1942 in Finland due to a bad harvest, punishment for escape attempts or serious violations of camp rules included solitary confinement and execution
5. Alexander Pechersky – In 1948 Pechersky was arrested by the Soviet authorities along with his brother during the countrywide Rootless cosmopolitan campaign against the Jews suspected of pro-Western leanings. Only after Stalins death in 1953 was he released from jail due in part to mounting international pressure, however, the harassment did not stop there. Pechersky was prevented by the Soviet government from testifying in multiple international trials related to Sobibor, the last time he was refused the permission to exit the country and testify was in 1987, for a trial in Poland. Pechersky, a son of a Jewish lawyer, was born on February 22,1909 in Kremenchuk, Poltava Governorate, in 1915, his family moved to Rostov-on-Don where he eventually worked as an electrician at a locomotive repair factory. After graduating from university with a diploma in music and literature, he became an accountant, on 22 June 1941, the day when Germany invaded the Soviet Union, Pechersky was conscripted into the Soviet Red Army with a rank of junior Lieutenant. By September 1941, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant quartermaster, in the early autumn of 1941, he rescued his wounded commander from being captured by the Germans. He didnt receive any medals for this deed, one of his fellow soldiers reportedly said, Sasha, if what youve done doesnt make you a hero, I dont know who is. In October 1941, during the Battle of Moscow, their unit was surrounded and captured by the Germans in the pocket at the city of Vyazma, captured, Pechersky soon contracted typhus, but survived the seven-month-long illness. In May 1942, he escaped along with four prisoners of war. He was then sent to a camp at Borisov, Belarus. During a mandatory medical examination it was discovered that he was circumcised, Pechersky recalled a German medical officer asking him, Do you admit to being a Jew. On August 20,1942, Pechersky was sent to a SS-operated arbeitslager, the prisoners were starved and worked from dawn till dusk. Pechersky wrote about the Minsk work camp, The German Nazi camp commandant didnt let a day pass without killing someone. If you looked at his face you could tell he was a sadist and he was thin, his upper lip shaking and his left eye bloodshot. He always had a hangover or was drunk and committed unspeakable horrors and he shot people for no reason and his favorite hobby was commanding his dog to attack random people who were ordered not to defend themselves. Eighty prisoners from the train, including Pechersky, were selected for work in Lager II, the remaining 1,920 Jews were immediately led to the gas chambers. Pechersky later recalled his thoughts as the train pulled up to Sobibor, being surrounded, being captured, camps in Vyazma, Smolensk, Borisov, Minsk. The appearance of Soviet POWs produced an impression on Sobibor prisoners
6. John Demjanjuk – John Demjanjuk was a retired Ukrainian-American auto worker, a former soldier in the Soviet Red Army, and a POW during the Second World War. John Demjanjuk was convicted in 2011 in Germany as an accessory to the murder of 28,060 Jews while acting as a guard at the Sobibór extermination camp in occupied Poland. Since his conviction was pending appeal at the time of his death, Demjanjuk remained not guilty under German law, according to the Munich state court, Demjanjuk does not have a criminal record. Demjanjuk was born in Ukraine, and during World War II was drafted into the Soviet Red Army, in 1952, he emigrated from West Germany to the United States and was granted citizenship in 1958, whereupon he formally anglicized his name from Ivan to John. Demjanjuk was accused of committing murder and acts of extraordinarily savage violence against camp prisoners during 1942–43, after the trial, in September 1993, Demjanjuk returned to his home in Ohio. In 1998, his citizenship was restored after a United States federal appeals court ruled that prosecutors had suppressed exculpatory evidence concerning his identity, Demjanjuk became again a stateless person in 2002. His deportation was ordered in 2005, but after exhausting his appeals in 2008 he still remained in the United States. On 2 April 2009, Germany announced that Demjanjuk would be deported to Germany, on 11 May, Demjanjuk left his Cleveland home by ambulance and was taken to the airport, where he was deported by plane, arriving in Germany the next morning. On 13 July, he was charged with 27,900 counts of acting as an accessory to murder. On 30 November, Demjanjuks trial began in Munich, on 12 May 2011, Demjanjuk was convicted pending appeal by an ordinary German criminal court as an accessory to the murder of 27,900 Jews at Sobibor and sentenced to five years in prison. The interim conviction was annulled, because Demjanjuk died before his appeal could be heard. After the conviction, he was released pending trial and final verdict by the German Appellate Court and he lived at a German nursing home in Bad Feilnbach, where he died on 17 March 2012. Despite decades of wrangling and controversy, Demjanjuk died a free man and technically legally innocent as his appeal had not been heard. Demjanjuk was born in Dubovi Makharyntsi, Ukraine, a farming village, when Demjanjuk was convicted in 2011 his son claimed, in an email to Associated Press, My dad is a survivor of the genocide famine in Ukraine. When interviewed in late December 2009, residents of Dubovi Makharyntsi declared that Demjanjuk got along well with the Jewish families living nearby, before joining the Soviet army, Demjanjuk worked as a tractor driver on a Soviet collective farm. In 1941, after the Nazi attack on Soviet-occupied Poland, Demjanjuk was drafted into the Red Army, after a battle in Eastern Crimea he was captured and became a prisoner of war and was moved to a Nazi German concentration camp for Soviet Russian POWs. See, Nazi crimes against Soviet POWs, Demjanjuk claims that, in early 1945, he joined the Russian Liberation Army, led by Andrey Vlasov, which was organized by Nazi Germany to fight against the Soviet Red Army. Many Soviet prisoners of war volunteered to serve under the Nazi command in order to get out of the POW camps, where 2.8 million Soviet POWs died through starvation, exposure, and summary execution
7. Mehdi Huseynzade – Lieutenant Mehdi Huseynzade was an Azerbaijani guerrilla and scout during World War II. He was posthumously awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union on April 11,1957, Mehdi Huseynzade was born on 22 December 1918 in the village of Novxanı in the Baku province of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. Huseynzade graduated from the Baku Art School, then studied at the Saint Petersburg Institute of Foreign Languages, after returning to Baku in 1940, Huseynzade continued his education at the Azerbaijan University of Languages. In August 1941, two months after Germany invaded the Soviet Union, Huseynzade was drafted into the Red Army. After graduating from the Tbilisi military infantry school in 1942, he was dispatched to the Soviet-German front line, in August 1942, near the town of Kalach-na-Donu, Huseynzade was seriously wounded and captured by the Germans. He spent the 1.5 years in the German POW camps in Northern Italy, in the early 1944, along with two other Azerbaijani POWs, Javad Hakimli and Asad Gurbanov, Huseynzade managed to escape and join the Yugoslav-Italian partisans guerilla corps. During the same year, he became a commander of the special reconnaissance unit of the 9th Corps Staff of the Peoples Liberation Army of Yugoslavia. In the middle of January 1944, Mikhailo with the fighters has grasped topographic maps of the opponent, next month Mehdi in the form of the German officer has made way into German barracks and, having enclosed a mine to fire extinguishers, had blown up the central premise. On April 2,1944, Huseynzade with another Azerbaijani guerrilla, Mirdamat Seidov, the explosion killed 80 and wounded 260 Germans, of which 40 died later in hospital. At the end of April 1944, Huseynzade, Hans Fritz and Ali Tagiyev blew up a bridge near the Postojna railway station, in May, Huseynzade and Seidov blew up a casino at Trieste, where 150 German officers died and 350 were wounded. Growing concerned about these attacks, Germans set a reward of 400,000 Italian liras for killing Huseynzade. On November 2,1944, returning from a successfully executed mission to destroy a German ammunition depot, Mikhailo stumbled upon a German ambush near the town of Vitovlje, Slovenia. After an unequal scramble with German forces, killing 25 of them, Huseynzade ran out of bullets and his life and heroism during World War II was described in Imran Gasimovs book On Distant Shores, and the movie made in Soviet years by Azerbaijanfilm movie studio. A football stadium in Sumgayit was named after him, monuments in his honour have been erected in Baku, as well as in his hometown of Novkhany, Azerbaijan, and near Nova Gorica, Slovenia. Mehdi Husein-Zade had two sisters — Bikya Khanum and Huriet, nephew Agshin Alizadeh became well-known Soviet and Azerbaijani composer, Peoples Artist of Azerbaijan
8. Vladimir Kirpichnikov (general) – Vladimir Vasilevich Kirpichnikov was a Soviet general of the Red Army. During World War II he served as commander of 43rd Rifle Division, Kirpichnikov was the only Soviet general captured by the Finnish Army. Kirpichnikov graduated from the Ulyanovsk Infantry Military Academy in 1925 and he served as a platoon leader and later as a major and a colonel of the 11th Rifle Division in Leningrad Military District. In 1937 Kirpichnikov served as chief of staff in the Spanish Civil War and was awarded the Order of the Red Star and he was named commander of the 43rd Rifle Division in 1939. In the Soviet-Finnish War Kirpichnikov was awarded with the Order of the Red Banner, after the war he studied at the Frunze Military Academy. Kirpichnikov was captured by the Finns near the city of Viborg on 1 September 1941 and he was first interrogated in the village of Karisalmi and later moved to Finnish Army headquarters in Mikkeli. The Finns wanted to use Kirpichnikov for propagandist purposes since they knew he had opinions that were critical of the Soviet regime. However, Kirpichnikov did not agree to work for the Finns, in December 1941 he was moved to Sotavankileiri 1, which was located in the municipality of Köyliö in Western Finland. It was a camp for more than 3,000 Soviet prisoners, according to other prisoners, Kirpichnikov was offered the commanders post of the Russian Liberation Army but he refused. The pictures taken of Kirpichnikov were used as a propaganda tool, most famous are a picture of Kirpichnikov lighting the cigarette of his interrogator, General Lennart Oesch, and a color photo of Kirpichnikov with a newspaper and a pack of Chesterfield cigarettes. He was seen in a Finnish propaganda film, after the war was over, Kirpichnikov was sent back to the Soviet Union where he was immediately arrested by the SMERSH. Kirpichnikov was held in a camp in Podolsk, then later at Lefortovo Prison in Moscow. He was charged with treason and sentenced to death by the USSR Military Collegium on 8 October 1950, two days later, Kirpichnikov was shot. Some sources report the date of his execution as 28 August 1950, prior to the recorded death sentence
9. Anna Yegorova – Anna Alexandrovna Timofeyeva-Yegorova was a pilot in the Red Army Air Force during the Second World War. She flew in total 277 liaison, reconnaissance and ground-attack missions and she was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. Anna Yegorova was born into a peasant family in the village Volodovo and she had sixteen siblings, eight of whom died in infancy. Her father Alexander Yegorov fought in the First World War and then in the Russian Civil War, combat stress and other hardships deteriorated his health and in 1925 he died, at 49 years old. After seven years of school, Yegorova joined Mosmetrostroy, where she worked as a steelman, work for Mosmetrostroy allowed her to fly in the Mosmetrostroy aero club. In 1938 she was recommended to the Ulyanovsk flying school and entered it and she worked as an bookkeepers assistant at a weaving factory in Smolensk while tutoring members of the factorys aero club. She was recommended to the Kherson flying school and was graduated in 1939. She became an instructor in the Kalinin municipal aero club. After the German invasion Anna Yegorova volunteered for the frontline service, after an aircrash which she reported to her commanding officer to be her fault, she was transferred to a training air regiment. In 1943 she was recruited to the 805th Attack Aviation Regiment and flew 41 missions in the Ilyushin Il-2 Shturmovik, including battles above the Taman Peninsula, Crimea, during these campaigns she flew in formations of four to six aircraft. During an August 1944 mission when she was in formation of 15 aircraft to attack German forces at the Magnuszew bridgehead near Warsaw and her gunner was killed, and the plane was heavily damaged. Rolling inverted, Yegorova was burned as she left the plane at a low altitude, her parachute only opened and she suffered broken bones. She was given first aid by her German captors, then taken to a prisoner of war camp where her wounds were tended by Dr. Georgy Sinyakov. Back at her air base, Yegorova was presumed dead and posthumously recommended for the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, on 31 January 1945, Soviet forces overran the Küstrin prisoner camp where she was being held. Yegorova was interrogated as a potential traitor continuously for days at an NKVD filtration camp for returning Soviet prisoners. After others vouched for her injuries and her conduct, she was released but invalided out of the Soviet Air Forces for medical reasons in 1945, after her retirement Anna Yegorova married Vyacheslav Timofeev, the commander of her last air division, and became a housewife. Against the advice of physicians she bore two sons, Pyotr and Igor, because of her former POW status her membership in the Communist Party was terminated. She was not expelled, but her membership card was forfeited for the failure to pay the membership due during five months and she struggled to be reinstated and succeeded only after the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
10. Alexander Pavlovich Chekalin – Alexander Pavlovich Chekalin, was a Russian teenager, Soviet partisan, and Hero of the Soviet Union. Chekalin was captured, tortured, and hanged for partisan activities in Tula Oblast near Moscow during the German-Soviet War, sixteen-year-old Shura Chekalin engaged in underground resistance activities in the region of Tula near Moscow. In the first days of November 1941, he took part in an ambush of German vehicles, after becoming ill, Chekalin was bedridden, and his location was betrayed to the Germans by an unknown informant. When Germans approached to arrest him, he threw a grenade at them. He was brutally tortured, and hanged on November 6,1941 and his body was left hanging for twenty days, taken down only after the area had been retaken by the Red Army. He was posthumously made a Hero of the Soviet Union on February 4,1942, the town of Chekalin was renamed for him in 1944
11. East Karelian concentration camps – East Karelian concentration camps were special internment camps in the areas of the Soviet Union occupied by the Finnish military administration during the Continuation War. These camps were organized by the armed forces supreme commander Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, the camps were intended to hold camp detainees for future exchange with the Finnic population from the rest of Russia. The mortality rate of civilians in the camps was high due famine, significant numbers of Soviet civilians were interred in the concentration camps. The purpose of the detention was allegedly to secure the area behind the front lines against partisan attacks, the first of the camps were set up on 24 October 1941 in Petrozavodsk. During the spring and summer of 1942,3,500 detainees died of malnutrition, according to the records the total number of deaths among the interned civilians was 4,361, mostly from hunger during the spring and summer of 1942. The first camp was set up on 24 October 1941, in Petrozavodsk, the two largest groups were 6,000 Russian refugees and 3,000 inhabitants from the southern bank of the River Svir who were forcibly evacuated because of the close proximity of the front line. Of these interned civilians 4,361 perished mainly due to malnourishment,90 percent of them during the spring and summer of 1942